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Research Findings #1: Health Insurance Status of the Civilian Noninstitutionalized Population: 1996

Jessica P. Vistnes, Ph.D., and Alan C. Monheit, Ph.D.

Introduction

The health insurance status of the U.S. population, especially the size and composition of the uninsured population, has become an issue of perennial public policy concern for several reasons. First, health insurance is viewed as essential to ensure that individuals obtain timely access to medical care and protection against the risk of expensive and unanticipated medical events. Compared to people without health care coverage, insured individuals are more likely to have a regular source of medical care, to spend less out of pocket on health services, and to experience different treatment patterns, quality, and continuity in their health care (Lefkowitz and Monheit, 1991; U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, 1992).

Second, concern over the population's health insurance status reflects a variety of equity and efficiency considerations. These include the magnitude and appropriate mix of private and public sector responsibility for financing health care, the impact of health insurance on the efficient use of health care, and the manner in which health insurance affects the distribution of health care among the general population and across groups of specific policy interest.

Third, timely and reliable estimates of the population's health insurance status are essential to evaluate the costs and expected impact of public policy interventions to expand coverage or to alter the manner in which private and public insurance is financed. Identification of how individual and household demographic characteristics, health status, and economic circumstances are associated with the population's health insurance status is of critical importance in developing efficient and targeted policy interventions. This is especially relevant given the current emphasis on incremental health care reform that is focused on particular health care markets and population groups.

Finally, comparisons of the characteristics of insured and uninsured populations over time provide information on whether greater equity has been achieved in the ability of specific population groups to obtain health insurance or whether serious gaps remain. In this regard, estimates of the population's health insurance status from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) provide a critical baseline to help evaluate the health insurance implications of two recent legislative initiatives: the 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), Public Law 104-191, and welfare reform under the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act, Public Law 104-193. A primary goal of HIPAA is to reduce the impact of preexisting health conditions on the continuity of health insurance during employment transitions. Under welfare reform, mandated work requirements and time limitations governing the receipt of public assistance may have consequences for a recipient's health insurance status.

This report presents preliminary estimates of the number and characteristics of people with private and public health insurance at any time during the first half of 1996, on average. Particular emphasis is directed toward estimating the size of the population that was uninsured throughout the first half of 1996 and identifying groups especially at risk of lacking health insurance.

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Overview

During the first half of 1996, on average, 83 percent of all Americans in the civilian noninstitutionalized population had some type of private or public health insurance coverage (Table 1). Roughly 68 percent of Americans obtained health insurance from private sources, with 60.7 percent of all persons covered by employment-related health insurance. Another 15.2 percent obtained public sources of coverage, primarily from the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The remaining 17.0 percent of Americans, 44.8 million persons, were without health insurance throughout the first half of 1996. Among the non-elderly population, 68.7 percent were covered by private insurance (64.1 percent by employment-based insurance) and 12.1 percent by public insurance. Almost a fifth of the non-elderly population (19.2 percent), an estimated 44.5 million persons, were uninsured. Table 2 gives more detailed information on the non-elderly population.

The data in Tables 1-3 provide estimates of the population's health insurance status according to selected demographic characteristics, perceived health status, employment status, and residential location. Table A in the Technical Appendix provides estimates of the number of persons by health insurance status. Some of the key findings and relationships revealed by these data are discussed below.

Age

MEPS data reveal that, in general, children are more likely than adults to have health insurance coverage. The main findings among age groups are described below.

Children

There has been considerable interest in the health insurance status of children. This interest stems from the role health care coverage plays in ensuring that children obtain the medical care appropriate to their specific stage of development. In addition, expansions of the Medicaid program during the late 1980s and early 1990s have focused attention on whether the role of the public and private sectors in financing health care for low-income children has been altered. Specifically, expansions of the Medicaid program through the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Acts of 1987-1990 and other legislation eliminated categorical eligibility for Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) as a requirement for Medicaid enrollment and raised the age and income ceilings under which children could receive Medicaid. For a discussion of the impact of these expansions on the enrollment of children in employment-based coverage, see Cutler and Gruber (1996) and Dubay and Kenny (1996).

MEPS data indicate that public health insurance played an important role in reducing the risk that a child would be uninsured during the first half of 1996: One in four children under age 4, nearly the same proportion of children ages 4-6, and one in five children ages 7-12 obtained public coverage, primarily through Medicaid. As a result, children under age 18 were less likely to be uninsured than were adults in general. Despite this finding, nearly 11 million children lacked health care coverage.

Adults

Young adults ages 19-24 were most likely to lack health insurance. For example, over a third of young adults (37.8 percent) were uninsured, more than twice the rate at which all Americans lacked coverage. Young adults ages 19-24 also had the lowest rate of private health insurance coverage among the non-elderly population.

On the other hand, 6 out of 10 elderly Americans (61.5 percent) were covered by private health insurance. Nearly 4 out of 10 elderly Americans (37.6 percent) held only public coverage (Medicare alone or in conjunction with Medicaid).

Employment Status

Since most private health insurance in the United States is provided through the workplace, employment status is an important indicator of access to private health insurance. MEPS data reveal the following for the non-elderly population ( Table 2):

  • Over three-quarters (78.3 percent) of workers were covered by private health insurance, compared to close to half (49.8 percent) of individuals who were not employed.
  • Individuals who were not employed were more likely than those who were employed to be covered by public insurance (23.8 and 3.3 percent, respectively).
  • Workers were less likely than individuals who were not employed to be uninsured (18.4 and 26.4 percent, respectively).

Race/Ethnicity

MEPS data indicate that significant disparities exist in the rate at which racial and ethnic minorities are covered by private and public health insurance compared to white Americans. For example:

  • Less than half of all Hispanic and black Americans (44.0 and 48.6 percent, respectively) were covered by private health insurance, compared to three-quarters of whites (75.3 percent). Over a third of Hispanics (33.5 percent) and over a fifth of blacks (22.9 percent) were uninsured. In contrast, just over one-tenth of white Americans (13.1 percent) were uninsured.
  • Among all racial/ethnic groups, Hispanic males were the most likely to be uninsured; 37.2 percent lacked coverage.
  • Hispanic and black Americans were more likely than white Americans to be covered by public health insurance (22.5 percent and 28.4 percent, respectively, compared to 11.6 percent).

