Skip Navigation  U.S. Department of Health and Human Services  www.hhs.gov
Agency for Healthcare Research Quality www.ahrq.gov
www.ahrq.gov
MEPS Home Medical Expenditure Panel Survey
Font Size:
Contact MEPS FAQ Site Map  
S
M
L
XL
 

Research Findings #2: Health Insurance Status of Workers and Their Families, 1996

Alan C. Monheit, Ph.D., and Jessica P. Vistnes, Ph.D.

Introduction

Health insurance obtained through the workplace is the primary source of private coverage for most Americans. Data from the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) indicate that during the first half of 1996, on average, nearly two-thirds of non-elderly Americans (64.1 percent, or 148.5 million persons) obtained employment-related health insurance (Vistnes and Monheit, 1997). These persons represented 93.3 percent of all persons under age 65 with private insurance. Despite the size of the covered population, employment does not necessarily lead to health insurance for many working Americans and their families. Indeed, MEPS data also indicate that nearly a fifth of non-elderly workers ages 16-64 (18.4 percent, or about 23 million persons) were without health insurance. These workers, on average, represented half (51.4 percent) of the non-elderly uninsured population during the first half of 1996.

The importance of the workplace as a source of private health insurance, the incentives for inefficient health plan choice associated with the employment-based insurance system, and the size and composition of the employed uninsured population have been ongoing public policy concerns. These concerns have focused specifically on disparities in the availability, out-of-pocket costs, and tax treatment of employment-based coverage for workers in different employment circumstances; the inability of some workers or their dependents with health problems to obtain such coverage; and gaps in the continuity of work-related health insurance during employment transitions. Such issues have been a major impetus for health reform proposals in the United States, including State reforms of the small employer group market and efforts to change the tax treatment of employer contributions to health insurance. The recently enacted Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996 (Public Law 104-191) was designed to address a key area of concern--ensuring the continuity of employment-based coverage for workers who change or lose jobs or who experience health problems.

This report uses data from the first round of the 1996 MEPS to provide preliminary estimates of the health insurance status of working Americans and their families for the first half of 1996, on average. (For a discussion of the 1996 MEPS, see Cohen, Monheit, Beauregard, et al., 1996.) Particular emphases of this report are to provide estimates of the size of the insured and uninsured working populations, to identify the specific demographic and employment characteristics that are associated with the likelihood that certain workers will obtain employment-based coverage, and to identify factors that leave other workers at particular risk of lacking such coverage and remaining uninsured. These data are presented in Tables 1-5. Table A in the Technical Appendix provides estimates of the number of working Americans by health insurance status.

^top


Families With and Without Working Adults

An examination of the insurance status of non-elderly Americans in households with or without a working adult (Table 1) reveals the following:

  • Nearly three-quarters (73.7 percent) of working adults ages 18-64 were covered by employment-related health insurance. However, working adults comprised half (50.4 percent) of the uninsured population under age 65.

  • Two-thirds (66.3 percent) of children in households with a working adult were covered by employment-related health insurance. However, children in families with working adults represented over a fifth (22.1 percent) of the uninsured population.

  • Of all children uninsured throughout the first half of 1996, about 90 percent (89.8 percent) were in households with a working adult (calculated from Table 1).

  • Nearly 87 percent of the uninsured population resided in households with a working adult. Thus, the employed uninsured and their dependents remain the largest segment of the uninsured population.

  • Three-quarters (75.8 percent) of children in households without a working adult were covered by public insurance (largely Medicaid).

The high rate of public coverage for children in households without a working adult offsets their lack of private insurance. As a result, children in households with or without a working adult were equally likely to be uninsured (slightly more than 15 percent of children in either type of household). Almost 30 percent of nonworking adults in both types of households were uninsured.

^top


Workers

Although nearly three-quarters (73.6 percent) of workers ages 16-64 obtained health insurance from their own or another employer (e.g., a spouse's), almost a fifth (18.4 percent) of all non-elderly workers were uninsured. Data presented in (Tables 2 and 3 ) indicate that certain types of workers were more likely to obtain employment-related coverage. Other workers were at greater risk of being uninsured, especially the following:

  • Workers who may face high premiums because their small employers may not be able to take advantage of the scale economies from pooling risks over a large and stable employee base.

  • The self-employed, who cannot fully deduct health insurance premiums as a business expense if they are owner-operators of unincorporated firms.

  • Low-wage workers who are either unable to afford health insurance when offered coverage or lack access to the kinds of jobs that provide health care coverage.

Such factors also may play a role in the ability of other groups, such as racial and ethnic minorities and persons in ill health, to obtain health insurance. Key findings regarding the association between worker characteristics and health insurance status are discussed next.

 

Age

Young workers ages 19-24 comprised the age group most likely to lack employment-related insurance and to be uninsured (Table 2). Only half of these workers (53.1 percent) had work-related coverage, while over a third (35.5 percent) were uninsured. The situation is different for older workers:

  • More than three-quarters of non-elderly workers ages 30 and over obtained health insurance at the workplace.

  • Workers ages 35 and over had a lower risk of being uninsured than all workers in general.

 

Gender and Race/Ethnicity

The earnings of female and minority workers typically have been below those of their male and white counterparts. This earnings differential reflects a variety of factors, including disparities in labor market opportunities, educational attainment and skill levels, and labor force attachment and job experience.1 As a result, women and minority workers are, on average, more likely than other workers to obtain employment in low-wage jobs that typically offer few fringe benefits. Such employment circumstances may have important implications for their health insurance status. MEPS data displayed in (Table 2) reveal the following:

  • Working women were more likely than men to be covered by employment-related health insurance and were less likely to be uninsured. On the other hand, they were less likely to have employment-related health insurance in their own names: 58.9 percent of male workers were policyholders, compared to 50.5 percent of female workers (data not shown).

  • Minority workers, especially Hispanic workers, were far more likely than white workers to be uninsured. About 38 percent of Hispanic workers and 25.7 percent of black workers were uninsured, compared to only 14.7 percent of white workers.

1For example, in 1994 the median weekly earnings of full-time men and women workers were $522 and $399, respectively. Median weekly earnings were $484 for white workers, $371 for black workers and $324 for Hispanic workers (Department of Labor, 1995).

