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Research Findings #20: Dental Services: Use, Expenses, and Sources of Payment, 1996-2000

by Erwin Brown, Jr., B.S., and Richard Manski, D.D.S., M.B.A., Ph.D



Abstract

This report from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) characterizes how the civilian noninstitutionalized population used and paid for dental care from 1996 through 2000, using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). The percent of people with any use of dental services each year as well as the average number of visits per year are presented. Estimates include annual expenses and sources of payment (including out-of-pocket amounts). These estimates are presented for the total population as well as for specific population groups categorized in terms of insurance coverage, income, employment, and Census region. The report emphasizes change over time.

The estimates in this report are based on the most recent data available at the time the report was written. However, selected elements of MEPS data may be revised on the basis of additional analyses, which could result in slightly different estimates from those shown here. Please check the MEPS Web site for the most current file releases.

Introduction

This report presents estimates from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) on the use of dental services as well as expenses and payments for those services from 1996 through 2000. MEPS is an ongoing annual survey of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States. MEPS collects information on how Americans use and pay for health care, their health insurance coverage, and their access to and quality of health care. This report, presenting data on use of and expenses for dental care, is similar to earlier reports prepared with data from the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (Moeller and Levy, 1996; Hahn and Lefkowitz, 1992). While estimates are presented for each year from 1996 through 2000, the focus of this report is on the 2000 estimates and changes in dental use and expenses between 1996 and 2000.

Only differences in estimates that are statistically significant at the p ≤ .05 level are discussed in the text. The technical appendix provides substantial detail on the sample design and definitions of measures used in this report.

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Use of Dental Care

In 2000, less than half (41.6 percent) of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States obtained dental care from a dentist, dental technician, dental hygienist, dental surgeon, orthodontist, endodontist, or periodontist (Table 1).  From 1996 to 2000, the percent of people with a dental visit in each year remained comparatively stable (Table 1).

In 2000, the mean number of dental visits for people who received any dental care was 2.5 (Table 2).  This translates into about 290 million dental care visits, or an average of about 1.0 visit per person in the civilian noninstitutionalized population of 278.4 million people in 2000.  From 1996 through 2000, the mean number of dental visits per person remained stable (Table 2).

Demographic Characteristics

In 2000, children under age 6 were the age group least likely to receive dental care (21.1 percent), while those ages 6-18 were the most likely to use dental care (Table 1).   Although overall the percent of the population using any dental care remained stable during the 5-year period, the proportion among adults ages 19-44 declined from 41.1 percent in 1996 to 38.3 percent in 2000 (Table 1).

During 2000, among people with any dental care during the year, the average number of visits was higher for children ages 6-18 (2.9 visits), adults 45-64 (2.6 visits), and those 65 years and over (2.8 visits) than for younger adults ages 19-44 (2.1 visits) or children under 6 (1.6 visits).   Between 1996 and 2000, the average number of dental visits per person remained relatively stable.

In each year, females were more likely than males to use dental services.  For example, in 2000, 44.9 percent of females had at least one dental visit, compared with 38.2 percent of males (Table 1).  In three of the five years (2000, 1998, and 1997), females had a higher mean number of total visits per person with a visit than males—2.6 and 2.4, respectively (Table 2).

A higher proportion of whites (46.7 percent) than blacks (26.8 percent) or Hispanics (25.7 percent) had at least one dental visit in 2000 (Table 1).  The difference between blacks and Hispanics in the proportion of the population receiving dental care during 2000 is not significant.  Among people who received dental care during 2000, whites had more visits per user (2.6) than either Hispanics (2.1) or blacks (2.1).  This relationship was observed in each year from 1996 through 2000 (Table 2).

Insurance Coverage

In this report, insurance coverage refers to general health insurance coverage and does not necessarily reflect the presence of dental benefits. In 2000, people with private insurance were more likely to have at least one dental visit during the year (Table 1). Among people under age 65, 47.8 percent of those with any private insurance during 2000 had at least one dental visit, compared to 28.9 percent of those with public insurance and only 19.2 percent of those who were uninsured for the full year. A similar pattern was observed for people age 65 and over: 48.7 percent of the elderly with private insurance as well as Medicare had at least one dental visit, while 34.0 percent of those with Medicare only and 17.1 percent of those with public insurance in addition to Medicare received any dental care in 2000 (Table 1).

The relationship between any use of dental care and insurance coverage generally remained stable over the period 1996-2000. However, among people under 65 with private insurance, the percent receiving any dental care declined from 50.0 percent in 1996 to 47.8 percent in 2000 (Table 1).

Income and Employment

In 2000, people with high or middle family incomes were more likely to have a dental visit (53.5 and 40.4 percent, respectively) than people with family incomes categorized as low income, near poor, or poor (29.9, 26.7, and 25.7 percent, respectively; Table 1). The relationship between family income and the probability of use exhibited a consistent pattern each year. However, the likelihood of having a dental visit decreased from 1996 to 2000 for families with middle or high incomes: from 44.9 percent in 1996 to 40.4 percent in 2000 for people in middle-income families and from 56.6 percent to 53.5 percent for people in high-income families (Table 1). People with family incomes categorized as poor had fewer mean visits than those with higher family incomes—low income, middle income, and high income (Table 2). The mean number of visits per user for people in families below the poverty line in 2000 was 2.0 visits. From 1996 through 2000, the mean number of dental visits per person for each income category remained stable (Table 2).

People 16 and over who were employed during 2000 were more likely than their counterparts who were not employed to have at least one dental visit (43.4 percent and 37.8 percent, respectively; Table 1). In contrast, in every year except 1999, the average number of dental visits for people who had a visit was slightly higher for people who were not employed than for those who were employed (Table 2). The rate at which employed people received any dental care declined from 45.8 percent in 1996 to 43.4 percent in 2000 (Table 1).

Region

The percent of people using any dental services remained constant in each Census region between 1996 and 2000. In 2000, residents of the West and South were less likely to have at least one dental care visit than people living in the Northeast and Midwest. During 2000, people living in the Northeast had a higher average number of visits per user (2.7) than people in all other regions.

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Expenses and Sources of Payment

Annual expenses and sources of payment are shown in Tables 3-7.  In 2000, 115.8 million people in the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States spent nearly 56 billion dollars on dental care (not shown).  The average dental expense in 2000 for people with a visit was $480 (Table 7).  This represents a 28-percent increase in spending over the annual average expense in 1996 ($374; Table 3).  About half of expenses for dental care were paid out of pocket each year.  These out-of-pocket payments by self or family also accounted for the highest share of payments each year, followed by private health insurance payments, other sources, and Medicaid (Tables 3-7).

Demographic Characteristics

Among people using dental care during 2000, children ages 6-18 had the highest total annual dental expense ($607), while children under 6 had the lowest annual expense ($184).  Medicaid contributed about one-quarter of the payments for dental care for children under 6–more than for any other age group.  Out-of-pocket contributions were highest among the elderly, who paid more than three-quarters of their incurred expenses out of pocket.  As a percent of total expense for dental care, private health insurance payments were lowest for the elderly (14.9 percent) and highest for adults ages 19-44 (49.0 percent). Between 1996 and 2000, mean total expenses for people with a dental visit increased significantly except for the elderly.

In 2000, there were no significant differences in mean dental expenses between males and females.  For persons with a visit, mean expenses rose for both sexes between 1996 and 2000 (Tables 3 and 7).  Average expenses for males with a dental visit rose from $362 in 1996 to $449 in 2000.  During the same period, expenses for females rose from $384 to $505.   Consistently over the 5-year period, about half of expenses were paid out of pocket for both sexes.  Private health insurance was the next largest payer, accounting for 40.2 percent of expenses for males and 43.3 percent of expenses for females in 2000.  A similar ranking of payment sources was seen for all five years (Tables 3-7).

During 2000, mean total dental expenses were lower for blacks ($343) and Hispanics ($337) than whites ($506).  In each of the five years, expenses incurred by whites were higher than those incurred by blacks.  Whites had significantly higher expenses than Hispanics in four of the five years from 1996 to 2000. In every year studied in this report, whites had a lower percent of their expenses paid for by Medicaid than either Hispanics or blacks. 

Insurance Status

Among people under 65 who received dental services, those having any private insurance coverage and those who were uninsured for all of 2000 had higher mean dental expenses than people with public insurance. Interestingly, while they were less likely to receive dental services, the uninsured did not significantly differ in mean dental expenses from the privately insured population during 2000. Among people under 65, the uninsured paid nearly 80 percent of their dental health expenses out of pocket, with 20 percent coming from other sources.  Medicaid covered 66.4 percent of the expenses of people with public insurance, while private health insurance picked up about half the expenses incurred by people with private coverage during 2000 (Table 7).