Marital Status

Married individuals were more likely than others to have private and employment-related health insurance (Table 1). Of those who were not married at the time of the survey:

  • Persons who were widowed were the least likely to be uninsured because of their higher rate of coverage from private, nonemployment-related sources (23.8 percent) and public programs (38.4 percent).
  • Almost a third of Americans who never married or were separated were uninsured (29.1 percent and 28.4 percent, respectively).
  • Almost a quarter of all divorced persons (23.8 percent) were uninsured.

Residential Location

The type of health care coverage obtained by Americans and the likelihood of being uninsured also varied by region and whether they lived in a metropolitan statistical area (MSA). MEPS data show that:

Persons residing in the South and West were less likely than residents of other regions to have employment-related health insurance (58.3 percent and 55.6 percent in the South and West, respectively, compared to 64.3 percent and 66.3 percent of residents in the Northeast and Midwest). Nearly one out of five persons in the South and West were uninsured (19.9 percent and 18.9 percent, respectively) compared to just under 14 percent in both the Northeast and Midwest.

Persons living outside MSAs were less likely than those residing within MSAs to be covered by employment-related health insurance (53.7 percent vs. 62.5 percent). They also were more likely to be uninsured (19.8 percent vs. 16.3 percent).

Health Status

There is considerable public policy interest in determining whether persons with health problems are able to obtain health insurance and, if so, the source of such coverage. MEPS respondents were asked to rate their health and family members' health as excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor. The data in Table 3 reveal the relationships described below between health status and insurance coverage.

Non-elderly Persons

More than one in five non-elderly Americans in good health (22.8 percent), fair health (25.1 percent), or poor health (21.4 percent) were uninsured throughout the first half of 1996. Among the non-elderly:

Persons in fair or poor health were less likely than those in better health to have private health insurance. Only 35.1 percent of those in poor health and 45.9 percent of those in fair health had any employment-related coverage.

Public insurance helped to reduce the health-related disparities in private coverage. Nearly 25 percent of persons in fair health and almost 40 percent of persons in poor health obtained public coverage.

Elderly Persons

More than 4 in 10 elderly persons in fair or poor health were covered by insurance from public sources only (Medicare or both Medicare and Medicaid). Elderly Americans in fair or poor health also were less likely to have employment-related coverage than those in excellent or very good health. However, the percent of elderly Americans covered by privately purchased nonemployment-based coverage did not decline as health status worsened.

 

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Young Adults: Those Least Likely To Be Covered

Among all age groups in the non-elderly population, persons ages 19-24 were most at risk of lacking private and employment-related health insurance and of being uninsured (Table 1). In part, this reflects the fact that young adults who were not full-time students were likely to lose their eligibility for dependent coverage on their parents' health plan. In addition, since many young adults have limited work experience or transitory employment, they frequently obtain low-wage jobs that do not provide health insurance. Finally, young adults may not value health insurance, since they tend to be in relatively good health, expect to incur small health care expenditures, and are less likely than older workers to have dependents who require medical care. In this section, selected characteristics of this age cohort are examined ( Table 4) to identify demographic characteristics associated with young adults' health insurance status during the first half of 1996.

Student Status

Over two-thirds (69.0 percent) of young adults who were full-time students had private health insurance, compared to only half (50.7 percent) of young adults who were part-time students and less than half (45.2 percent) of young adults who were not in school. The latter two groups were nearly twice as likely as full-time students to be uninsured.

Race/Ethnicity and Gender

When racial/ethnic background is considered, the health insurance status of young adults reveals striking disparities. For example, over half of all Hispanic and black young adults were uninsured (52.8 percent and 50.2 percent, respectively), compared to 31.1 percent of white young adults.

Gender also plays an important role in health insurance status. Although young adult minority men and women had similarly low rates of private health insurance, women were far more likely than men to obtain public insurance. Overall, the disparity in health insurance coverage by racial/ethnic groups was more pronounced for men than for women. MEPS data show the following:

  • Among young adults, 6 out of 10 minority males were without coverage (58.5 percent of Hispanic males and 61.1 percent of black males), compared to 3 out of 10 white males (33.5 percent). Among young adult women, 45.9 percent of Hispanics and 41.7 percent of blacks were uninsured, compared to 28.9 percent of whites.
  • Young adult women obtained public insurance at more than twice the rate of young adult males: 12.4 percent of women, compared to only 5.0 percent of men. As a result, young adult men were more likely than women to be uninsured: 41.9 percent to 33.9 percent.
  • Among young adults, Hispanic women were more than four times as likely as Hispanic men to have public coverage, and black women were more than five times as likely as black men. As a result, minority young adult women were less likely than men to be uninsured.

Other Factors

Health status and residential location were associated with the insurance status of young adults:

  • Half of the 1.3 million young adults in fair or poor health were uninsured, compared to just over a third of those in excellent or very good health.
  • Among young adults, those in the South were most at risk of being uninsured, whereas in the general U.S. population, persons residing in the South and West were most likely to be uninsured

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Characteristics of Uninsured Americans

Previous sections of this report have described the health insurance status of Americans by focusing on demographic, health status, and geographic characteristics associated with the likelihood that particular groups obtained private or public health insurance or were more at risk of being uninsured. To put this discussion in perspective, data displayed in (Table 5) characterize the uninsured population by considering the representation of specific groups in the general population of non-elderly Americans relative to their representation among the uninsured population. By examining the composition of the uninsured in this way, one can assess whether certain population groups are disproportionately represented among the uninsured. Such information can be useful in formulating targeted policy interventions on behalf of persons without health insurance.

Age

Young adults ages 19-24 composed less than a tenth of the non-elderly population but nearly a fifth of the uninsured population. Among all age groups, young adults also displayed the greatest risk of being uninsured.