This latter finding reflects the fact that only 54.9 percent of Hispanic workers and two-thirds (66.0 percent) of black workers had employment-related insurance, compared to over three-quarters (77.4 percent) of white workers. In addition:

  • Hispanic male workers were far less likely than all other workers to obtain employment- related health insurance and were far more likely to be uninsured. Only half (49.7 percent) of Hispanic male workers obtained health coverage from an employer and 43.5 percent were uninsured.

  • A smaller proportion of black than white male workers obtained employment-related health insurance (66.0 percent vs. 76.0 percent). Thus, a larger percentage of black male workers were uninsured (29.7 percent, compared to only 16.5 percent of white male workers).

Within each racial/ethnic group, working women were less likely than their male counterparts to be uninsured. This general finding reflects differences in the types of health insurance coverage held by males and females (Table 2):

  • Black working women were 3 1/2 times as likely as black male workers to obtain public insurance (9.5 percent compared to 2.7 percent). Therefore, among black workers, women were less likely to be uninsured (22.2 percent of women compared to 29.7 percent of men).

  • Hispanic women were much more likely than men to obtain work-related coverage (62.4 percent of women compared to 49.7 percent of men). As a result, working Hispanic women were less likely than male Hispanic workers to be uninsured (29.9 percent compared to 43.5 percent).

  • Although minority women workers were less likely to be uninsured than minority male workers, they still were much more likely to be uninsured than employed white women. Among female workers, 29.9 percent of Hispanics and 22.2 percent of blacks were uninsured, compared to 12.6 percent uninsured among whites.

  • The difference in employment-related health insurance between working white males and females resulted in a greater percentage of white male workers who were uninsured in the first half of 1996 (16.5 percent of white male workers compared to 12.6 of white female workers).

Health Status

Incremental health insurance reform efforts at the State and Federal levels have focused on ensuring that workers in poor health have improved access to private health insurance. For example, an important goal of the 1996 HIPAA (effective July 1, 1997) is to reduce the impact of preexisting health conditions as an impediment to the health insurance coverage of workers who either change or lose jobs. MEPS data (Table 2) reveal that in the first half of 1996, before HIPAA was implemented, fair or poor health status was directly associated with a lack of health care coverage:

  • Only 58.5 percent of workers in poor health and 60.2 percent of workers in fair health obtained employment-related insurance. In comparison, over three-quarters of workers in excellent or very good health (76.7 percent and 76.1 percent, respectively) had such coverage.

  • Workers in fair health or poor health (28.0 percent and 24.8 percent, respectively) were more likely to be uninsured than workers in excellent or very good health (16.0 percent and 16.4 percent, respectively).

Employment Characteristics

Certain characteristics of a worker's employment are associated with the availability of coverage at the workplace and its out-of-pocket costs--and consequently with the likelihood that a worker will obtain employment-related health insurance. As shown in (Table 3)  the factors discussed in the following paragraphs are important correlates of a worker's insurance status.

Self-Employed Workers Vs. Wage Earners

Under current tax law, self-employed owner-operators of unincorporated enterprises can deduct only 30 percent of their expenditures on health insurance. In contrast, employer contributions to health insurance made on behalf of wage earners are fully deductible from taxable income. This disparity in tax treatment has led to differences in the health insurance status of the self-employed compared to that of wage earners (Monheit and Harvey, 1993; Gruber and Poterba, 1994). The self-employed also may face higher premiums since they are more likely to work in small firms, which may be less able to take advantage of scale economies from risk pooling over a large employee group. The data in (Table 3) indicate the following:

  • Self-employed workers were more likely than wage earners to be uninsured (30.0 percent compared to 16.6 percent).

  • Only half of self-employed workers, compared to over three-quarters of wage earners, had work-related coverage.

  • The self-employed were five times as likely as wage earners to have private, nonemployment-related coverage (15.8 percent compared to 3.1 percent).

 

Size of Establishment--Wage Earners

As establishment size increased, wage earners were more likely to be covered by employment-related health insurance and less likely to be uninsured. For example:

  • In establishments with fewer than 10 employees, 58.8 percent of wage earners had employment-related coverage and 30.4 percent were uninsured.2

  • In establishments of 500 or more employees, 91.0 percent of wage earners had employment-related coverage and only 6.7 percent were uninsured.

2Monheit and Vistnes (1994) found that a sizable proportion of employees in small firms who had employment-related health insurance obtained such coverage as dependents on another family member's employment-related plan that was obtained from a large firm.

Size of Business--Self-Employed Workers

Less than half of self-employed workers in small businesses (those with fewer than 10 workers) had employment-related insurance, compared to 72.7 percent of the self-employed in establishments of 10 or more workers. The self-employed in small businesses were twice as likely as those in businesses of 10 or more workers to be uninsured.

Hourly Wage

Whether a worker was likely to obtain employment-related health insurance or be uninsured was directly related to the level of hourly wages:

  • Less than half (43.4 percent) of workers earning less than $5 per hour and only two- thirds (63.6 percent) of workers earning between $5 and $10 per hour obtained employment-related coverage. In contrast, about 95 percent of workers earning $15 or more per hour obtained such coverage.

  • Of workers earning less than $5 per hour, 37.8 percent were uninsured; 27.7 percent of those earning between $5 and $10 per hour were uninsured. In contrast, only 2.9 percent of workers earning $15 or more per hour were uninsured.

Weekly Hours of Work

Compared to full-time workers (at least 35 hours per week), those employed part time were less likely to be covered by employment-related insurance and more likely to be uninsured:

  • Approximately 60 percent of part-time employees had work-related coverage, compared to over three-quarters (77.8 percent) of full-time workers.

  • Roughly a quarter of part-time workers (23.5 percent of those working less than 20 hours per week and 27.5 percent working 20-34 hours per week) were uninsured, compared to only 16.1 percent of full-time employees.

Union Membership

Only 5.4 percent of working union members were uninsured, compared to 20.1 percent of workers who were not union members. Over 90 percent (92.8 percent) of union members had employment-related health insurance.

Availability of Coverage for Wage Earners

The 1996 MEPS also provides information on whether health insurance was made available to workers by their employers during the first half of 1996, on average. These data indicate the following:

  • Employers offered health insurance to 69.3 percent of wage earners (computed from data in Table 3).