Over the period 1996-2000, mean expenses increased for individuals under 65 who were either privately or publicly insured (Tables 3 and 7).  The distribution of sources of payment exhibited a consistent pattern over the time period.

Income and Employment

During 2000, people in families with middle or high incomes had higher mean total dental expenses than people in poor families (Table 7).  Between 1996 and 2000, annual expenses for people in low, middle, and high-income families increased.  Mean expenses also increased for people in poor and near-poor families during that time period, but the difference was not statistically significant.

Between 1996 and 2000, people in low and middle-income families experienced a decrease in the proportion of their dental expenses paid for by private health insurance.  People in low-income families saw the percent of their expenses paid for by private insurance drop from 37.1 percent in 1996 to 24.4 percent in 2000.  For these people, the percent paid out of pocket was unchanged. For people in middle-income families, the percent of dental expenses paid for by private insurance dropped from 44.9 percent to 40.0 percent.

Among people 16 and over, average annual dental expenses increased from 1996 to 2000 for both people who were employed with those who were not (Tables 3 and 7).  During 2000, employed people paid for less than half  (47.0 percent) of their dental expenses out of pocket, while people who were not employed paid for 63.7 percent of their dental expenses out of pocket (Table 7).  In each of the five years, people who were not employed paid a higher share of their annual dental expenses out of pocket than those who were employed (Tables 3-7).

Region

Between 1996 and 2000, average annual dental expenses rose in each of the four Census regions.  There was a decline in the portion of dental expenses paid for by private health insurance in the Midwest: from more than half (51.4 percent) in 1996 to 45.7 percent in 2000.

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Out-of-Pocket Expenses

Out-of-pocket dental expenses for 1996-2000 are shown in Tables 8-12. Between 1996 and 2000, the average out-of-pocket expense for people with a dental visit increased from $192 to $237. At the same time, the percent of the population incurring no expense increased slightly, from 30.2 percent to 31.6 percent. The percent of the population incurring $200 or more in out-of-pocket expenses also increased over the period, from 20.4 percent in 1996 to 23.0 percent in 2000 (Tables 8 and 12)

Demographic Characteristics

In 2000, children under 6 incurred the lowest annual out-of-pocket expenses for dental care ($47) and were the most likely to incur no expense at all (52.2 percent). People 65 and over had the highest annual out-of-pocket expenses, an average of $400. Only 10.5 percent of the elderly paid no out-of-pocket expenses for dental care, and 39.1 percent paid $200 or more out of pocket (Table 12).

Also in 2000, while males and females had similar mean out-of-pocket expenses and a similar distribution of out-of-pocket expenses, there were differences by race and ethnicity. Because of their higher use of dental care and lower rates of reimbursement from public programs (Tables 8-12 ), whites had higher mean out-of-pocket expenses ($252) than either blacks ($138) or Hispanics ($174). Whites were also less likely to incur no out-of-pocket expense and more likely to have out-of-pocket expenses of $200 or more. These patterns were unchanged over the 1996-2000 period.

Insurance Status

During 2000, people under 65 with public insurance coverage only had lower out-of-pocket expenses ($75) than either the uninsured ($322) or those with private coverage ($220). Nearly four-fifths (79.5 percent) of those with public coverage incurred no out-of-pocket expense, although 7.3 percent incurred $200 or more in out-of-pocket expenses.

Among people age 65 and over who had dental care during 2000, those with Medicare only had the highest level of out-of-pocket expenses ($550), while those with Medicare and other public coverage had the lowest ($164). Among the elderly with only Medicare coverage who had dental care, there was an increase in the average out-of-pocket expenses for dental services: from $384 in 1996 to $550 in 2000 (Tables 8 and 12).

Income and Employment

During 2000, people in families with incomes categorized as poor had the lowest level of out-of-pocket dental expenses and were the most likely to incur no expense out of pocket. Among people who used dental services in 2000, there were no significant differences in the average out-of-pocket expense for people in low, middle, and high-income families.

People ages 16 and over who were employed had lower mean out-of-pocket expenses in 2000 and were more likely to incur no out-of-pocket expense at all than people who were not employed. Mean out-of-pocket expenses for dental services rose significantly from 1996 to 2000 for both employed and unemployed people (Tables 8 and 12).

Region

Average out-of-pocket expenses for people with at least one dental visit in 2000 were highest in the Northeast and lowest in the Midwest. Looking at the proportion of people with no out-of-pocket expenses, it was largest in the South (25.8 percent) and highest in the West (38.8 percent). Residents of the South, Midwest, and West who had a dental visit experienced a substantial increase in their mean out-of-pocket expense from 1996 to 2000 (Tables 8 and 12). A decline in the percent of residents who paid only $1-$99 out of pocket for dental services was observed for the Midwest, South, and West from 1996 to 2000 (Tables 8 and 12).

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Summary and Conclusions

About 42 percent of the civilian noninstitutionalized population had at least one dental care visit in 2000. This represents an average of 2.5 visits per person with a visit, or about 1.0 visit per person overall. The percent of the population with at least one dental visit remained stable between 1996 and 2000.

Consistently, between 1996 and 2000, children ages 6-18 who had at least one visit annually maintained high rates of use for dental services. In that time period, among the elderly, people with private supplemental coverage were more likely to use dental services than those with Medicaid and Medicare or those with Medicare alone. Females were more likely than males to use dental services. In each of the years included in this report, whites had higher rates of dental care use than either blacks or Hispanics.

Employed people were more likely to use dental care than people who were unemployed. Employed people also had a greater share of their expenses paid for by private health insurance. Income, too, was related to use of dental care. People in middle and high-income families were the most likely to use dental care.

The mean expense per person with a dental care visit in 2000 was $480, and almost half (49.3 percent) of dental expenses were paid for out of pocket. Private health insurance covered 42 percent, with Medicaid and other sources picking up the remainder.

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References

Cohen J. Design and methods of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1997. MEPS Methodology Report No. 1. AHCPR Pub. No. 97-0026.

Cohen S. Sample design of the 1996 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Household Component. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1997. MEPS Methodology Report No. 2. AHCPR Pub. No. 97-0027.

Hahn B, Lefkowitz D. Annual expenses and sources of payment for health care services. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1992. National Medical Expenditure Survey Research Findings 14. AHCPR Pub. No. 93-0007.

Moeller J, Levy H. Dental services: a comparison of use, expenditures, and sources of payment, 1977 and 1987. Rockville (MD): Agency for Health Care Policy and Research; 1996. AHCPR Pub. No. 96-0005.

Monheit A, Wilson R, Arnett R. (Editors). Informing American health care policy. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Inc.; 1999.

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Tables

Tables showing data on dental services:
1. Percent of population with a visit, 1996-2000
2. Total mean visits per person with a visit, 1996-2000
3.  Mean expense and source of payment, 1996
4.  Mean expense and source of payment 1997
5.  Mean expense and source of payment 1998
6.  Mean expense and source of payment 1999
7.  Mean expense and source of payment 2000
8.  Mean out-of-pocket expense, 1996
9.  Mean out-of-pocket expense, 1997
10.  Mean out-of-pocket expense, 1998
11.  Mean out-of-pocket expense, 1999
12.  Mean out-of-pocket expense, 2000

 