Race/Ethnicity

Racial and ethnic minorities were more at risk of lacking health insurance than were white Americans. As a result, minority representation among the uninsured exceeded their representation among the general population. For example:

  • Although Hispanics represented only 11.6 percent of the non-elderly U.S. population, they accounted for 21.2 percent of the uninsured population.
  • Hispanic males represented only 5.9 percent of all non-elderly Americans but were the racial/ethnic group most likely to be uninsured, comprising 12.0 percent of the uninsured population.
  • Although 7 out of 10 non-elderly Americans were white, whites accounted for less than 6 out of 10 uninsured persons.
  • When the uninsured are categorized by race/ethnicity and sex, white males represent the largest proportion of the uninsured population.

Other Factors

Persons with specific residential locations and marital status were also disproportionately represented among the uninsured:

  • Persons residing in the South represented about a third (34.8 percent) of all non-elderly Americans but more than 40 percent of all uninsured Americans.
  • Persons who never married accounted for over a fifth of the non-elderly population but over a third of the uninsured population.

Finally, more than 1 out of 10 uninsured persons (11.5 percent of the uninsured population) were in fair or poor health. These individuals are of particular policy concern because of the importance of health insurance in assuring timely access to needed health care services.

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Conclusions

Preliminary estimates from the 1996 MEPS reveal that, during the first half of 1996, 67.9 percent of Americans received health insurance from private sources, 15.2 percent obtained coverage through public programs, and 17.0 percent of the population (44.8 million persons) lacked any health care coverage. Nearly 61 percent (60.7 percent) of the U.S. population was covered by employment-related insurance, so that coverage from the workplace represented 89.4 percent of all private insurance. Among the non-elderly population, nearly one in five persons was uninsured.

The tabulations presented in this report indicate that the health insurance status of the U.S. population is strongly associated with specific demographic characteristics, health status, and employment status. Thus, important disparities in health care coverage exist for particular groups. Among the groups especially at risk of lacking health care coverage are young adults ages 19-24 and members of racial and ethnic minorities (especially Hispanic males). Disparities in rates of insurance coverage also exist by health status, with non-elderly persons in good or fair health being the most likely to be uninsured. Because of their high rate of public coverage, persons in poor health were no more likely to be uninsured than other persons. Public health insurance also continues to play an important role in insuring children, black Americans, and Hispanic Americans.

Subsequent releases of MEPS data will characterize dynamic aspects of health insurance status, including annual and 2-year estimates of the population's health insurance coverage, the length of uninsured spells, and changes in the type of coverage held. In this way the 1996 MEPS will provide a baseline for timely and continuous monitoring of the Nation's health insurance status.

 

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References

Cohen JW, Monheit AC, Beauregard KM, et al. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey: a national health information resource. Inquiry 1996;33:373-89.

Cohen S. Sample design of the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1997. MEPS Methodology Report No. 2. AHRQ Pub. No. 97-0027.

Cutler D, Gruber J. Does public insurance crowd out private insurance? Quarterly Journal of Economics 1996;CXI(2):391-430.

Dubay LC, Kenny GM. The effects of Medicaid expansion on insurance coverage of children. The Future of Children 1996;6(1):152-61.

Lefkowitz D, Monheit AC. Health insurance, use of health services, and health care expenditures. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1991. National Medical Expenditure Survey Research Findings 14. AHRQ Pub. No. 92-0017.

U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. Does health insurance make a difference? Background paper. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992. Report No.: OTA-BP-H-99.

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Technical Appendix

The data in this report were obtained in the first round of interviews for the Household Component (HC) of the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). MEPS is cosponsored by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). The MEPS HC is a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population that collects medical expenditure data at both the person and household levels. The focus of the MEPS HC is to collect detailed data on demographic characteristics, health conditions, health status, use of medical care services, charges and payments, access to care, satisfaction with care, health insurance coverage, income, and employment. In other components of MEPS, data are collected on residents of licensed or certified nursing homes and the supply side of the health insurance market.

The sample for the MEPS HC was selected from respondents to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which was conducted by NCHS. NHIS provides a nationally representative sample of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population and reflects an oversampling of Hispanics and blacks. The MEPS HC collects data through an overlapping panel design. In this design, data are collected through a precontact interview that is followed by a series of six rounds of interviews over 2-1/2 years. Two calendar years of medical expenditure and utilization data are collected from each household and captured using computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI). This series of data collection rounds is launched again each subsequent year on a new sample of households to provide overlapping panels of survey data which, when combined with other ongoing panels, will provide continuous and current estimates of health care expenditures. The reference period for Round 1 of the MEPS HC was from January 1, 1996, to the date of the first interview. Interviews were conducted from March to July 1996.

Derivation of Insurance Status Information

The household respondent was asked if, between January 1, 1996, and the time of the Round 1 interview, anyone in the family was covered by any of the sources of public and private health insurance coverage discussed in the following paragraphs. For this report, Medicare and CHAMPUS/CHAMPVA coverage were measured at the time of the Round 1 interview. (CHAMPUS and CHAMPVA are the Civilian Health and Medical Programs for the Uniformed Services and Veterans' Affairs.) All other sources of insurance were measured for any time in the Round 1 reference period. Persons counted as uninsured were uninsured throughout the Round 1 reference period.

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Public Coverage

For this report, individuals were considered to have public coverage only if they met both of the following criteria:

  • They were not covered by private insurance.
  • They were covered by one of the public programs discussed below.

Medicare

Medicare is a federally financed health insurance plan for the elderly, persons receiving Social Security disability payments, and most persons with end-stage renal disease. Medicare Part A, which provides hospital insurance, is automatically given to those who are eligible for Social Security. Medicare Part B provides supplementary medical insurance that pays for medical expenses and may be purchased for a monthly premium.

CHAMPUS/CHAMPVA

CHAMPUS covers retired members of the Uniformed Services and the spouses and children of active-duty, retired, and deceased members. Spouses and children of veterans who died from a service-connected disability, or who are permanently disabled and are not eligible for CHAMPUS or Medicare, are covered by CHAMPVA. In this report, CHAMPUS or CHAMPVA coverage is considered to be public coverage.