  • Of workers not offered health insurance, 40.5 percent had access to employment-related coverage either as a dependent or through a previous job.

  • Nearly 43 percent of workers who were not offered coverage remained uninsured.

For a detailed discussion of the availability of health insurance to wage earners and how it has changed over time, see Cooper and Schone (1997).

^top


Young Adult Workers

Compared to all working Americans under age 65, young adults ages 19-24 were most at risk of lacking health insurance coverage and were least likely to have private health insurance (Table 2). This reflects the fact that many young adult workers have limited work experience or transitory employment status, so they frequently obtain low-wage jobs that do not provide health insurance. Moreover, since young adults tend to be in good health, expect to have only small medical expenditures, and may be less likely than older workers to have dependents requiring medical care, they may not perceive health insurance as an important employment benefit.

Slightly more than half (53.1 percent) of employed young adults had employment-related coverage, and over a third (35.5 percent) were uninsured (Tables 2 and 4). The workplace is the primary source of private health coverage, but health care coverage is not always made available to young working adults. The following paragraphs discuss the employment characteristics of young working adults that are associated with their health insurance status.

Availability of Employment-Based Coverage

Young adult wage earners ages 19-24 were far less likely than older workers to be offered health insurance by their employers (Table 4):

  • Only 41.3 percent of young adult wage earners were offered health insurance by their employers. In contrast, 69.3 percent of all workers ages 16-64 were offered coverage.

  • Nearly 13 percent of young adult wage earners who were offered employment-related coverage remained uninsured. However, only 4.7 percent of all workers ages 16-64 who were offered coverage were uninsured.

  • Nearly half (48.1 percent) of young wage earners not offered coverage by their employers were uninsured. A somewhat lower proportion of all workers ages 16-64 who were not offered coverage were uninsured (42.7 percent).

 

Hourly Wage

Among young adult wage earners, those earning $10 or more per hour were the most likely to have employment-related health insurance and the least likely to be uninsured. However, when compared to all workers earning $10 or more per hour, young working adults were less likely to have employment-related coverage and more likely to be uninsured (Tables 3 and 4). Young adults earning low wages (less than $10 per hour) also were more likely to be uninsured than low-wage workers in general.

Hours of Work

As noted previously, full-time workers are far more likely than those working part time to obtain employment-related health insurance. Yet compared to all full-time workers, full-time young adult workers remain at a disadvantage (Tables 3 and 4). For example, young adults working full time were less likely than all full-time workers to have employment-related coverage (55.9 percent compared to 77.8 percent) and twice as likely to be uninsured (35.6 percent compared to 16.1 percent). However, the insurance status of full-time workers did not differ from that of part-time workers among the young adult population.

The health insurance status of young adults working fewer than 20 hours per week was comparable to that of all adult part-time workers. Young adults working less than 20 hours per week had similar rates of employment-related insurance (56.1 percent compared to 60.1 percent of all adult workers). They also had the same likelihood of being uninsured as all adult part-time workers employed fewer than 20 hours per week (26.7 percent compared to 23.5 percent of all adult workers).

^top

Characteristics of the Working Uninsured

Data from the 1996 MEPS presented in (Table 5) further describe the characteristics of the working uninsured population by considering the representation of workers most at risk of lacking health care coverage in the general population relative to their representation among the working uninsured population. By examining the composition of the working uninsured population in this way, one can assess whether certain groups of workers are disproportionately represented among the working uninsured. Such tabulations can be useful in formulating more targeted and cost-efficient policy interventions designed to reduce the number of workers who lack health insurance. Results from these tabulations include the following:

  • Wage earners working for small establishments (fewer than 25 employees) represented 28.3 percent of all working Americans but accounted for 41.1 percent of the working uninsured.

  • Workers earning less than $10 per hour represented 35.8 percent of all workers but composed 57.0 percent of all uninsured workers.

  • Young adult workers ages 19-24 represented 11.9 percent of all workers and 22.9 percent of the working uninsured.

  • Minority workers were disproportionately represented among the uninsured working population. For example, Hispanic workers represented 9.3 percent of all workers and 19.2 percent of all uninsured workers; black workers represented 10.7 percent of all workers and 14.9 percent of the working uninsured.

  • Among minority workers, Hispanic males were especially over represented among the uninsured working population. They represented 5.5 percent of all workers but 12.9 percent of uninsured workers.

  • Self-employed workers represented 12.7 percent of all workers and 20.8 percent of all uninsured workers.

 

^top


Conclusions

Preliminary data from the 1996 MEPS indicate that during the first half of 1996, on average, nearly two-thirds (64.1 percent) of all privately insured non-elderly Americans (148.5 million persons) obtained private health insurance through the workplace. Such persons represented 93.3 percent of all persons under age 65 with private health insurance during the first half of 1996. While almost three-quarters of working Americans obtained employment-based coverage (either as a policyholder or as a dependent), nearly a fifth (18.4 percent) of all non-elderly workers ages 16-64 lacked any health care coverage. Almost two-thirds of children (66.3 percent) residing in working families had employment-based coverage, but children from working families represented over a fifth (22.1 percent) of all uninsured persons. In sum, uninsured workers and their uninsured dependents represented 86.9 percent of all non-elderly persons without health coverage.

Working Americans who obtained employment-based coverage were more likely to work in larger establishments, to work full time (35 hours or more per week), and to earn higher hourly wages than workers who did not obtain such coverage. Young adult workers ages 19-24 were especially unlikely to obtain employment-based coverage and were thus likely to remain uninsured. This was also true of minority workers (particularly Hispanic male workers) and workers in fair or poor health. Although women workers were more likely than men to be covered by employment-related insurance, they were less likely to have such coverage in their own name.

Wage earners were more likely to have employment-related coverage than were the self-employed. This difference may reflect disparities in the tax treatment of expenditures for health insurance made on behalf of each type of worker. Finally, 93.5 percent of the 75.1 million wage earners who were offered coverage by their employers obtained employment-related coverage, either as a policyholder or dependent. Of the 29.5 million wage earners not offered such coverage, 40.5 percent obtained employment-related coverage, mainly as a dependent, while 42.7 percent were uninsured. In contrast to all adult wage earners, less than half (41.3 percent) of young adult wage earners were offered health insurance by their employers.