Table 1.  Dental services:  Annual percent of population with a visit, by selected population characteristics, United States, 1996-2000 
  1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Population
characteristic
Total population in thousands Percent with a visit Total population in thousands Percent with a visit Total population in thousands Percent with a visit Total population in thousands Percent with a visit Total population in thousands Percent with a visit
Total 268,905 42.9 271,279 41.8 273,534 42.4 276,411 43.1 278,406 41.6
Age in years
Under 6 23,861 21.1 23,791 18.5 23,732 21.7 23,849 19.8 24,126 21.1
6-18 51,465 52.4 51,846 51.5 52,838 51.5 52,834 51.9 52,502 52.7
19-44 105,318 41.1 105,160 40.2 104,625 39.9 104,913 41.2 104,924 38.3
45-64 54,212 48.8 56,295 47.2 58,029 48.8 0,139 48.2 62,072 46.4
65 and over 34,050 40.3 34,185 39.4 34,309 39.6 34,676 42.1 34,782 40.5
Sex
Male 131,527 39.7 132,605 38.6 133,614 38.8 134,603 39.4 135,882 38.2
Female 137,379 46 138,673 44.9 139,919 45.8 141,808 46.6 142,524 44.9
Race/ethnicity
White and othera 205,258 47.8 206,082 46.6 207,018 47.4 208,599 48.5 209,401 46.7
Black 33,668 26.1 34,086 26.3 34,458 28.2 34,781 27.8 35,049 26.8
Hispanic 29,979 28.5 31,111 26.8 32,058 25.7 33,031 25 33,955 25.7
Insurance status
Under age 65:
  Any privateb 174,231 50 176,046 48.5 178,020 49.9 184,520 49.6 182,658 47.8
  Public only 27,845 28.1 27,743 27.6 28,918 27.7 27,148 26.8 28,622 28.9
  Uninsured 32,780 20.4 33,304 20.8 32,286 17.1 30,067 18.7 32,344 19.2
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 7,535 31.8 8,550 31.9 10,123 35.4 10,853 33.6 11,515 34
  Medicare and private 22,811 47.1 22,028 46 19,835 46.9 19,884 50.8 19,570 48.7
  Medicare and other public 3,555 16.1 3,434 16.1 4,200 15.7 3,808 21.1 3,568 17.1
Incomec
Poor 38,298 26.2 36,415 24.2 35,303 26 32,795 26.7 32,356 25.7
Near poor 12,946 25.6 12,233 24.7 11,611 27.1 12,322 26.8 12,414 26.7
Low income 40,460 29.9 38,723 31.5 36,826 27 38,928 26.7 37,751 29.9
Middle income 88,262 44.9 89,981 42.1 88,324 42 86,182 42.1 90,306 40.4
High income 88,939 56.6 93,926 54.8 101,470 55.8 106,184 56.8 105,578 53.5
Employment statusd
Employed 132,355 45.8 134,556 45 135,425 45.2 138,999 45.8 140,017 43.4
Not employed 73,440 39 73,648 37.4 74,874 38.5 73,077 39.1 74,011 37.8
Census region
Northeast 51,965 44.4 52,394 43.8 52,503 44.1 51,867 46.1 52,636 46.9
Midwest 62,673 49.3 63,090 47.3 63,871 48.3 64,230 47.7 64,536 46.2
South 93,901 37.6 94,929 35.9 95,475 37.1 97,176 38.4 97,373 36.9
West 60,366 43.4 60,865 43.5 61,685 43 63,138 43 63,861 39.8
a Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
b Includes population with private and public coverage.
c Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
d For individuals ages 16 and over.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 


Table 2. Dental services: Annual total mean visits per person with a visit, by selected population characteristics, United States, 1996-2000
  1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Population
characteristic
Population with a visit in thousands Mean visits per person with a visit Population with a visit in thousands Mean visits per person with a visit Population with a visit in thousands Mean visits per person with a visit Population with a visit in thousands Mean visits per person with a visit Population with a visit in thousands Mean visits per person
Total 115,429 2.6 113,380 2.5 115,985 2.5 119,002 2.5 115,819 2.5
Age in years
Under 6 5,027 1.5 4,406 1.6 5,150 1.6 4,725 1.5 5,087 1.6

6-18

26,975 3 26,718 2.9 27,199 2.8 27,413 2.9 27,669 2.9
19-44 43,254 2.2 42,229 2.2 41,728 2.2 43,268 2.2 40,165 2.1
45-64 26,464 2.7 26,564 2.7 28,331 2.6 29,004 2.6 28,822 2.6
65 and over 13,709 2.9 13,464 2.9 13,577 2.8 14,591 2.8 14,076 2.8
Sex
Male 52,198 2.5 51,122 2.4 51,864 2.4 52,976 2.4 51,851 2.4
Female 63,231 2.6 62,259 2.6 64,122 2.6 66,026 2.5 63,968 2.6
Race/ethnicity
White and othera 98,108 2.6 96,082 2.6 98,025 2.6 101,077 2.5 97,697 2.6
Black 8,777 2 8,974 2.1 9,711 2 9,652 2.1 9,408 2.1
Hispanic 8,545 2.2 8,324 2.3 8,249 2.2 8,273 2.3 8,714 2.1
Insurance status
Under age 65:
  Any privateb 87,197 2.6 85,324 2.5 88,870 2.5 91,523 2.5 87,258 2.5
  Public only 7,834 2 7,652 2.1 8,004 2 7,263 2.1 8,277 2.3
  Uninsured 6,689 2.4 6,940 2.1 5,534 2.5 5,624 2.2 6,208 2.2
Age 65 and over:                  
  Medicare only 2,400 3.1 2,726 3 3,585 2.6 3,644 2.5 3,911 2.9
  Medicare and private 10,737 2.9 10,142 2.9 9,310 2.9 10,110 2.9 9,529 2.7
  Medicare and other public 572 2.4 553 2.3 661 2.7 804 3.3 608 3.2
Incomec
Poor 10,043 2.1 8,807 2.3 9,187 2.2 8,749 2.2 8,309 2
Near poor 3,310 2.4 3,017 2 3,142 2.1 3,299 2.1 3,311 2.7
Low income 12,113 2.4 12,185 2.2 9,936 2.3 10,376 2.4 11,275 2.5
Middle income 39,650 2.6 37,869 2.6 37,093 2.5 36,292 2.4 36,461 2.4
High income 50,313 2.7 51,503 2.7 56,625 2.6 60,285 2.6 56,464 2.6
Employment statusd
Employed 60,600 2.4 60,494 2.4 61,189 2.4 63,731 2.4 60,813 2.3
Not employed 28,624 2.7 27,559 2.7 28,838 2.6 28,578 2.6 27,967 2.7
Census region
Northeast 23,065 2.7 22,957 2.7 23,178 2.5 23,934 2.7 24,703 2.7
Midwest 30,906 2.4 29,840 2.5 30,866 2.5 30,633 2.4 29,827 2.4
South 35,276 2.5 34,098 2.5 35,447 2.4 37,277 2.4 35,902 2.4
West 26,183 2.6 26,486 2.5 26,494 2.6 27,157 2.5 25,387 2.5
a Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
b Includes population with private and public coverage.
c Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
d For individuals ages 16 and over.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

Table 3. Dental services: Mean expense per person with a visit and percent distribution of sources of payment, by selected population characteristics, United States, 1996
   

Source of payment


Population
characteristic
Population with a visit in thousands Mean expense per person with a visit Out of pocket Private health insurance Medicaid Othera
  Percent distribution
Total 115,429 374 51.5 42.5 2.8 3.2
Age in years
Under 6 5,027 124 35.1 47.9 14.2 2.8

6-18

26,975 421 47.7 44.4 4.5 3.4
19-44 43,254 321 45.4 49.6 2.8 2.1
45-64 26,464 425 51.1 44.3 1.6 3
65 and over 13,709 438 75.1 8.4 *0.8 5.7
Sex
Male 52,198 362 50.6 42.9 2.8 3.6
Female 63,231 384 52.1 42.1 2.9 2.9
Race/ethnicity
White and otherb 98,108 385 52.2 42.8 2.1 2.9
Black 8,777 299 46.6 40 7.7 5.7
Hispanic 8,545 317 45.5 40.3 8.5 5.7
Insurance status
Under age 65:
  Any privatec 87,197 382 46.5 51.7 *0.3 1.5
  Public only 7,834 198 26 0 69.3 *4.7
  Uninsured 6,689 339 79 0 0 21
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 2,400 457 84.1 0 0 15.9
  Medicare and private 10,737 434 73.5 23.7 0 *2.8
  Medicare and other public 572 431 65.7 0 *18.3  *16.0
Incomed
Poor 10,043 268 45.4 16.1 32.3 6.2
Near poor 3,310 283 56.8 23.5 *14.2  *5.4
Low income 12,113 282 58.2 37.1 *2.4 2.2
Middle income 39,650 384 50.8 44.9 *0.7 3.6
High income 50,313 415 51.4 45.8 *0.1 2.6
Employment statuse
Employed 60,600 372 46.9 49.4 *0.9 2.7
Not employed 28,624 400 64 27.8 4.2 4
Census region
Northeast 23,065 440 56.1 38 2.9 2.9
Midwest 30,906 313 44.6 51.4 1.7 2.2
South 35,276 340 59.3 34.5 3 3.1
West 26,183 433 44.9 47.2 3.5 4.5

a Includes the Department of Veterans Affairs; CHAMPUS or TRICARE (Armed-Forces-related coverage); Indian Health Service; military treatment facilities; Federal, State, and local programs other than Medicaid; and other kinds of insurance not specified.

b Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
c Includes population with private and public coverage.
d Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
e For individuals ages 16 and over.
* Relative standard error is greater than or equal to 30 percent.
Note: Percents may not add to 100 because of rounding.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

Table 4. Dental services: Mean expense per person with a visit and percent distribution of sources of payment, by selected population characteristics, United States, 1997
   

Source of  payment


Population
characteristic
Population
with a visit in
thousands
Mean
expense
per person
with a visit
Out of
pocket
Private
health
insurance
Medicaid Othera
  Percent distribution
Total 113,380 392 51.1 41.5 3 4.4
Age in years
Under 6 4,406 143 28.7 45 22.6 3.6