Medicaid

Medicaid is a means-tested government program jointly financed by Federal and State funds that provides health care to those who are eligible. Program eligibility criteria vary significantly by State, but the program is designed to provide health coverage to families and individuals who are unable to afford necessary medical care.

Other Public Hospital/Physician Coverage

Respondents who did not report Medicaid coverage were asked if they were covered by any other public hospital/physician coverage. These questions were asked in an attempt to identify Medicaid recipients who might not have recognized their coverage as Medicaid. In this report, all coverage reported in this manner is considered public coverage.

Private Health Insurance

Private health insurance was defined for this report as insurance that provides coverage for hospital and physician care. Insurance that provides coverage for a single service only, such as dental or vision coverage, was not counted. In addition, private insurance was classified as either employment related or nonemployment related. Employment-related coverage includes private health insurance obtained through an employer, union, or self-employed business. Insurance also was classified as employment related when the policyholder resided outside the reporting unit. Individuals were classified as having nonemployment-related insurance if they did not have employment-related coverage but were covered by private hospital/physician insurance obtained from another source, such as directly from an insurance company or a health maintenance organization (HMO) or through a group or association.

Uninsured

The uninsured were defined as persons not covered by Medicare, CHAMPUS/CHAMPVA, Medicaid, other public hospital/physician programs, or private hospital/physician insurance throughout the entire Round 1 reference period. Individuals covered only by noncomprehensive State-specific programs (e.g., Maryland Kidney Disease Program, Colorado Child Health Plan) or private single-service plans (e.g., coverage for dental or vision care only, coverage for accidents or specific diseases) were not considered to be insured.

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Health Insurance Edits

The Round 1 health insurance data were edited as described below. Minimal editing was performed on the Medicare and Medicaid variables; all other coverage types are unedited and unimputed.

Medicare

Medicare coverage was edited for persons age 65 and over but not for persons under age 65. Persons age 65 and over were assigned Medicare coverage if they met one of the following criteria:

  • They answered "yes" to a follow-up question on whether they had received Social Security benefits.
  • They were covered by Medicaid, other public hospital/physician coverage, or Medigap coverage.
  • Their spouse was covered by Medicare.

Medicaid

A small number of cases reporting Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) or Supplemental Security Income (SSI) coverage (questions included in the Round 1 interview for editing purposes) were assigned Medicaid coverage. In addition, the Medicaid variable was edited to include persons who paid nothing for their other public hospital/physician insurance when such coverage was through a Medicaid HMO or reported to include some other managed care characteristics. Since this report does not distinguish among sources of public insurance, no further edits were performed using the other public hospital/physician coverage variables. Other public hospital/physician coverage was included, however, when considering whether an individual was covered only by public insurance.

Private Health Insurance

Individuals were considered to be covered by private insurance if the insurance provided coverage for hospital/physician care. Medigap plans were included. Individuals covered by single-service plans only (e.g., dental, vision, or drug plans) were not considered to be privately insured. Sources of insurance with missing information regarding the type of coverage were assumed to contain hospital/physician coverage.

As more information from other parts and subsequent rounds of MEPS becomes available, it will be used to correct missing or inconsistent information. In particular, private coverage variables will be edited in terms of the reporting of private insurance as a source of payment for medical expenses. Finally, it should be noted that these data were generally reported by a single household respondent, who may not have been the most knowledgeable source for other family members. The employers and insurance companies of household respondents are being contacted in a followup survey as part of the MEPS data collection effort designed to verify and supplement the information provided by the household respondents.

Population Characteristics

Place of Residence

Individuals were identified as residing either inside or outside a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) as designated by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which applied 1990 standards using population counts from the 1990 U.S. census. An MSA is a large population nucleus combined with adjacent communities that have a high degree of economic and social integration within the nucleus. Each MSA has one or more central counties containing the area's main population concentration. In New England, metropolitan areas consist of cities and towns rather than whole counties. Regions of residence are in accordance with the U.S. Bureau of the Census definition.

Race/Ethnicity

Classification by race and ethnicity was based on information reported for each household member. Respondents were asked if their race was best described as American Indian, Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, black, white, or other. They were also asked if their main national origin or ancestry was Puerto Rican; Cuban; Mexican, Mexicano, Mexican American, or Chicano; other Latin American; or other Spanish. All persons who claimed main national origin or ancestry in one of these Hispanic groups, regardless of racial background, were classified as Hispanic. Since the Hispanic grouping can include black Hispanic, white Hispanic, and other Hispanic, the race categories of black, white, and other do not include Hispanic.

Employment Status

Persons were considered to be employed if they were age 16 and over, had a job for pay, owned a business, or worked without pay in a family business at the time of the Round 1 interview.

Sample Design and Accuracy of Estimates

The sample selected for the 1996 MEPS, a subsample of the 1995 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), was designed to produce national estimates that are representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Round 1 data were obtained for approximately 9,400 households in MEPS, resulting in a survey response rate of 78 percent. This figure reflects participation in both NHIS and MEPS.

The statistics presented in this report are affected by both sampling error and sources of nonsampling error, which include nonresponse bias, respondent reporting errors, interviewer effects, and data processing misspecifications. For a detailed description of the MEPS survey design, the adopted sample design, and methods used to minimize sources of nonsampling error, see Cohen (1997) and Cohen, Monheit, Beauregard, et al. (1996). The MEPS person-level estimation weights include nonresponse adjustments and poststratification adjustments to population estimates derived from the March 1996 Current Population Survey (CPS) based on cross-classifications by region, age, race/ethnicity, and sex.

Tests of statistical significance were used to determine whether the differences between populations exist at specified levels of confidence or whether they occurred by chance. Differences were tested using Z-scores having asymptotic normal properties at the 0.05 level of significance. Unless otherwise noted, only statistical differences between estimates are discussed in the text.

Rounding

Estimates presented in the tables were rounded to the nearest 0.1 percent. Standard errors, presented in Tables B-F, were rounded to the nearest 0.01. Population estimates in Tables 1- 5 and Table A were rounded to the nearest thousand. Therefore, some of the estimates presented in the tables for population totals of subgroups will not add exactly to the overall estimated population total.