More information on the health insurance status of working Americans will be available in future MEPS data releases and reports. In addition, data from the MEPS Insurance Component will provide more detailed information on whether health insurance is available to workers and their families, as well as the premiums, employer and employee contributions, and benefit provisions associated with such coverage.

^top


Tables

1. Health insurance coverage and employment status of adults in family--population under age 65
2. Health insurance coverage and population characteristics--workers ages 16-64
3. Health insurance coverage and job characteristics--workers ages 16-64
4. Health insurance coverage and job characteristics--workers ages 19-24
5. Selected characteristics--workers ages 16-64 and uninsured workers

 

Table 1. Health insurance coverage and employment status of the civilian noninstitutionalized population under age 65: Percent distribution by type of coverage for persons in families with and without working adults, United States, first half of 1996
Employment status of adults in family Total population in thousands Private Uninsured Percent distribution of uninsured
Total private Employment- related Public only
Percent distribution
Total
231,676
68.7
64.1
12.1
19.2
100.0
Persons in families with a working adulta
208,574
73.6
69.0
7.9
18.5
86.9
Working adult
121,882
78.4
73.7
3.2
18.4
50.4
Nonworking adult
22,669
57.4
51.6
14.4
28.2
14.4
Child
64,022
70.2
66.3
14.4
15.4
22.1
Persons in families without a working adulta
23,103
24.9
20.3
49.9
25.2
13.1
Nonworking adult
15,704
32.5
26.3
37.7
29.9
10.5
Child
7,399
9.0
7.4
75.8
15.2
2.5
  • aAge 18-64.

Note: Percents may not add to 100 due to rounding.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

^top


 

Table 2. Health insurance coverage of workers ages 16-64: Percent distribution by type of coverage and selected population characteristics, United States, first half of 1996
Population characteristic Working population in thousands Private Public only Uninsured
Total private Employment- related Nonemployment- related
Percent distribution
Totala
124,218
78.3
73.6
4.7
3.3
18.4
Age in years
16-18
3,931
74.7
69.5
5.2
6.1
19.2
19-24
14,728
59.2
53.1
6.1
5.2
35.5
25-29
14,957
73.0
68.0
4.9
3.7
23.3
30-34
17,372
80.0
77.0
3.0
2.9
17.1
35-44
35,614
81.9
78.2
3.7
2.9
15.3
45-54
26,034
84.8
79.4
5.5
2.3
12.9
55-64
11,582
82.9
76.4
6.5
3.4
13.8
Sex
Male
65,844
76.6
71.9
4.7
2.6
20.7
Female
58,374
80.2
75.5
4.7
4.1
15.7
Race/ethnicity
Total Hispanic
11,548
57.6
54.9
2.7
4.5
37.9
Total black
13,254
68.0
66.0
2.0
6.4
25.7
Total white
94,100
82.7
77.4
5.3
2.6
14.7
Total other
5,316
71.6
65.7
5.9
4.6
23.8
Hispanic male
6,772
52.9
49.7
3.2
3.6
43.5
Black male
6,078
67.6
66.0
1.5
2.7
29.7
White male
50,002
81.2
76.0
5.2
2.3
16.5
Hispanic female
4,776
64.3
62.4
1.9
5.8
29.9
Black female
7,176
68.3
66.0
2.3
9.5
22.2
White female
44,098
84.4
79.1
5.4
3.0
12.6
Perceived health status
Excellent
44,639
82.0
76.7
5.4
2.0
16.0
Very good
41,668
81.1
76.1
5.0
2.4
16.4
Good
29,018
73.3
69.7
3.6
4.8
21.9
Fair
7,417
64.0
60.2
3.8
8.0
28.0
Poor
1,396
62.7
58.5
4.1
12.5
24.8
  • aIncludes persons with unknown perceived health status.

Note: Restricted to civilian noninstitutionalized population. Percents may not add to 100 due to rounding.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

^top


 

Table 3. Health insurance coverage of workers ages 16-64: Percent distribution by type of coverage and selected job characteristics, United States, first half of 1996
Job characteristic Working population in thousands Private Public only Uninsured
Total private Employment- related Nonemployment- related
Percent distribution
Totala
124,218
78.3
73.6
4.7
3.3
18.4
Offered insuranceb
Yes
75,085
94.4
93.5
1.0
0.9
4.7
No
29,466
48.6
40.5
8.1
8.7
42.7
Size of establishmentb
Less than 10 workers
19,066
64.3
58.8
5.5
5.3
30.4
10-24 workers
15,991
73.0
68.7
4.3
4.7
22.4
25-49 workers
13,126
80.0
76.8
3.2
3.5
16.4
50-99 workers
14,328
85.1
82.3
2.8
2.8
12.1
100-499 workers
24,004
89.1
87.5
1.6
1.9
9.0
500 or more workers
17,329
92.3
91.0
1.3
1.0
6.7
Hourly wagesb
Less than $5.00
7,042
48.8
43.4
5.5
13.4
37.8
$5.00-$9.99
37,308
67.2
63.6
3.6
5.2
27.7
$10.00-$14.99
29,645
89.1
86.4
2.7
1.1
9.8
$15.00-$19.99
13,091
96.9
94.5
2.3
0.2
2.9
$20.00 or more
15,559
96.8
95.5
1.3
0.3
2.9
Self-employed
Yes
15,781
65.8
50.0
15.8
4.1
30.0
No
108,340
80.2
77.1
3.1
3.2
16.6
Size of self-employed businessc
1 worker
6,455
60.7
45.4
15.3
5.4
33.9
2-9 workers
6,386
65.6
48.2
17.4
4.0
30.5
10 or more workers
2,071
83.4
72.7
10.7
1.3
15.3
Hours of work
Less than 20 hours
8,453
69.1
60.1
9.0
7.5
23.5
20-34 hours
16,933
65.7
59.0
6.7
6.8
27.5
35 or more hours
95,536
81.6
77.8
3.8
2.3
16.1
Union membership
Yes
15,834
93.6
92.8
0.8
1.0
5.4
No
107,432
76.3
71.0
5.2
3.6
20.1
  • aIncludes persons with unknown size of establishment, insurance offered, hourly wages, hours of work, self-employment status, size of self-employed business, and union membership.
  • bFor wage earners only.
  • cFor self-employed workers only.