6-18

26,718 408 47.7 41.4 6.3 4.6
19-44 42,229 353 44.9 49.1 2.1 3.9
45-64 26,564 461 53.8 42.3 1 2.9
65 and over 13,464 431 70.3 20 *1.4 8.3
Sex
Male 51,122 378 52.7 40.1 2.6 4.6
Female 62,259 404 49.9 42.5 3.3 4.2
Race/ethnicity
White and otherb 96,082 403 52.1 41.7 2.1 4.1
Black 8,974 281 45.7 37.6 10.4 6.2
Hispanic 8,324 388 43.4 41.1 9 6.4
Insurance status
Under age 65:          
  Any privatec 85,324 409 47.8 49.6 *0.4 2.2
  Public only 7,652 216 23.1 0 68 8.9
  Uninsured 6,940 310 73.8 0 0 26.2
Age 65 and over:          
  Medicare only 2,726 485 78.4 0 0 *21.6
  Medicare and private 10,142 425 68.6 27 *0.4 4
  Medicare and other public 553 307 *49.3 0 *38.7 12
Incomed
Poor 8,807 336 40.9 17.4 35.6 6.2
Near poor 3,017 264 53.3 28.8 9.6 *8.3
Low income 12,185 324 57 31.4 3.1 8.4
Middle income 37,869 361 50.7 43.8 0.4 5
High income 51,503 449 51.6 45.3 *0.2 2.9
Employment statuse
Employed 60,494 401 48.5 47 0.8 3.6
Not employed 27,559 406 60.3 29.3 3.7 6.7
Census region
Northeast 22,957 404 56.6 36.2 4 3.2
Midwest 29,840 347 49.2 44.3 2.3 4.2
South 34,098 383 54.7 38.6 2.2 4.4
West 26,486 446 44.5 46.3 3.8 5.4

a Includes the Department of Veterans Affairs; CHAMPUS or TRICARE (Armed-Forces-related coverage); Indian Health Service; military treatment facilities; Federal, State, and local programs other than Medicaid; and other kinds of insurance not specified.

b Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
c Includes population with private and public coverage.
d Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
e For individuals ages 16 and over.
* Relative standard error is greater than or equal to 30 percent.
Note: Percents may not add to 100 because of rounding.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

Table 5. Dental services: Mean expense per person with a visit and percent distribution of sources of payment, by selected population characteristics, United States, 1998
   

Source of payment


Population
characteristic
Population
with a visit in
thousands
Mean
expense
per person
with a visit
Out of
pocket
Private
health
insurance
Medicaid Othera
  Percent distribution
Total  115,985 423 51.7 41.7 3.1 3.6
Age in years
Under 6 5,150 150 29.1 46.6 20 *4.2

6-18

27,199 449 42.2 49.1 6.4 2.4
19-44 41,728 378 48.2 46 2.5 3.3
45-64 28,331 483 52.2 42.7 1 4.1
65 and over 13,577 485 79.1 14.8 *0.4 5.6
Sex
Male 51,864 412 50.3 42.3 3.1 4.3
Female 64,122 432 52.7 41.2 3 3.1
Race/ethnicity
White and otherb 98,025 440 52.4 42.2 1.9 3.5
Black 9,711 309 44.9 39.6 10.4 5
Hispanic 8,249 349 47.7 36.1 12 4.3
Insurance status
Under age 65:
  Any privatec 88,870 430 45.9 50.9 0.4 2.8
  Public only 8,004 216 19.2 0 76.5 4.3
  Uninsured 5,534 449 90 0 0 10
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 3,585 493 85.2 0 0 14.8
  Medicare and private 9,310 497 77 21.1 *0.0 1.9
  Medicare and other public      661 284 74.5 0 *14.1 *11.4
Incomed
Poor 9,187 311 50.8 11.7 32.4 5.2
Near poor 3,142 291 59.2 22 *17.9 *1.0
Low income 9,938 368 61.9 26.5 7.3 *4.3
Middle income 37,093 407 53.6 42.3 0.8 3.3
High income 56,625 468 49 47.3 0.1 3.6
Employment statuse
Employed 61,189 423 48.4 47.6 0.9 3.1
Not employed 28,838 450 66.6 24.5 3.5 5.4
Census region
Northeast 23,178 447 52.6 39.7 3.8 3.9
Midwest 30,866 352 46.2 49 1.7 3
South 35,447 402 58.3 35.4 1.9 4.4
West 26,494 512 48.3 43.9 4.7 3

a Includes the Department of Veterans Affairs; CHAMPUS or TRICARE (Armed-Forces-related coverage); Indian Health Service; military treatment facilities; Federal, State, and local programs other than Medicaid; and other kinds of insurance not specified.

b Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
c Includes population with private and public coverage.
d Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
e For individuals ages 16 and over.
* Relative standard error is greater than or equal to 30 percent.
Note: Percents may not add to 100 because of rounding.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.


Table 6. Dental services: Mean expense per person with a visit and percent distribution of sources of payment, by selected population characteristics, United States, 1999

Source of payment


Population
characteristic
Population
with a visit in
thousands
Mean
expense
per person
with a visit
Out of
pocket
Private
health
insurance
Medicaid Othera
  Percent distribution
Total 119,002 439 50.2 42.7 3.1 4
Age in years
Under 6 4,725 151 30.2 41.6 *24.9 *3.4

6-18

27,413 491 45 46 5.5 3.5
19-44 43,268 372 44.1 48.8 3.2 3.9
45-64 29,004 513 50.1 45.2 0.7 4
65 and over 14,591 483 76.1 17.6 *0.9 5.3
Sex
Male 52,976 434 49.7 42.9 3.2 4.2
Female 66,026 443 50.6 42.6 3 3.8
Race/ethnicity
White and otherb 101,077 452 51.2 42.4 2.4 3.9
Black 9,652 337 36.6 51.1 8.8 *3.5
Hispanic 8,273 391 48.8 39.5 6.2 5.6
Insurance status
Under age 65:
  Any privatec 91,523 452 45.4 51 *0.6 3.1
  Public only 7,263 263 24.7 0 68 *7.3
  Uninsured 5,624 339 84 0 0 16
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 3,644 515 92.1 0 0 7.9
  Medicare and private 10,110 482 70.3 25.5 0 4.1
  Medicare and other public 804 276 61 0 *28.8 *10.2
Incomed
Poor 8,749 328 45.3 21.5 27.6 5.6
Near poor 3,299 274 59.3 11.2 24.1 *5.4
Low income 10,376 360 54.4 31.4 8.5 5.7
Middle income 36,292 426 50.2 43.6 *1.5 4.6
High income 60,285 485 49.8 46.8 *0.1 3.3
Employment statuse
Employed 63,731 440 47.3 47.9 1 3.8
Not employed 28,578 434 63.3 28 3.9 4.8
Census region
Northeast 23,934 507 53.4 38.4 4.2 4
Midwest 30,633 378 46.2 48.3 1.2 4.2
South 37,277 391 53.8 40.5 2.2 3.4
West 27,157 511 46.8 44.2 4.5 4.4

a Includes the Department of Veterans Affairs; CHAMPUS or TRICARE (Armed-Forces-related coverage); Indian Health Service; military treatment facilities; Federal, State, and local programs other than Medicaid; and other kinds of insurance not specified.

b Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
c Includes population with private and public coverage.
d Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
e For individuals ages 16 and over.
* Relative standard error is greater than or equal to 30 percent.
Note: Percents may not add to 100 because of rounding.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

Table 7.Dental services: Mean expense per person with a visit and percent distribution of sources of payment, by selected population characteristics, United States, 2000

Source of payment


Population
characteristic
Population
with a visit in
thousands
Mean
expense
per person
with a visit
Out of
pocket
Private
health
insurance
Medicaid Othera
  Percent distribution
Total 115,819 480 49.3 42 4 4.6
Age in years
Under 6 5,087 184 25.4 42.3 25.6 *6.7