Comparisons with Other Data Sources

Because of methodological differences, caution should be used when comparing these data with data from other sources. For example, CPS measures persons who are uninsured for a full year; NHIS measures persons who lack insurance at a given point in time--the month before the interview. CPS is conducted annually, and NHIS collects insurance data on a continuous basis each year. In addition, unlike MEPS, CPS counts as insured military veterans whose source of health care is the Department of Veterans' Affairs. CPS also counts children of adults covered by Medicaid as insured. For these preliminary estimates, MEPS did not consider these children insured unless their families reported them as such.

Tables

Tables showing restricted-activity days in 1997 and 2001:
1. Health insurance coverage and population characteristics--all ages
2. Health insurance coverage and population characteristics--under age 65
3. Health insurance coverage and perceived health status--all ages
4. Health insurance coverage and population characteristics--ages 19-24
5. Population characteristics--total population and the uninsured, under age 65

 

Table 1. Health insurance coverage of the civilian noninstitutionalized population: Percent distribution by type of coverage and selected population characteristics, United States, first half of 1996
Population characteristic Total population in thousands Private Public only Uninsured
Total private Employment- related Non- employment- related
Percent distribution
Totala 263,516 67.9 60.7 7.1 15.2 17.0
Total under age 65a 231,676 68.7 64.1 4.6 12.1 19.2
Age in years
Under 4 15,577 60.6 57.8 2.8 25.6 13.8
4-6 12,716 63.0 59.7 3.4 23.7 13.3
7-12 24,092 64.1 60.3 3.8 20.4 15.5
13-17 19,036 66.8 62.4 4.4 15.3 17.9
Total under 18 71,421 63.9 60.2 3.7 20.8 15.4
18  3,445 61.5 57.4 4.1 0.1 28.4
19-24 21,643 53.4 47.3 6.2 8.7 37.8
25-29 18,703 64.8 60.1 4.7 8.4 26.8
30-34 21,383 72.8 69.8 3.0 7.9 19.3
35-54 74,423 76.4 71.9 4.5 7.3 16.4
55-64 20,658 74.6 66.6 8.0 10.7 14.7
65 and over 31,839 61.5 36.0 25.5 37.6 0.9
Employment statusb
Employed 128,619 78.0 72.4 5.6 4.2 17.8
Not employed 69,810 53.9 40.8 13.1 29.6 16.4
Sex
Male 128,383 67.9 61.3 6.6 13.4 18.6
Female 135,133 67.8 60.2 7.6 16.8 15.4
Race/ethnicity
Total Hispanic 28,384 44.0 41.1 2.9 22.5 33.5
Total black 32,975 48.6 46.0 2.7 28.4 22.9
Total white 190,235 75.3 66.7 8.6 11.6 13.1
Total other 11,922 59.2 53.5 5.6 18.0 22.9
Hispanic male 14,327 43.1 39.8 3.3 19.7 37.2
Black male 15,356 50.0 47.2 2.7 25.1 25.0
White male 92,647 75.3 67.6 7.7 10.3 14.4
Hispanic female 14,057 44.9 42.5 2.4 25.5 29.6
Black female 17,618 47.5 44.8 2.7 31.3 21.2
White female 97,588 75.3 65.9 9.4 12.8 11.9
Marital statusb
Married 109,022 79.1 71.0 8.1 9.1 11.8
Widowed 13,890 55.1 31.3 23.8 38.4 6.5
Divorced 19,087 58.4 52.6 5.8 17.8 23.8
Separated 4,629 43.0 40.9 2.1 28.6 28.4
Never married 52,645 59.2 53.3 5.9 11.7 29.1
Metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
MSA 210,640 69.1 62.5 6.5 14.7 16.3
Non-MSA 52,876 63.1 53.7 9.4 17.1 19.8
Census region
Northeast 51,464 70.3 64.3 6.0 16.0 13.7
Midwest 61,828 73.3 66.3 7.0 13.1 13.6
South 91,855 65.3 58.3 7.1 14.8 19.9
West 58,369 63.9 55.6 8.3 17.3 18.9
  • aIncludes persons with unknown employment status and marital status.
  • bFor individuals age 16 and over.

Note: Percents may not add to 100 due to rounding

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Research and Policy: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

 

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Table 2. Health insurance coverage of the civilian noninstitutionalized population under age 65: Percent distribution by type of coverage and selected population characteristics, United States, first half of 1996
Population characteristic Total population in thousands Private Public only Uninsured
Total private Employment- related Non- employment- related
Percent distribution
Totala
231,676
68.7
64.1
4.6
12.1
19.2
Employment statusb
Employed
124,218
78.3
73.6
4.7
3.3
18.4
Not employed
42,469
49.8
44.2
5.6
23.8
26.4
Sex
Male
115,104
68.3
63.6
4.7
11.0
20.7
Female
116,572
69.2
64.7
4.5
13.1
17.7
Race/ethnicity
Total Hispanic
26,898
44.6
42.1
2.5
20.3
35.1
Total black
30,297
49.9
47.9
2.1
25.2
24.8
Total white
163,378
76.7
71.4
5.3
8.1
15.2
Total other
11,104
61.4
55.9
5.5
14.2
24.3
Hispanic male
13,671
43.7
40.6
3.1
17.4
38.9
Black male
14,297
50.9
48.6
2.3
22.5
26.6
White male
81,443
75.9
70.7
5.2
7.7
16.3
Hispanic female
13,227
45.6
43.6
1.9
23.2
31.2
Black female
16,000
49.0
47.2
1.8
27.7
23.2
White female
81,934
77.4
72.0
5.4
8.5
14.0
Marital statusb
Married
91,323
80.9
76.2
4.7
5.2
13.9
Widowed
3,412
58.7
50.3
8.4
17.2
24.1
Divorced
16,952
60.6
56.2
4.4
12.9
26.6
Separated
4,291
45.0
43.4
1.6
24.5
30.5
Never married
51,495
59.3
53.6
5.7
11.0
29.8
Metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
MSA
186,152
70.2
65.9
4.3
11.5
18.3
Non-MSA
45,524
62.7
57.0
5.7
14.3
23.0
Census region
Northeast
44,555
72.1
68.4
3.7
12.3
15.6
Midwest
54,045
74.3
70.3
4.0
10.2
15.5
South
80,707
65.7
61.2
4.5
11.7
22.6
West
52,370
64.8
58.7
6.0
14.4
20.9
  • aIncludes persons with unknown employment status and marital status.
  • bFor individuals age 16 and over.