Note: Restricted to civilian noninstitutionalized population. Percents may not add to 100 due to rounding.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

^top


 

Table 4. Health insurance coverage of workers ages 19-24: Percent distribution by type of coverage and selected job characteristics, United States, first half of 1996
Job characteristic Working population in thousands Private Public only Uninsured
Total private Employment- related
Percent distribution
Totala
14,728
59.2
53.1
5.2
35.5
Offered insuranceb
Yes
5,817
84.8
82.9
2.5
12.7
No
7,627
44.5
35.3
7.3
48.1
Hours of work
Less than 20 hours
1,654
65.7
56.1
7.6
26.7
20-34 hours
3,607
53.3
45.7
8.4
38.2
35 or more hours
9,065
60.6
55.9
3.8
35.6
Hourly wagesb
Less than $5.00
1,825
43.3
34.8
11.9
44.7
$5.00-$9.99
8,750
57.3
52.1
5.4
37.3
$10.00 or more
2,782
81.7
75.0
0.7
17.6
  • aIncludes persons with unknown insurance offered, hours of work, and hourly wages.
  • bFor wage earners only.

Note: Restricted to civilian noninstitutionalized population. Percents may not add to 100 due to rounding.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

^top


 

Table 5. Total population of workers ages 16-64 and uninsured workers: Percent distribution by selected characteristics, United States, first half of 1996
Characteristic Working population in thousands Percent distribution of workers Percent uninsured Percent distribution of uninsured workers
Totala
124,218
100.0
18.4
100.0
Age in years
16-18
3,931
3.2
19.2
3.3
19-24
14,728
11.9
35.5
22.9
25-29
14,957
12.0
23.3
15.3
30-34
17,372
14.0
17.1
13.0
35-44
35,614
28.7
15.3
23.8
45-54
26,034
21.0
12.9
14.7
55-64
11,582
9.3
13.8
7.0
Race/ethnicity
Total Hispanic
11,548
9.3
37.9
19.2
Total black
13,254
10.7
25.7
14.9
Total white
94,100
75.8
14.7
60.4
Total other
5,316
4.3
23.8
5.5
Hispanic male
6,772
5.5
43.5
12.9
Black male
6,078
4.9
29.7
7.9
White male
50,002
40.3
16.5
36.1
Hispanic female
4,776
3.8
29.9
6.3
Black female
7,176
5.8
22.2
7.0
White female
44,098
35.5
12.6
24.3
Self-employed
Yes
15,781
12.7
30.0
20.8
No
108,340
87.3
16.6
79.2
Size of establishmentb
Less than 10 workers
19,066
15.4
30.4
25.4
10-24 workers
15,991
12.9
22.4
15.7
25-49 workers
13,126
10.6
16.4
9.5
50-99 workers
14,328
11.5
12.1
7.6
100-499 workers
24,004
19.3
9.0
9.4
500 or more workers
17,329
14.0
6.7
5.1
Hourly wagesb
Less than $5.00
7,042
5.7
37.8
11.7
$5.00-$9.99
37,308
30.1
27.7
45.3
$10.00-$14.99
29,645
23.9
9.8
12.8
$15.00-$19.99
13,091
10.5
2.9
1.7
$20.00 or more
15,559
12.5
2.9
2.0
  • aIncludes persons with unknown self-employment status, hourly wages, and size of establishment.
  • bFor wage earners only.

Note: Restricted to civilian noninstitutionalized population. Percents may not add to 100 due to rounding.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

^top


References

Cohen JW, Monheit AC, Beauregard KM, et al. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey: a national health information resource. Inquiry 1996;33:373-89.

Cohen S. Sample design of the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1997. MEPS Methodology Report No. 2. AHRQ Pub. No. 97-0027.

Cooper PF, Schone B. Offer rates and take-up rates of employment-sponsored health insurance: 1987 vs. 1996. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1997. Working paper.

Department of Labor (US). Report on the American workforce, 1995. Table 42. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Gruber J, Poterba J. Tax incentives and the decision to purchase health insurance: evidence from the self employed. Quarterly Journal of Economics 1994;109:701-33.

Monheit AC, Harvey PH. Sources of health insurance for the self-employed: does differential taxation make a difference? Inquiry 1993;30:293-305.Monheit AC, Vistnes JP. Implicit pooling of employees from large and small firms. Health Affairs. 1994 Spring (I);13(1):301-314.

Vistnes JP, Monheit AC. Health insurance status of the civilian noninstitutionalized population: 1996. Rockville (MD):Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1997. MEPS Research Findings No. 1. AHRQ Pub. No. 97-0030.

^top


Technical Appendix

Derivation of Insurance Status Information   Employment Status
Health Insurance Edits   Sample Design and Accuracy of Estimates
Population Characteristics   Comparisons With Other Data Sources
Job Characteristics     

The data in this report were obtained in the first round of interviews for the Household Component (HC) of the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). MEPS is cosponsored by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). The MEPS HC is a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population that collects medical expenditure data at both the person and household levels. The focus of the MEPS HC is to collect detailed data on demographic characteristics, health conditions, health status, use of medical care services, charges and payments, access to care, satisfaction with care, health insurance coverage, income, and employment. In other components of MEPS, data are collected on residents of licensed or certified nursing homes and the supply side of the health insurance market.

The sample for the MEPS HC was selected from respondents to the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which was conducted by NCHS. NHIS provides a nationally representative sample of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population and reflects an oversampling of Hispanics and blacks. The MEPS HC collects data through an overlapping panel design. In this design, data are collected through a precontact interview that is followed by a series of six rounds of interviews over 2-1/2 years. Two calendar years of medical expenditure and utilization data are collected from each household and captured using computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI). This series of data collection rounds is launched again each subsequent year on a new sample of households to provide overlapping panels of survey data which, when combined with other ongoing panels, will provide continuous and current estimates of health care expenditures. The reference period for Round 1 of the MEPS HC was from January 1, 1996, to the date of the first interview. Round 1 interviews were conducted from March to July 1996.