6-18

27,669 607 44 47.5 6.4 2.1
19-44 40,165 388 41.9 49 *4.6 4.5
45-64 28,822 516 51.2 41.9 1.1 5.8
65 and over 14,076 522 76.7 14.9 0.4 7.9
Sex
Male 51,851 449 49.8 40.2 *4.6 5.4
Female 63,968 505 49 43.3 3.6 4
Race/ethnicity
White and otherb 97,697 506 49.8 42.1 3.6 4.5
Black 9,408 343 40.3 47.1 7.1 5.5
Hispanic 8,714 337 51.7 35.3 7.3 5.7
Insurance status
Under age 65:
  Any privatec 87,258 498 44.1 51.2 *1.6 3
  Public only 8,277 277 26.9 0 66.4 6.7
  Uninsured 6,208 404 79.8 0 0 20.2
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 3,911 634 86.8 0 0 13.2
  Medicare and private 9,529 483 72.6 23.8 *0.0 3.6
  Medicare and other public 608 363 45.1 0 *14.1 *40.9
Incomed
Poor 8,309 322 41.8 23.7 22.8 11.7
Near poor 3,311 468 *35.5 *24.1 *34.8 *5.5
Low income 11,275 395 59.6 24.4 10.9 5.1
Middle income 36,461 467 51.6 40 *3.1 5.3
High income 56,464 529 47.9 48.4 *0.3 3.5
Employment statuse
Employed 60,813 448 47 45.8 *2.1 5
Not employed 27,967 495 63.7 26.8 3.6 5.9
Census region
Northeast 24,703 505 51.6 39.4 3.9 5.1
Midwest 29,827 437 46.7 45.7 *3.3 4.3
South 35,902 453 54.1 39.9 1.3 4.7
West 25,387 543 44.2 43.4 8 4.4

a Includes the Department of Veterans Affairs; CHAMPUS or TRICARE (Armed-Forces-related coverage); Indian Health Service; military treatment facilities; Federal, State, and local programs other than Medicaid; and other kinds of insurance not specified.

b Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
c Includes population with private and public coverage.
d Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
e For individuals ages 16 and over.
* Relative standard error is greater than or equal to 30 percent.
Note: Percents may not add to 100 because of rounding.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

Table 8. Dental services: Mean out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit and percent distribution of amount of out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit, by selected population characteristics: United States, 1996
Population
characteristic
Population 
with a visit in
thousands
Mean out-of-pocket
expense per
person with a visit
Out-of-pocket  expense
None $1-
$99
$100-
$199
$200 or
 more
    Percent distribution
Total 115,429 192 30.2 36.6 12.8 20.4
Age in years
Under 6 5,027 44 50.3 36.6 9.2 3.8

6-18

26,975 201 41.1 33.9 9.5 15.6
19-44 43,254 146 29.9 40.3 12.2 17.6
45-64 26,464 217 24.7 36.1 14 25.2
65 and over 13,707 329 12.7 31.3 20.5 35.5
Sex
Male 52,198 183 29.7 37 13.6 19.7
Female 63,231 200 30.6 36.3 12.1 21
Race/ethnicity
White and othera 98,108 201 28.1 37.1 13.4 21.4
Black 8,777 140 42.7 34.3 9.3 13.7
Hispanic 8,545 144 41.4 33.4 10.1 15.2
Insurance status
Under age 65:
  Any privateb 87,197 178 30.2 39.1 12 18.8
  Public only 7,834 52 73.7 16.8 3.8 5.7
  Uninsured 6,689 268 15.6 38.9 18.9 26.6
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 2,400 384 12.1 22.2 25 40.7
  Medicare and private 10,737 319 11.5 33.5 20 35
  Medicare and other public 572 *283 38.1 29.9 *9.7 22.3
Incomec
Poor 10,043 122 50.5 28.2 7 14.3
Near poor 3,310 161 36.2 29.7 16.5 17.6
Low income 12,113 164 30.4 37.8 13.2 18.6
Middle income 39,650 195 28.5 37.9 13.3 20.4
High income 50,313 213 27 37.5 13.3 22.2
Employment statusd
Employed 60,600 174 27.2 39 13.1 20.6
Not employed 28,624 256 24.4 33.7 15.2 26.6
Census region
Northeast 23,065 247 33.1 32.3 13.8 20.8
Midwest 30,906 139 31.1 40.5 11.7 16.7
South 35,276 202 24.7 39.3 13 22.9
West 26,183 194 33.9 32.1 13.1 20.9
a Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately. 
b Includes population with private and public coverage. 
c Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
d For individuals ages 16 and over. 
 * Relative standard error is greater than or equal to 30 percent. 
Note: Percents may not add to 100 because of rounding. 
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000. 

 

Table 9. Dental services: Mean out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit and percent distribution of amount of out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit, by selected population characteristics: United States, 1997
Population
characteristic
Population 
with a visit in
thousands
Mean out-of-pocket
expense per
person with a visit
Out-of-pocket  expense
None $1-
$99
$100-
$199
$200 or
 more
  Percent distribution
Total 113,380 201 31.2 35.7 12.5 20.6
Age in years
Under 6 4,406 41 50.3 40 5.3 4.4

6-18

26,718 195 42.4 35 8.3 14.3
19-44 42,229 158 31.5 38.2 11.9 18.4
45-64 26,564 248 25.3 33.3 14.9 26.5
65 and over 13,464 303 13.8 32 20 34.2
Sex
Male 51,122 199 31.9 36 12.5 19.6
Female 62,259 202 30.7 35.4 12.4 21.5
Race/ethnicity
White and othera 96,082 210 29.2 36.1 13.1 21.5
Black 8,974 128 43.2 36.1 8.5 12.1
Hispanic 8,324 169 41.6 29.9 9 19.5
Insurance status
Under age 65:
  Any privateb 85,324 196 31.3 37.6 11.7 19.5
  Public only 7,652 50 75.2 15.6 4.1 5.1
  Uninsured 6,940 229 16.1 41.6 16.5 25.8
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 2,726 380 9.2 30.9 19.2 40.7
  Medicare and private 10,142 292 13.4 32.5 20.7 33.4
  Medicare and other public *533 151 46.1 25.9 *9.8 *18.3
Incomec
Poor 8,807 137 52.5 27 7.4 13.1
Near poor 3,017 141 43.2 29.5 10.9 16.4
Low income 12,185 185 31.2 37.5 12.5 18.8
Middle income 37,869 183 29.8 37.6 12.5 20.1
High income 51,503 232 28 35.6 13.4 23
Employment statusd
Employed 60,494 195 28.3 36.8 13.5 21.4
Not employed 27,559 245 25.1 33 15.1 26.8
Census region
Northeast 22,957 229 32.7 33.4 13 20.8
Midwest 29,840 171 34.5 35.5 12.9 17.1
South 34,098 209 25.4 39.8 12.6 22.1
West 26,486 198 33.8 32.4 11.3 22.5
a Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately. 
b Includes population with private and public coverage. 
c Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
d For individuals ages 16 and over. 
 * Relative standard error is greater than or equal to 30 percent. 
Note: Percents may not add to 100 because of rounding. 
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000. 

 

Table 10.Dental services: Mean out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit and percent distribution of amount of out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit, by selected population characteristics: United States, 1998
Population
characteristic
Population 
with a visit in
thousands
Mean out-of-pocket
expense per
person with a visit
Out-of-pocket  expense
None $1-
$99
$100-
$199
$200 or
 more
  Percent distribution
Total 115,985 219 31.4 34.2 13 21.3
Age in years  
Under 6 5,150 44 53 35.4 8.2 *3.5
6-18 27,199 189 42.2 33.6 8.7 15.5
19-44 41,728 182 32 35.5 12.6 19.9
45-64 28,331 252 24.5 34.3 15 26.2
65 and over 13,577 384 14.2 31.1 21 33.7
Sex  
Male 51,864 207 31.7 35.3 13 19.9
Female 64,122 228 31.2 33.3 13 22.5
Race/ethnicity  
White and othera 98,025 231 29.2 34.7 13.7 22.4
Black 9,711 139 45.1 30.8 9.9 14.2
Hispanic 8,249 167 41.3 33.2 9.1 16.4
Insurance status  
Under age 65:  
  Any privateb 88,870 198 31.2 36.1 12.5 20.2
  Public only 8,004 41 74.3 16.9 4.3 4.4
  Uninsured 5,534 404 14.9 36.9 15.4 32.8
Age 65 and over:  
  Medicare only 3,585 420 13.3 27.4 27.2 32.1
  Medicare and private 9,310 383 13.1 32.7 19.4 34.9
  Medicare and other public 661 211 35.3 27.4 *10.1 27.2
Incomec  
Poor 9,187 158 53.9 22.2 9.2 14.6
Near poor 3,142 172 46.2 24 14.3 15.5
Low income 9,938 228 29.9 36.1 14.4 19.6
Middle income 37,093 218 28.7 36.7 12.8 21.8
High income 56,625 230 29 34.8 13.5 22.7
Employment statusd  
Employed 61,189 205 28.6 35.8 13.3 22.4
Not employed 28,838 300 25.1 31 16.3 27.6
Census region  
Northeast 23,178 235 33.3 33.8 12.8 20.2
Midwest 30,866 163 33.8 34.6 12.6 18.9
South 35,447 235 24.6 37.9 14.7 22.8
West 26,494 247 36.2 29.3 11.5 23.1
a Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately. 
b Includes population with private and public coverage. 
c Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
d For individuals ages 16 and over. 
 * Relative standard error is greater than or equal to 30 percent. 
Note: Percents may not add to 100 because of rounding. 
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000. 