Note: Percents may not add to 100 due to rounding.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

 

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Table 3. Health insurance coverage of the civilian noninstitutionalized population: Percent distribution by type of coverage and perceived health status, United States, first half 1996
Population characteristic Total population in thousands Private Public only Uninsured
Total private Employment- related Non- employment- related
Percent distribution
Total under age 65a
231,676
68.7
64.1
4.6
12.1
19.2
Total age 65 and overa
31,839
61.5
36.0
25.5
37.6
0.9
Perceived health status, under age 65
Excellent
89,770
74.4
69.3
5.1
8.2
17.4
Very good
70,584
73.1
68.3
4.8
10.1
16.9
Good
49,509
62.3
58.8
3.6
14.9
22.8
Fair
15,400
50.1
45.9
4.2
24.9
25.1
Poor
5,588
38.8
35.1
3.7
39.8
21.4
Perceived health status, age 65 and over
Excellent
5,832
66.4
40.8
25.6
32.6
1.0
Very good
7,940
67.8
40.9
26.9
31.4
0.8
Good
9,131
60.9
35.6
25.3
38.1
1.1
Fair
5,921
55.4
30.1
25.4
44.1
0.5
Poor
2,638
52.0
28.2
23.8
47.6
0.3
  • aIncludes persons with unknown perceived health status.

Note: Percents may not add to 100 due to rounding.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

 

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Table 4. Health insurance coverage of the civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 19-24: Percent distribution by type of coverage and selected population characteristics, United States, first half of 1996
Population characteristic Total population in thousands Private Public only Uninsured
Total private Employment-related
Percent distribution
Totala
21,643
53.4
47.3
8.7
37.8
Employment status
Employed
14,728
59.2
53.1
5.2
35.5
Not employed
6,520
42.7
36.8
17.2
40.1
Sex
Male
10,661
53.2
46.8
5.0
41.9
Female
10,982
53.7
47.7
12.4
33.9
Race/ethnicity
Total Hispanic
2,854
36.5
33.6
10.6
52.8
Total black
3,577
34.9
32.1
14.9
50.2
Total white
13,662
62.5
54.8
6.3
31.1
Total other
1,550
47.0
41.3
12.3
40.7
Hispanic male
1,568
37.4
33.0
4.1
58.5
Black male
1,559
34.6
30.1
4.4
61.1
White male
6,618
61.8
54.5
4.6
33.5
Hispanic female
1,287
35.5
34.4
18.5
45.9
Black female
2,018
35.2
33.7
23.1
41.7
White female
7,044
63.2
55.1
7.9
28.9
Perceived health status
Excellent
8,429
59.7
53.1
6.1
34.2
Very good
6,754
56.6
48.5
7.8
35.5
Good
4,927
46.1
42.4
12.1
41.7
Fair or poor
1,335
32.3
29.1
17.5
50.2
Census region
Northeast
3,806
51.2
44.3
9.4
39.4
Midwest
5,323
63.7
58.2
7.3
29.0
South
7,344
46.5
42.7
8.3
45.2
West
5,170
54.2
44.7
10.4
35.4
Student statusb
Full-time
5,914
69.0
57.0
8.7
22.4
Part-time
1,578
50.7
45.7
9.5
39.9
Not a student
10,447
45.2
41.6
9.2
45.6
  • aIncludes persons with unknown employment status and perceived health status.
  • bFor individuals ages 19-23 years.

Note: Percents may not add to 100 due to rounding.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

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Table 5. Total population and uninsured persons under age 65: Percent distribution of population and percent uninsured by selected characteristics, United States, first half of 1996
Population characteristic Total population in thousands Percent distribution of population Percent uninsured Percent distribution of uninsured population
Totala
231,676
100.0
19.2
100.0
Age in years
Under 4
15,577
6.7
13.8
4.8
4-6
12,716
5.5
13.3
3.8
7-12
24,092
10.4
15.5
8.4
13-17
19,036
8.2
17.9
7.7
18
3,445
1.5
28.4
2.2
19-24
21,643
9.3
37.8
18.4
25-29
18,703
8.1
26.8
11.3
30-34
21,383
9.2
19.3
9.3
35-54
74,423
32.1
16.4
27.4
55-64
20,658
8.9
14.7
6.8
Race/ethnicity
Total Hispanic
26,898
11.6
35.1
21.2
Total black
30,297
13.1
24.8
16.9
Total white
163,378
70.5
15.2
55.8
Total other
11,104
4.8
24.3
6.1
Hispanic male
13,671
5.9
38.9
12.0
Black male
14,297
6.2
26.6
8.6
White male
81,443
35.2
16.3
29.9
Hispanic female
13,227
5.7
31.2
9.3
Black female
16,000
6.9
23.2
8.4
White female
81,934
35.4
14.0
25.8
Marital statusb
Married
91,323
39.5
13.9
28.8
Widowed
3,412
1.5
24.1
1.9
Divorced
16,952
7.3
26.6
10.2
Separated
4,291
1.9
30.5
3.0
Never married
51,495
22.3
29.8
34.7
Census region
Northeast
44,555
19.2
15.6
15.7
Midwest
54,045
23.3
15.5
18.8
South
80,707
34.8
22.6
41.0
West
52,370
22.6
20.9
24.6
Perceived health status
Excellent
89,770
38.9
17.4
35.6
Very good
70,584
30.6
16.9
27.1
Good
49,509
21.4
22.8
25.7
Fair
15,400
6.7
25.1
8.8
Poor
5,588
2.4
21.4
2.7
  • aIncludes persons with unknown perceived health status and marital status.
  • bFor individuals age 16 and over. Excludes unknown marital status. As a result, percents do not sum to 100.