Derivation of Insurance Status Information

The household respondent was asked if, between January 1, 1996, and the time of the Round 1 interview, anyone in the family was covered by any of the sources of public and private health insurance coverage discussed in the following paragraphs. For this report, Medicare and CHAMPUS/CHAMPVA coverage were measured at the time of the Round 1 interview. (CHAMPUS and CHAMPVA are the Civilian Health and Medical Programs for the Uniformed Services and Veterans' Affairs.) All other sources of insurance were measured for any time in the Round 1 reference period. Persons counted as uninsured were uninsured throughout the Round 1 reference period.

Public Coverage

For this report, individuals were considered to have public coverage only if they met both of the following criteria:

  • They were not covered by private insurance.
  • They were covered by one of the public programs discussed below.

Medicare

Medicare is a federally financed health insurance plan for the elderly, persons receiving Social Security disability payments, and most persons with end-stage renal disease. Medicare Part A, which provides hospital insurance, is automatically given to those who are eligible for Social Security. Medicare Part B provides supplementary medical insurance that pays for medical expenses and may be purchased for a monthly premium.

CHAMPUS/CHAMPVA

CHAMPUS covers retired members of the Uniformed Services and the spouses and children of active-duty, retired, and deceased members. Spouses and children of veterans who died from a service-connected disability, or who are permanently disabled and are not eligible for CHAMPUS or Medicare, are covered by CHAMPVA. In this report, CHAMPUS or CHAMPVA coverage is considered to be public coverage.

Medicaid

Medicaid is a means-tested government program jointly financed by Federal and State funds that provides health care to those who are eligible. Program eligibility criteria vary significantly by State, but the program is designed to provide health coverage to families and individuals who are considered unable to afford necessary medical care.

Other Public Hospital/Physician Coverage

Respondents who did not report Medicaid coverage were asked if they were covered by any other public hospital/physician coverage. These questions were asked in an attempt to identify Medicaid recipients who might not have recognized their coverage as Medicaid. In his report, all coverage reported in this manner is considered public coverage.

 

Private Health Insurance

Private health insurance was defined for this report as insurance that provides coverage for hospital and physician care. Insurance that provides coverage for a single service only, such as dental or vision coverage, was not counted. In addition, private insurance was classified as either employment related or nonemployment related. Employment-related coverage includes private health insurance obtained through an employer, union, or self-employed business. Insurance also was classified as employment related when the policyholder resided outside the reporting unit. Individuals were classified as having nonemployment-related insurance if they did not have employment-related coverage but were covered by private hospital/physician insurance obtained from another source, such as directly from an insurance company or a health maintenance organization (HMO) or through a group or association.

Uninsured

The uninsured were defined as persons not covered by Medicare, CHAMPUS/CHAMPVA, Medicaid, other public hospital/physician programs, or private hospital/physician insurance throughout the entire Round 1 reference period. Individuals covered only by noncomprehensive State-specific programs (e.g., Maryland Kidney Disease Program, Colorado Child Health Plan) or private single-service plans (e.g., coverage for dental or vision care only, coverage for accidents or specific diseases) were not considered to be insured.

Health Insurance Edits

The Round 1 health insurance data were edited as described below. Minimal editing was performed on the Medicare and Medicaid variables; all other coverage types are unedited and unimputed.

Medicare

Medicare coverage was edited for persons age 65 and over but not for persons under age 65. Persons age 65 and over were assigned Medicare coverage if they met one of the following criteria:

  • They answered "yes" to a follow-up question on whether they had received Social Security benefits.
  • They were covered by Medicaid, other public hospital/physician coverage, or Medigap coverage.
  • Their spouse was covered by Medicare.

Medicaid

A small number of cases reporting Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) or Supplemental Security Income (SSI) coverage (questions included in the Round 1 interview for editing purposes) were assigned Medicaid coverage. In addition, the Medicaid variable was edited to include persons who paid nothing for their other public hospital/physician insurance when such coverage was through a Medicaid HMO or reported to include some other managed care characteristics. Since this report does not distinguish among sources of public insurance, no further edits were performed using the other public hospital/physician coverage variables. Other public hospital/physician coverage was included, however, when considering whether an individual was covered only by public insurance.

 

Private Health Insurance

Individuals were considered to be covered by private insurance if the insurance provided coverage for hospital/physician care. Medigap plans were included. Individuals covered by single-service plans only (e.g., dental, vision, or drug plans) were not considered to be privately insured. Sources of insurance with missing information regarding the type of coverage were assumed to contain hospital/physician coverage.

As more information from other parts and subsequent rounds of MEPS becomes available, it will be used to correct missing or inconsistent information. In particular, private coverage variables will be edited in terms of the reporting of private insurance as a source of payment for medical expenses. Finally, it should be noted that these data were generally reported by a single household respondent, who may not have been the most knowledgeable source for other family members. The employers and insurance companies of household respondents are being contacted in a follow-up survey as part of the MEPS data collection effort designed to verify and supplement the information provided by the household respondents.

 

Population Characteristics

Place of Residence

Individuals were identified as residing either inside or outside a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) as designated by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which applied 1990 standards using population counts from the 1990 U.S. census. An MSA is a large population nucleus combined with adjacent communities that have a high degree of economic and social integration within the nucleus. Each MSA has one or more central counties containing the area's main population concentration. In New England, metropolitan areas consist of cities and towns rather than whole counties. Regions of residence are in accordance with the U.S. Bureau of the Census definition.

Race/Ethnicity

Classification by race and ethnicity was based on information reported for each household member. Respondents were asked if their race was best described as American Indian, Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, black, white, or other. They were also asked if their main national origin or ancestry was Puerto Rican; Cuban; Mexican, Mexicano, Mexican American, or Chicano; other Latin American; or other Spanish. All persons who claimed main national origin or ancestry in one of these Hispanic groups, regardless of racial background, were classified as Hispanic. Since the Hispanic grouping can include black Hispanic, white Hispanic, and other Hispanic, the race categories of black, white, and other do not include Hispanic.

Job Characteristics

The job characteristics reported in Tables 3-5 relate to the worker's main job as reported on the Round 1 interview date. Selected variables are discussed below.

Offered Insurance

This variable is reported in Tables 3 and 4 for wage earners only at the time of the Round 1 interview. It measures whether wage earners had been offered health insurance at their main job.

Size of Establishment or Size of Self-Employed Business

Size of establishment (a workplace location) is defined for wage earners only. The variable for self-employed workers captures the size of their business (which can consist of several establishments) rather than the size of the establishment at which they work.