 

Table 11. Dental services: Mean out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit and percent distribution of amount of out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit, by selected population characteristics: United States, 1999
Population
characteristic
Population 
with a visit in
thousands
Mean out-of-pocket
expense per
person with a visit
Out-of-pocket  expense
None $1-
$99
$100-
$199
$200 or
 more
  Percent distribution
Total 119,002 220 30.7 34.5 13.1 21.8
Age in years  
Under 6 4,725 46 54 32.8 8.6 4.6
6-18 27,413 221 42.2 31.5 9.7 16.6
19-44 43,268 164 31.9 38.1 11.5 18.5
45-64 29,004 257 24.2 34.1 14.9 26.8
65 and over 14,591 368 10.6 30.7 22.1 36.6
Sex  
Male 52,976 215 30.5 35.6 12.3 21.6
Female 66,026 224 30.8 33.5 13.8 21.9
Race/ethnicity  
White and othera 101,077 232 28.8 34.6 13.8 22.7
Black 9,652 123 42.4 34.4 9.3 13.8
Hispanic 8,273 191 39.5 32.4 9 19.1
Insurance status  
Under age 65:  
  Any privateb 91,523 205 31.2 36.4 12.2 20.2
  Public only 7,263 65 75.6 13.4 3.4 7.7
  Uninsured 5,624 284 16.1 39.1 17.2 27.5
Age 65 and over:  
  Medicare only 3,644 474 8.3 32.7 23.4 35.6
  Medicare and private 10,110 339 9.2 30.8 22.2 37.7
  Medicare and other public 804 168 38.4 21.6 16.1 23.9
Incomec  
Poor 8,749 149 50.3 24 9.2 16.6
Near poor 3,299 162 42.6 28.6 10.4 18.4
Low income 10,376 196 27.8 34.7 15.5 22
Middle income 36,292 214 28.6 38 12.9 20.5
High income 60,285 242 28.9 34.1 13.5 23.4
Employment statusd  
Employed 63,731 208 28.2 37.1 12.6 22.1
Not employed 8,578 275 23.5 30.8 17.4 28.2
Census region  
Northeast 23,934 271 32.4 30.3 12.6 24.6
Midwest 30,633 175 33.2 35.7 12.9 18.2
South 37,277 211 25.2 39.2 14.3 21.3
West 27,157 240 33.8 30.2 12.1 23.9
a Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
b Includes population with private and public coverage. 
c Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
d For individuals ages 16 and over.
Note: Percents may not add to 100 because of rounding. 
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000. 

 

Table 12. Dental services:  Mean out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit and percent distribution of amount of out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit, by selected population characteristics: United States, 2000
Population
characteristic
Population 
with a visit in
thousands
Mean out-of-pocket
expense per
person with a visit
Out-of-pocket  expense
None $1-
$99
$100-
$199
$200 or
 more
  Percent distribution
Total 115,819 237 31.6 31.8 13.6 23
Age in years
Under 6 5,087 47 52.2 34.9 7.8 5.1
6-18 27,669 267 42.6 30.3 9.8 17.3
19-44 40,165 163 32.2 35.7 13.2 19
45-64 28,822 264 26.9 29.9 13.8 29.4
65 and over 14,076 400 10.5 26.6 23.8 39.1
Sex
Male 51,851 223 32.6 32.5 12.8 22.2
Female 63,968 247 30.8 31.3 14.2 23.7
Race/ethnicity
White and othera 97,697 252 29.7 31.7 14.1 24.5
Black 9,408 138 45.1 31.9 8.9 14.1
Hispanic 8,714 174 38.6 32.9 12.4 16.1
Insurance status
Under age 65:
  Any privateb 87,258 220 31.2 34.7 12.5 21.6
  Public only 8,277 75 79.5 10.7 2.5 7.3
  Uninsured 6,208 322 20.4 31.6 20.7 27.2
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 3,911 550 8.8 26.9 23.2 41
  Medicare and private 9,529 351 9.2 27.1 24.4 39.4
  Medicare and other public 608 164 43 17.3 20 19.6
Incomec
Poor 8,309 134 52.4 25.1 10 12.5
Near poor 3,311 166 42.1 26.7 11.7 19.5
Low income 11,275 235 33.1 27.7 16.4 22.8
Middle income 36,461 241 29.8 32.9 14 23.3
High income 56,464 253 28.8 33.2 13.4 24.6
Employment statusd
Employed 60,813 211 29.5 34.3 13.1 23.1
Not employed 27,967 315 23.6 26.9 19 30.5
Census region
Northeast 24,703 261 31 28.7 15.7 24.6
Midwest 29,827 204 32.9 35.7 12.1 19.3
South 35,902 245 25.8 35.2 14.4 24.6
West 25,387 240 38.8 25.5 12.1 23.6
a Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
b Includes population with private and public coverage.
c Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
d For individuals ages 16 and over.
Note: Percents may not add to 100 because of rounding.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

^top


Technical Appendix

Survey Design   Standard Error Table E
Definitions Standard Error Table F
Sample Design and Accuracy of Estimates Standard Error Table G
Rounding Standard Error Table H
Standard Error Table A   Standard Error Table I
Standard Error Table B   Standard Error Table J
Standard Error Table C   Standard Error Table K
Standard Error Table D   Standard Error Table L

 

The data used in this report were obtained from interviews conducted as part of the Household Component of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) for 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000. MEPS is an ongoing annual survey of the civilian noninstitutionalized population. MEPS collects detailed information on health care use and expenditures (including sources of payment), health insurance, health status, access, and quality. It also collects detailed demographic and economic information on the persons and households surveyed. More information about MEPS can be found at http://www.meps.ahrq.gov. For a detailed description of the survey and its methodology, also see J. Cohen (1997) and S. Cohen (1997).

Survey Design

Each year, the MEPS sample is drawn from households that completed the prior year’s National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Households selected for participation in the 1996 MEPS completed interviews in the 1995 NHIS, the 1997 MEPS sample was drawn from the 1996 NHIS, and so on. Because NHIS is used as a sampling frame, the MEPS design is not only nationally representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized population but also includes an oversampling of Hispanics and blacks.

MEPS collects data in an overlapping panel design. Each household completes five interviews (“rounds” of data collection) over a period of 2 1/2 years, providing data for two full calendar years of estimates. Data from Rounds 1, 2, and 3 provide information for the first year of estimation, and data from Rounds 3, 4, and 5 provide data for the second year of estimates. For example, estimates for 2000 are derived from combining Rounds 3, 4, and 5 of the 1999 panel and Rounds 1, 2, and 3 of the 2000 panel. An exception is 1996, when the MEPS longitudinal data collection was initiated. For that year, a single panel’s data were used for estimation. In MEPS, a single respondent provides most of the information to an interviewer using computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI). In addition to the CAPI interview, beginning in 2000, limited data have been collected using a self-administered questionnaire (SAQ).

Definitions

Dental services/visit. This refers to care by or visits to any type of dental care provider, including general dentists, dental hygienists, dental technicians, dental surgeons, orthodontists, endodontists, and periodontists.

Dental expenditures (expenses). In this report, expenditures are the amount actually paid for dental services. More specifically, in MEPS, expenditures are defined as the sum of payments for care received, including out-of-pocket payments and payments made by private insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, and other sources.

This definition of expenditures differs somewhat from the definition used in predecessor surveys, the 1987 National Medical Expenditure Survey (NMES) and the 1977 National Medical Care Expenditure Survey, in which charges rather than payments were used to measure medical expenditures. Users who wish to compare the expenditure data presented in this report with data from the 1987 and/or 1977 surveys should consult Monheit, Wilson, and Arnett (1999). AHRQ has developed factors to apply to the 1987 NMES expenditure data to facilitate longitudinal analysis. These can be accessed via the CFACT Data Center. See http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/data_stats/onsite_datacenter.jsp for more information. Details on the editing and imputation methodology used to develop the dental expenditure variables presented in this report can be found in the documentation for the dental event files. See http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/data_stats/download_data/pufs/h51b/h51bdoc.shtml for the 2000 dental event file link.

It should also be noted that it is common for several dental visits to be included in a single fee. These “flat fees” are particularly common for orthodontia and some types of dental reconstruction and surgery. These flat fee groups may cross calendar years. For flat fees, expenses for the entire episode are placed on the initial event.