Note: Percent distributions may not add to 100 due to rounding.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

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Table A. Health insurance coverage of the civilian noninstitutionalized population: Population estimates by type of coverage and selected population characteristics, United States, first half of 1996
Population characteristic Total population Any coverage Any private coverage Public only Uninsured
Number in thousands
Totala
263,516
218,760
178,820
39,939
44,756
Total under age 65a
231,676
187,191
159,235
27,957
44,485
Age in years
Under 4
15,577
13,430
9,435
3,996
2,147
4-6
12,716
11,029
8,016
3,013
1,687
7-12
24,092
20,358
15,436
4,922
3,734
13-17
19,036
15,627
12,723
2,904
3,409
Total under 18
71,421
60,444
45,610
14,835
10,977
18
3,445
2,468
2,121
--
--
19-24
21,643
13,454
11,563
1,891
8,189
25-29
18,703
13,692
12,128
1,564
5,011
30-34
21,383
17,257
15,570
1,687
4,126
35-54
74,423
62,252
56,834
5,418
12,171
55-64
20,658
17,625
15,410
2,215
3,033
65 and over
31,839
31,568
19,586
11,983
--
Employment statusb
Employed
128,619
105,766
100,343
5,424
22,853
Not employed
69,810
58,340
37,657
20,684
11,470
Sex
Male
128,383
104,440
87,217
17,223
23,943
Female
135,133
114,319
91,603
22,716
20,813
Race/ethnicity
Total Hispanic
28,384
18,886
12,492
6,394
9,498
Total black
32,975
25,407
16,041
9,366
7,567
Total white
190,235
165,272
143,234
22,038
24,962
Total other
11,922
9,194
7,053
2,141
2,729
Census region
Northeast
51,464
44,427
36,191
8,236
7,037
Midwest
61,828
53,400
45,328
8,072
8,428
South
91,855
73,574
60,012
13,562
18,281
West
58,369
47,359
37,289
10,069
11,010
  • aIncludes persons with unknown employment status.
  • bFor individuals age 16 and over.
  •  Sample size too small to produce reliable estimates.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

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Corresponds to Table 1

Table B. Health insurance coverage of the civilian noninstitutionalized population: Standard errors by type of coverage and selected population characteristics, United States, first half of 1996
Population characteristic Private Public only Uninsured
Total private Employment- related Nonemployment- related
Standard error
Totala
0.71
0.72
0.29
0.54
0.47
Total under age 65a
0.78
0.79
0.27
0.58
0.52
Age in years
Under 4
1.82
1.80
0.59
1.63
1.17
4-6
1.83
1.87
0.63
1.61
1.24
7-12
1.60
1.66
0.67
1.38
1.10
13-17
1.51
1.58
0.66
1.22
1.15
Total under 18
1.20
1.23
0.42
1.01
0.77
18
3.22
3.33
1.10
2.04
2.98
19-24
1.50
1.51
0.74
0.92
1.44
25-29
1.56
1.56
0.63
0.89
1.39
30-34
1.38
1.37
0.43
0.82
1.08
35-54
0.82
0.86
0.35
0.48
0.61
55-64
1.27
1.50
0.79
0.98
0.88
65 and over
1.24
1.25
1.12
1.22
0.23
Employment statusb
Employed
0.65
0.68
0.30
0.32
0.53
Not employed
0.86
0.85
0.57
0.79
0.60
Sex
Male
0.76
0.77
0.34
0.59
0.57
Female
0.76
0.78
0.31
0.57
0.48
Race/ethnicity
Total Hispanic
1.86
1.81
0.40
1.20
1.56
Total black
1.78
1.84
0.45
1.66
1.28
Total white
0.79
0.84
0.37
0.56
0.50
Total other
3.62
3.51
1.28
3.44
2.24
Hispanic male
1.94
1.88
0.55
1.18
1.71
Black male
2.12
2.15
0.52
1.91
1.61
White male
0.87
0.93
0.44
0.62
0.61
Hispanic female
2.07
2.01
0.39
1.54
1.68
Black female
1.98
2.07
0.51
1.84
1.61
White female
0.84
0.89
0.39
0.60
0.51
Marital status
Married
0.66
0.80
0.43
0.47
0.50
Widowed
1.62
1.37
1.32
1.56
0.72
Divorced
1.53
1.55
0.63
1.13
1.22
Separated
2.83
2.81
*0.76
2.36
2.77
Never married
1.06
1.02
0.43
0.75
0.91
Metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
MSA
0.83
0.82
0.31
0.61
0.53
Non-MSA
1.57
1.63
0.71
1.22
1.10
Census region
Northeast
1.36
1.42
0.52
0.90
0.87
Midwest
1.59
1.67
0.68
1.13
0.98
South
1.22
1.18
0.45
0.92
0.84
West 1.45 1.46 0.67 1.20 0.99
  • aIncludes persons with unknown employment and marital status.
  • bFor individuals age 16 and over.
  • *Relative standard error is greater than or equal to 30 percent.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

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Corresponds to Table 2

Table C. Health insurance coverage of the civilian noninstitutionalized population under age 65: Standard errors by type of coverage and selected population characteristics, United States, first half of 1996
Population characteristic Private Public only Uninsured
Total private Employment- related Nonemployment- related
Standard error
Totala
0.78
0.79
0.27
0.58
0.52
Employment statusb
Employed
0.66
0.67
0.28
0.31
0.54
Not employed
1.08
1.04
0.41
1.01
0.88
Sex
Male
0.81
0.82
0.34
0.61
0.62
Female
0.86
0.88
0.26
0.63
0.55
Race/ethnicity
Total Hispanic
1.97
1.92
0.39
1.24
1.59
Total black
1.92
1.94
0.41
1.74
1.34
Total white
0.87
0.92
0.34
0.59
0.57
Total other
3.67
3.59
1.32
3.49
2.43
Hispanic male
2.02
1.98
0.55
1.20
1.72
Black male
2.24
2.20
0.48
1.97
1.70
White male
0.94
1.01
0.45
0.63
0.68
Hispanic female
2.20
2.13
0.36
1.58
1.75
Black female
2.14
2.21
0.46
1.90
1.71
White female
0.94
0.99
0.33
0.65
0.60
Marital statusb
Married
0.72
0.82
0.34
0.40
0.58
Widowed
3.13
3.18
1.78
2.03
2.55
Divorced
1.59
1.59
0.59
1.06
1.34
Separated
2.95
2.94
*0.68
2.31
2.97
Never married
1.07
1.02
0.43
0.75
0.92
Metropolitan statistical area (MSA)
MSA
0.91
0.91
0.30
0.66
0.58
Non-MSA
1.72
1.78
0.60
1.31
1.30
Census region
Northeast
1.53
1.55
0.40
0.98
0.99
Midwest
1.70
1.74
0.63
1.17
1.11
South
1.37
1.31
0.37
1.02
0.91
West 1.54 1.66 0.73 1.25 1.09
  • aIncludes persons with unknown employment and marital status.
  • bFor individuals age 16 and over.
  • *Relative standard error is greater than or equal to 30 percent.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