Employment Status

Working Adults

Persons were considered working adults if they had a job for pay, owned a business, or worked without pay in a family business at the time of the Round 1 interview. The age range included in each table is specified in the table title or notes.

Employment Status of a Family

Families consist of all persons related by blood or marriage in a reporting unit as well as students living away from home. Families are classified according to whether or not they have at least one working adult. For Table 1, individuals within the family are classified as working adults, nonworking adults, or children (under age 18).

Sample Design and Accuracy of Estimates

The sample selected for the 1996 MEPS, a subsample of the 1995 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), was designed to produce national estimates that are representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. Round 1 data were obtained for approximately 9,400 households in MEPS, resulting in a survey response rate of 78 percent. This figure reflects participation in both NHIS and MEPS.

The statistics presented in this report are affected by both sampling error and sources of nonsampling error, which include nonresponse bias, respondent reporting errors, interviewer effects, and data processing misspecifications. For a detailed description of the MEPS survey design, the adopted sample design, and methods used to minimize sources of nonsampling error, see Cohen (1997) and Cohen, Monheit, Beauregard, et al. (1996). The MEPS person-level estimation weights include nonresponse adjustments and poststratification adjustments to population estimates derived from the March 1996 Current Population Survey (CPS) based on cross-classifications by region, age, race/ethnicity, and sex.

Tests of statistical significance were used to determine whether the differences between populations exist at specified levels of confidence or whether they occurred by chance. Differences were tested using Z-scores having asymptotic normal properties at the 0.05 level of significance. Unless otherwise noted, only statistical differences between estimates are discussed in the text.

Rounding

Estimates presented in the tables were rounded to the nearest 0.1 percent. Standard errors, presented in Tables B-F, were rounded to the nearest 0.01. Population estimates in Tables 1-5   and Table A were rounded to the nearest thousand. Therefore, some of the estimates presented in the tables for population totals of subgroups will not add exactly to the overall estimated population total.

Comparisons With Other Data Sources

Because of methodological differences, caution should be used when comparing these data with data from other sources. For example, CPS measures persons who are uninsured for a full year; NHIS measures persons who lack insurance at a given point in time--the month before the interview. CPS is conducted annually, and NHIS collects insurance data on a continuous basis each year. In addition, unlike MEPS, CPS counts as insured military veterans whose source of health care is the Department of Veterans' Affairs. CPS also counts children of adults covered by Medicaid as insured. For these preliminary estimates, MEPS did not consider these children insured unless their families reported them as such.

^top


Table A. Health insurance coverage of workers ages 16-64: Population estimates by type of coverage and selected population characteristics, United States, first half of 1996

Population characteristic Total population Any coverage Private Uninsured
Total private Employment- related
Number in thousands
Total
124,218
101,390
97,306
91,453
22,827
Age in years
16-18
3,931
3,176
2,937
2,733
--
19-24
14,728
9,496
8,725
7,823
5,231
25-29
14,957
11,472
10,911
10,173
3,485
30-34
17,372
14,406
13,899
13,380
2,966
35-44
35,614
30,172
29,151
27,833
5,442
45-54
26,034
22,682
22,085
20,663
3,352
55-64
11,582
9,987
9,597
8,847
1,595
Sex
Male
65,844
52,185
50,466
47,356
13,658
Female
58,374
49,205
46,840
44,096
9,169
Race/ethnicity
Hispanic
11,548
7,175
6,654
6,344
4,373
Black
13,254
9,854
9,008
8,749
3,400
White
94,100
80,310
77,837
72,869
13,790
Other
5,316
4,052
3,807
3,491
--
Perceived health status
Excellent
44,639
37,499
36,606
34,216
7,140
Very good
41,668
34,824
33,812
31,719
6,844
Good
29,018
22,656
21,259
20,226
6,362
Fair
7,417
5,339
4,745
4,463
2,078
Poor
1,396
--
--
--
--
  • Sample size too small to produce reliable estimates.

Note: Numbers may not add to totals because of rounding. Persons with public coverage included in totals but not shown separately due to small sample sizes.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

^top


Table B. Health insurance coverage and employment status of the civilian noninstitutionalized population under age 65: Standard errors by type of coverage for persons in families with and without working adults, United States, first half of 1996

Corresponds to Table 1

Employment status of adults in family Private Public only Uninsured Percent distribution of uninsured
Total private Employment- related
Standard error
Total
0.78
0.79
0.58
0.52
--
Persons in families with a working adulta
0.75
0.78
0.48
0.54
0.83
Working adult
0.66
0.68
0.31
0.54
0.98
Nonworking adult
1.23
1.23
1.00
1.16
0.63
Child
1.17
1.23
0.87
0.82
0.95
Persons in families without a working adulta
1.45
1.40
1.74
1.45
0.83
Nonworking adult
1.69
1.65
1.69
1.56
0.66
Child
1.75
1.71
2.42
1.93
0.34
  • aAge 18-64.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

^top


Table C. Health insurance coverage of workers ages 16-64: Standard errors by type of coverage and selected population characteristics, United States, first half of 1996

Corresponds to Table 2

Population characteristic Private Public only Uninsured
Total private Employment- related Nonemployment- related
Standard error
Totala
0.66
0.67
0.28
0.31
0.54
Age in years
16-18
2.84
3.07
1.21
1.39
2.43
19-24
1.83
1.81
0.87
0.90
1.78
25-29
1.62
1.66
0.70
0.66
1.51
30-34
1.30
1.34
0.46
0.51
1.17
35-44
0.94
1.00
0.43
0.41
0.79
45-54
0.89
1.04
0.62
0.41
0.82
55-64
1.33
1.58
0.89
0.70
1.11
Sex
Male
0.79
0.82
0.35
0.28
0.71
Female
0.77
0.81
0.34
0.41
0.62
Race/ethnicity
Total Hispanic
2.03
2.03
0.47
0.85
1.95
Total black
2.14
2.19
0.48
0.99
2.04
Total white
0.69
0.73
0.33
0.29
0.57
Total other
3.21
3.37
1.55
*1.65
2.72
Hispanic male
2.22
2.23
0.71
0.82
2.17
Black male
2.57
2.58
*0.52
*0.93
2.42
White male
0.85
0.93
0.43
0.29
0.77
Hispanic female
2.37
2.39
0.52
1.13
2.26
Black female
2.64
2.75
0.67
1.54
2.64
White female
0.78
0.82
0.39
0.38
0.61
Perceived health status
Excellent
0.84
0.90
0.48
0.30
0.78
Very good
0.82
0.91
0.48
0.35
0.76
Good
1.12
1.14
0.41
0.58
0.95
Fair
2.07
2.15
0.81
1.11
1.99
Poor
4.49
4.73
*1.92
3.18
3.84
  • aIncludes persons with unknown perceived health status.
  • *Relative standard error is greater than or equal to 30 percent.