Sources of payment. In this report, categories of payments that sum to total expenditures are reported. Out-of-pocket payments are payments made by the user or the user’s family. Private health insurance includes employment-related as well as directly purchased insurance, including any dental benefit plans. In this report, the “other” category includes Federal programs such as programs of the Department of Veterans Affairs, TRICARE (Armed-Forces-related coverage), the Indian Health Service, and military facilities; State and local programs other than Medicaid; and other sources such as Workers’ Compensation, automobile insurance, and other kinds of insurance not specified.

Age. In this report age is the sampled person’s age as of December 31st of the reported year.

Race/ethnicity. Classification by race and ethnicity was based on information provided by the household respondent for each household member. The respondent was asked if each person’s race was best described as black, white, Asian or Pacific Islander, American Indian, or Alaska Native. The respondent was also asked if each person’s main national origin or ancestry was Puerto Rican, Cuban, Mexican, Mexicano, Mexican American, or Chicano; other Latin American; or other Spanish. Persons claiming a main national origin or ancestry in one of these Hispanic groups, regardless of racial background, were classified as Hispanic. Since the Hispanic grouping an include persons of any race, the race categories of black and white/other exclude Hispanics.

Insurance status. Respondents were asked about health insurance coverage for themselves and all household members at each round of interviewing. The insurance variables reflect having general medical insurance, which may or may not include coverage of dental care.
Persons under 65 were classified according to whether they had private health insurance, had public coverage only, or were uninsured all year.

Any private insurance. This group includes those who, at any time in the survey year, had individual or group plan coverage for medical or related expenses, including prepaid health plans such as health maintenance organizations but excluding extra cash coverage plans, medical benefits linked only to specific diseases (dread disease plans), and casualty benefit plans (such as automobile insurance).

Public insurance only. This group includes persons who were never covered by private insurance during the year but who were covered at any time by Medicare, TRICARE (which covers retired members of the uniformed services and the spouses and children of active-duty military), Medicaid, and other State and local medical assistance programs.

Uninsured all year. This refers to all persons under age 65 with neither public nor private insurance coverage throughout the calendar year.

In this report, persons over age 65 were classified by whether they were covered by Medicare only, by Medicare and other public coverage, or by Medicare and private insurance programs.

Employment status. For each year of the report, persons 16 years old and over were asked whether they were currently employed. Persons with a job at any time during the year were considered employed in this report.

Income. Each year, persons were classified according to their family’s income in terms of poverty status. In this report, poverty status is the ratio of the family’s income to the Federal poverty thresholds, which control for the size of the family and the age of the head of the family. In this report, the following classification of poverty status was used.

Poor—Persons in families with income less than 100 percent of the poverty line, including those who reported negative income.

Near poor—Persons in families with income from 100 percent to less than 125 percent of the poverty line.

Low income—Persons in families with income from 125 percent to less than 200 percent of the poverty line.

Middle income—Persons in families with income from 200 percent to less than 400 percent of the poverty line.

High income—Persons in families with income over 400 percent of the poverty line.

In MEPS, personal income from each household member was summed to create family income. Potential income sources asked about in the survey interview include annual earnings from wages, salaries, bonuses, tips, and commissions; business and farm gains and losses; unemployment and Workers’ Compensation payments; interest and dividends; alimony, child support, and other private cash transfers; private pensions; individual retirement account (IRA) withdrawals; Social Security and Department of Veterans Affairs payments; Supplemental Security Income and cash welfare payments from public assistance, TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families; formerly known as Aid to Families with Dependent Children, or AFDC); gains or losses from estates, trusts, partnerships, S corporations, rent, and royalties; and a small amount of “other” income.

Region of residence. Each MEPS sampled person was classified as living in one the the following four regions as defined by the U.S. Census Bureau.

Northeast—Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania.

Midwest—Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, South Dakota, North Dakota, Nebraska,and Kansas.

South—Delaware, Maryland, District of Columbia, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas.

West—Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, Washington, Oregon, California, Alaska, and Hawaii.
 

Sample Design and Accuracy of Estimates

The statistics presented in this report are affected by both sampling error and sources of nonsampling error, which include nonresponse bias, respondent reporting errors, interviewer effects, and data processing misspecifications. The MEPS person-level estimation weights include nonresponse adjustments and poststratification adjustments to population estimates derived from the Current

Population Survey based on cross-classifications by region, metropolitan statistical area, age, race/ethnicity, and sex. The overall MEPS response rate reflects response to both the MEPS and NHIS interview. The sample size and annual response rates are:

Calendar
 year
Sample
size
Pooled annual
response rate
1996 21,571 70.2
1997 32,636 66.4
1998 22,953 67.9
1999 23,565 64.3
2000 23,839 65.3

 

Rounding

Estimates presented in the tables were rounded to the nearest 0.1 percent. Population estimates were rounded to the nearest thousand. Because of this (as well as conventions for displaying missing data, as indicated in each table), some of the subpopulation estimates presented in the tables will not sum exactly to the overall population total. Standard errors, presented in Tables A-L, were rounded to the nearest 0.01.

Table A. Dental services: Standard errors for annual of population with a visit, by selected population characteristics, United States, 1996-2000
Corresponds to Table 1
Population
characteristic
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Total population in thousands Percent with a visit Total population in thousands Percent with a visit Total population in thousands Percent with a visit Total population in thousands Percent with a visit Total population in thousands Percent with a visit
Total 5,858 0.70 4,692 0.60 6,518 0.73 7,791 0.62 11,667. 0.74
Age in years
Under 6 901 1.07 727 0.93 924 1.1 930 1.06 1,219 1.3

6-18

1,747 1.26 1,295 1.07 1,502 1.25 1,772 1.16 2,444 1.18
19-44 2,686 0.78 2,158 0.73 2,878 0.9 3,369 0.77 4,832 0.82
45-64 1,485 1.03 1,303 0.93 1,821 1.07 2,054 0.99 2,996 1.42
65 and over 1,141 1.37 997 1.22 1,235 1.38 1,180 1.34 1,385 1.28
Sex  
Male 2,939 0.81 2,484 0.68 3,399 0.78 4,059 0.66 5,984 0.74
Female 3,144 0.74 2,471 0.67 3,363 0.87 3,931 0.74 5,841 0.87
Race/ethnicity
White and othera 4,999 0.82 4,366 0.69 6,083 0.82 7,064 0.72 10,629 0.83
Black 2,032 1.09 1,508 1 2,156 1.37 2,272 1.35 2,965 1.32
Hispanic 1,556 1.13 1,327 0.94 1,605 1.02 1,725 0.99 2,829 1.12
Insurance status
Under age 65:
  Any privateb 4,618 0.77 3,805 0.66 5,081 0.78 6,121 0.75 8,688 0.87
  Public only 1,401 1.35 1,123 1.04 1,375 1.21 1,313 1.23 1,863 1.35
  Uninsured 1,394 1.05 1,060 0.9 1,344 0.94 1,317 1.06 1,710 1.15
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 480 2.35 430 2.02 592 2.1 576 2.26 729 2.07
  Medicare and private 906 1.65 809 1.6 874 1.77 836 1.63 971 1.66
  Medicare and other public 271 2.22 228 2.24 320 2.03 298 2.46 280 2.2
Incomec  
Poor 1,554 1.1 1,427 0.86 1,720 1.18 1,528 1.13 1,971 1.11
Near poor 759 1.99 54 1.48 706 2.3 775 2.03 960 2.07
Low income 1,647 1.24 1,294 1.11 1,497 1.23 1,536 1.18 1,816 1.17
Middle income 2,855 0.86 2,326 0.83 2,659 1.01 3,269 0.94 4,555 0.93
High income 3,047 0.95 2,735 0.89 3,462 0.94 3,946 0.94 5,245 1.11
Employment statusd
Employed 3,219 0.74 2,713 0.67 3,777 0.82 4,471 0.7 6,420 0.87
Not employed 1,828 0.96 1,547 0.85 1,903 1.02 2,117 0.91 3,103 1
Census region
Northeast 2,134 1.54 2,000 1.36 3,362 1.51 2,722 1.36 3,200 1.68
Midwest 2,835 1.42 2,366 1.2 2,625 1.81 2,519 1.4 2,966 1.59
South 4,375 1.17 3,334 1.04 3,792 1.18 4,718 1.01 6,187 1.15
West 2,329 1.4 1,946 1.14 3,351 1.32 5,020 1.17 8,687 1.41
a Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
b Includes population with private and public coverage.
c Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
d For individuals ages 16 and over.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