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Corresponds to Table 3

Table D. Health insurance coverage of the civilian noninstitutionalized population: Standard errors by type of coverage and perceived health status, United States, first half of 1996
Population characteristic Private Public only Uninsured
Total private Employment- related Nonemployment- related
Standard error
Total under age 65a
0.78
0.79
0.27
0.58
0.52
Total age 65 and overa
1.24
1.25
1.12
1.22
0.23
Perceived health status, under age 65
Excellent
0.89
0.93
0.46
0.55
0.74
Very good
0.89
0.91
0.39
0.68
0.67
Good
1.21
1.21
0.33
0.94
0.83
Fair
1.61
1.65
0.60
1.44
1.35
Poor
2.54
2.63
1.02
2.47
2.32
Perceived health status, age 65 and over
Excellent
2.61
2.56
2.59
2.56
*0.58
Very good
2.08
2.40
2.09
2.06
*0.43
Good
2.06
1.99
1.92
2.01
*0.36
Fair
2.66
2.53
2.22
2.67
*0.30
Poor
3.85
3.41
2.92
3.85
*0.35
  • aIncludes persons with unknown perceived health status.
  • *Relative standard error is greater than or equal to 30 percent.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

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Corresponds to Table 4

Table E. Health insurance coverage of the civilian noninstitutionalized population ages 19-24: Standard errors by type of coverage and selected population characteristics, United States, first half of 1996
Population characteristic Private Public only Uninsured
Total private Employment- related
Standard error
Totala
1.49
1.50
0.92
1.44
Employment status
Employed
1.82
1.81
0.90
1.78
Not employed
2.39
2.47
1.74
2.26
Sex
Male
1.95
2.01
0.86
1.89
Female
1.95
1.93
1.31
1.91
Race/ethnicity
Total Hispanic
2.82
2.87
1.54
2.77
Total black
3.63
3.45
2.94
4.02
Total white
1.80
1.94
0.87
1.74
Total other
6.06
6.68
*4.69
5.90
Hispanic male
3.28
3.23
*1.43
3.36
Black male
5.33
4.92
*1.78
4.93
White male
2.43
2.61
1.04
2.34
Hispanic female
4.06
4.07
2.87
4.12
Black female
4.73
4.81
4.26
5.58
White female
2.21
2.39
1.28
2.12
Perceived health status
Excellent
2.39
2.43
0.97
2.31
Very good
2.31
2.33
1.21
2.26
Good
2.71
2.54
1.95
2.55
Fair or poor
5.22
5.17
3.87
5.54
Census region
Northeast
2.87
2.93
1.88
2.87
Midwest
2.66
2.89
1.53
2.41
South
2.71
2.48
1.72
2.82
West
3.30
3.39
1.89
2.77
Student statusb
Full-time
2.38
2.92
1.65
2.13
Part-time
5.86
5.77
2.78
4.86
Not a student
2.01
1.98
1.27
2.07
  • aIncludes persons with unknown employment status and perceived health status.
  • bFor individuals ages 19-23 years.
  • *Relative standard error is greater than or equal to 30 percent.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

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Corresponds to Table 5

Table F. Total population and uninsured persons under age 65: Standard errors by selected population characteristics, United States, first half of 1996
Population characteristic Percent distribution of population Percent uninsured Percent distribution of uninsured population
Standard error
Totala
--
0.52
--
Age in years
Under 4
0.22
1.17
0.40
4-6
0.18
1.24
0.34
7-12
0.26
1.10
0.57
13-17
0.21
1.15
0.44
18
0.10
2.98
0.27
19-24
0.27
1.44
0.82
25-29
0.28
1.39
0.57
30-34
0.25
1.08
0.50
35-54
0.38
0.61
0.77
55-64
0.28
0.88
0.41
Race/ethnicity
Total Hispanic
0.57
1.59
1.45
Total black
0.70
1.34
1.33
Total white
0.86
0.57
1.73
Total other
0.40
2.43
0.73
Hispanic male
0.31
1.72
0.87
Black male
0.34
1.70
0.74
White male
0.49
0.68
1.11
Hispanic female
0.28
1.75
0.69
Black female
0.40
1.71
0.80
White female
0.50
0.60
1.00
Marital statusb
Married
0.46
0.58
0.86
Widowed
0.09
2.55
0.23
Divorced
0.25
1.34
0.55
Separated
0.12
2.97
0.34
Never married
0.40
0.92
1.01
Census region
Northeast
0.79
0.99
1.11
Midwest
0.97
1.11
1.45
South
1.26
0.91
1.87
West
0.81
1.09
1.29
Perceived health status
Excellent
0.59
0.74
1.13
Very good
0.43
0.67
0.93
Good
0.40
0.83
0.88
Fair
0.22
1.35
0.52
Poor
0.15
2.32
0.31
  • aIncludes persons with unknown perceived health status and marital status.
  • bFor individuals age 16 and over.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1)

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Suggested Citation: Research Findings #1: Health Insurance Status of the Civilian Noninstitutionalized Population: 1996. February 2006. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/data_files/publications/rf1/rf1.shtml