Note: Restricted to civilian noninstitutionalized population.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

^top


Table D. Health insurance coverage of workers ages 16-64: Standard errors by type of coverage and selected job characteristics, United States, first half of 1996

Corresponds to Table 3

Job characteristic Private Public only Uninsured
Total private Employment- related Nonemployment- related
Standard error
Totala
0.66
0.67
0.28
0.31
0.54
Offered insuranceb
Yes
0.43
0.44
0.14
0.16
0.38
No
1.36
1.27
0.66
0.81
1.30
Size of establishmentb
Less than 10 workers
1.39
1.38
0.68
0.78
1.29
10-24 workers
1.40
1.43
0.72
0.64
1.27
25-49 workers
1.48
1.56
0.66
0.72
1.30
50-99 workers
1.19
1.27
0.55
0.59
1.10
100-499 workers
0.93
0.98
0.30
0.32
0.82
500 or more workers
0.91
0.96
0.34
*0.36
0.80
Hourly wagesb
Less than $5.00
2.49
2.25
1.02
1.59
2.42
$5.00-$9.99
1.02
1.02
0.36
0.53
0.93
$10.00-$14.99
0.76
0.83
0.35
0.21
0.73
$15.00-$19.99
0.59
0.78
0.56
*0.15
0.57
$20.00 or more
0.60
0.76
0.36
*0.18
0.58
Self-employed
Yes
1.61
1.63
1.10
0.76
1.44
No
0.66
0.66
0.22
0.29
0.55
Size of self-employed businessc
1 worker
2.30
2.34
1.62
1.27
2.04
2-9 workers
2.82
2.83
1.79
*1.30
2.48
10 or more workers
3.25
4.33
3.11
*0.86
3.26
Hours of work
Less than 20 hours
2.09
2.15
1.11
1.19
1.81
20-34 hours
1.66
1.63
0.68
0.89
1.43
35 or more hours
0.63
0.66
0.29
0.23
0.56
Union membership
Yes
0.70
0.77
*0.27
0.28
0.66
No
0.73
0.74
0.31
0.35
0.59
  • aIncludes unknown size of establishment, insurance offered, hourly wages, hours of work, self-employment status, size of self-employed business, and union membership.
  • bFor wage earners only.
  • cFor self-employed workers only.
  • *Relative standard error is greater than or equal to 30 percent.

Note: Restricted to civilian noninstitutionalized population.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

^top


Table E. Health insurance coverage of workers ages 19-24: Standard errors by type of coverage and selected job characteristics, United States, first half of 1996

Corresponds to Table 4

Job characteristic Private Public only Uninsured
Total private Employment- related
Standard error
Totala
1.82
1.81
0.90
1.78
Offered insuranceb
Yes
2.16
2.23
*0.86
2.01
No
2.36
2.26
1.44
2.35
Hours of work
Less than 20 hours
4.36
4.57
*2.66
4.18
20-34 hours
3.39
3.14
2.14
3.37
35 or more hours
2.50
2.60
0.81
2.42
Hourly wagesb
Less than $5.00
4.59
4.08
3.40
4.46
$5.00-$9.99
2.34
2.33
1.02
2.18
$10.00 or more
3.00
3.51
*0.55
2.97
  • aIncludes persons with unknown insurance offered, hours of work, and hourly wages.
  • bFor wage earners only.
  • *Relative standard error is greater than or equal to 30 percent.

Note: Restricted to civilian noninstitutionalized population.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

^top


Table F. Total population of workers ages 16-64 and uninsured workers: Standard errors by selected characteristics, United States, first half of 1996

Corresponds to Table 5

Population characteristic Percent distribution of population Percent uninsured Percent distribution of uninsured population
Standard error
Totala
--
0.54
--
Age in years
16-18
0.19
2.43
0.43
19-24
0.37
1.78
1.20
25-29
0.47
1.51
0.98
30-34
0.41
1.17
0.82
35-44
0.55
0.79
1.11
45-54
0.51
0.82
0.84
55-64
0.32
1.11
0.55
Race/ethnicity
Total Hispanic
0.42
1.95
1.37
Total black
0.62
2.04
1.54
Total white
0.75
0.57
1.85
Total other
0.33
2.72
0.75
Hispanic male
0.28
2.17
1.00
Black male
0.31
2.42
0.83
White male
0.54
0.77
1.48
Hispanic female
0.20
2.26
0.57
Black female
0.38
2.64
1.02
White female
0.53
0.61
1.10
Self-employed
Yes
0.44
1.44
1.13
No
0.44
0.55
1.13
Size of establishmentb
Less than 10 workers
0.45
1.29
1.10
10-24 workers
0.36
1.27
0.87
25-49 workers
0.33
1.30
0.72
50-99 workers
0.38
1.10
0.67
100-499 workers
0.42
0.82
0.82
500 or more workers
0.46
0.80
0.64
Hourly wagesb
Less than $5.00
0.30
2.42
0.90
$5.00-$9.99
0.63
0.93
1.30
$10.00-$14.99
0.52
0.73
0.94
$15.00-$19.99
0.37
0.57
0.32
$20.00 or more
0.47
0.58
0.40
  • aIncludes persons with unknown self-employment status, hourly wages, and size of establishment.
  • bFor wage earners only.

Note: Restricted to civilian noninstitutionalized population.

Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Health Care Policy and Research: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component, 1996 (Round 1).

^top


Suggested Citation: Research Findings #2: Health Insurance Status of Workers and Their Families, 1996. February 2006. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/data_files/publications/rf2/rf2.shtml