Table B. Dental services: Standard errors for annual total mean visits per person with a visit, by selected population characteristics, United States, 1996-2000
Corresponds to Table 2
Population
characteristic
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
Population
with a
visit in 
thousands
Mean 
visits per
person 
with a visit
Population
with a 
visit in 
thousands
Mean
visits per
person
with a visit
Population
with a 
visit in 
thousands
Mean
visits per
person
with a visit
Population
with a 
visit in 
thousands
Mean
visits per
person
with a visit
Population
with a 
visit in 
Mean
visits per
person
Total 3,200 0.03 2,708 0.03 3,586 0.03 3,972 0.03 5,709 0.03
Age in years
Under 6 321 0.05 248 0.05 330 0.06 315 0.04 372 0.04

6-18

1,093 0.08 894 0.07 1,007 0.08 1,171 0.08 1,482 0.08
19-44 1,379 0.04 1,233 0.04 1,534 0.04 1,615 0.04 2,247 0.05
45-64 980 0.06 860 0.05 1,233 0.05 1,283 0.06 1,900 0.07
65 and over 700 0.09 604 0.08 686 0.11 731 0.09 774 0.08
Sex
Male 1,581 0.05 1,369 0.04 1,756 0.04 1,853 0.04 2,658 0.04
Female 1,806 0.04 1,565 0.04 2,070 0.04 2,252 0.04 3,157 0.04
Race/ethnicity
White and othera 3,015 0.04 2,604 0.03 3,488 0.04 3,748 0.04 5,373 0.04
Black 591 0.08 528 0.07 647 0.06 748 0.08 1,050 0.1
Hispanic 493 0.07 386 0.07 399 0.07 514 0.09 705 0.06
Insurance status
Under age 65:
  Any privateb 2,886 0.04 2,320 0.03 3,096 0.04 3,496 0.04 4,752 0.04
  Public only 568 0.08 396 0.08 477 0.07 506 0.09 741 0.17
  Uninsured 420 0.12 363 0.08 370 0.17 390 0.1 516 0.12
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 217 0.2 231 0.2 317 0.18 334 0.14 333 0.16
  Medicare and private 618 0.11 558 0.1 560 0.12 574 0.11 610 0.08
  Medicare and other public 93 0.29 89 0.2 96 0.26 112 0.67 88 0.29
Incomec
Poor 565 0.08 418 0.12 560 0.08 594 0.08 639 0.07
Near poor 321 0.15 258 0.11 340 0.14 332 0.18 397 0.36
Low income 661 0.09 613 0.08 573 0.09 638 0.1 737 0.1
Middle income 1,510 0.06 1,273 0.05 1,385 0.05 1,593 0.06 2,084 0.05
High income 2,138 0.05 1,769 0.04 2,348 0.05 2,507 0.05 3,391 0.05
Employment statusd
Employed 1,889 0.04 1,637 0.03 2,216 0.04 2,444 0.04 3,412 0.04
Not employed 999 0.06 877 0.06 1,027 0.06 1,109 0.06 1,439 0.07
Census region
Northeast 1,449 0.07 1,315 0.07 1,743 0.09 1,606 0.09 2,138 0.08
Midwest 1,582 0.06 1,369 0.05 1,742 0.06 1,509 0.06 1,852 0.07
South 2,210 0.06 1,675 0.06 2,055 0.06 2,136 0.06 2,645 0.06
West 1,152 0.06 1,142 0.05 1,676 0.07 2,538 0.07 4,070 0.04
a Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
b Includes population with private and public coverage.
c Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
d For individuals ages 16 and over.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

Table C. Dental services: Standard errors for mean expense per person with a visit and percent distribution of source of payment, by selected population characteristics, United States, 1996 Corresponds to Table 3

Source of payment


Population
characteristic
Mean
expense
per person
with a visit
Out of
pocket
Private
health
insurance
Medicaid Othera
  Standard error
Total 9.6 0.9 1.0 0.4

0. 5

Age in years
Under 6 8.8 3.4 3.5 2.6 0.9

6-18

27.2 2.1 2.1 0.7 1.2
19-44 12.4 1.4 1.4 0.6 0.3
45-64 16.2 1.5 1.5 0.5 0.7
65 and over 27.2 2.1 1.7 0.3 1.8
Sex
Male 14.9 1.3 1.4 0.5 0.7
Female 12.6 1.2 1.1 0.4 0.6
Race/ethnicity
White and otherb 10.7 1.0 1.1 0.4 0.5
Black 31.8 3.6 2.9 1.9 2.4
Hispanic 23.8 2.8 2.7 1.5 2.3
Insurance status
Under age 65: 11.4 1.0 1.1 0.1 0.3
  Any privatec 16.4 4.1 0.0 4.4 1.5
  Public only 34.3 5.0 0.0 0.0 5.0
  Uninsured
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 60.2 4.5 0.0 0.0 4.5
  Medicare and private 31.6 2.5 2.0 0.0 2.0
  Medicare and other public 119.7 12.2 0.0 7.4 9.0
Incomed
Poor 21.9 4.3 3.0 4.3 1.7
Near poor 35.1 5.6 3.7 4.6 2.1
Low income 17.2 2.8 2.7 0.8 0.5
Middle income 17.4 1.5 1.6 0.3 0.9
High income 16.4 1.3 1.3 0.1 0.7
Employment statuse
Employed 11.9 1.1 1.1 0.3 0.5
Not employed 20.1 2.0 1.8 0.7 1.0
Census region
Northeast 24.7 1.9 1.8 0.7 0.8
Midwest 20.1 1.9 2.1 0.4 0.3
South 13.6 1.8 1.6 0.7 0.6
West 21.2 1.5 1.8 0.9 1.3
a Includes the Department of Veterans Affairs; CHAMPUS or TRICARE (Armed-Forces-related coverage); Indian Health Service; military treatment facilities; Federal, State, and local programs other than Medicaid; and other kinds of insurance not specified.
b Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
c  Includes population with private and public coverage.
d Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
e For individuals ages 16 and over.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

Table D. Dental services: Standard errors for mean expense per person with a visit and percent distribution of source of payment, by selected population characteristics, United States, 1997
Corresponds to Table 4

Source of payment


Population
characteristic
Mean
expense
per person
with a visit
Out of
pocket
Private
health
insurance
Medicaid Othera
  Standard error
Total 9.2 1.0 1.0 0.3

0.4

Age in years
Under 6 8.7 3.0 3.6 3.5 1.0

6-18

20.0 1.6 1.9 0.9 0.9
19-44 11.8 1.4 1.4 0.3 0.5
45-64 25.1 2.5 2.3 0.2 0.5
65 and over 23.2 2.3 1.8 0.8 1.9
Sex
Male 15.9 1.8 1.6 0.4 0.5
Female 11.0 1.0 1.0 0.4 0.6
Race/ethnicity
White and otherb 10.4 1.1 1.1 0.3 0.4
Black 26.9 3.8 3.2 2.0 1.2
Hispanic 28.4 2.5 2.7 1.5 1.9
Insurance status
Under age 65: 11.6 1.2 1.2 0.2 0.3
  Any privatec 16.0 4.5 0.0 4.4 2.0
  Public only 28.1 3.4 0.0 0.0 3.4
  Uninsured
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 56.6 6.6 0.0 0.0 6.6
  Medicare and private 26.7 2.4 2.2 0.4 1.0
  Medicare and other public 82.9 15.1 0.0 17.9 4.6
Incomed
Poor 24.4 4.1 2.5 4.2 1.5
Near poor 32.5 5.7 5.7 1.8 3.5
Low income 22.8 2.7 2.3 0.7 2.8
Middle income 11.7 1.6 1.6 0.1 0.7
High income 17.3 1.6 1.5 0.1 0.4
Employment statuse
Employed 13.2 1.6 1.5 0.1 0.5
Not employed 16.1 1.4 1.4 0.6 0.9
Census region
Northeast 27.4 2.9 2.6 0.7 0.4
Midwest 13.3 1.9 2.0 0.7 0.8
South 15.2 1.7 1.8 0.3 0.9
West 19.4 1.5 1.3 0.7 0.9
a Includes the Department of Veterans Affairs; CHAMPUS or TRICARE (Armed-Forces-related coverage); Indian Health Service; military treatment facilities; Federal, State, and local programs other than Medicaid; and other kinds of insurance not specified.
b Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
c  Includes population with private and public coverage.
d Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
e For individuals ages 16 and over.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

Table E. Dental services: Standard errors for mean expense per person with a visit and percent distribution of source of payment, by selected population characteristics, United States, 1998
Corresponds to Table 5
Population
characteristic
Mean
expense
per person
with a visit

Source of payment


Out of
pocket
Private
health
insurance
Medicaid Othera
Standard error
Total 13.3 1.1 1.1 0.3

0.4

Age in years
Under 6 10.6 3.5 3.4 3.1 1.5

6-18

31.0 2.3 2.2 1.0 0.5
19-44 15.4 1.7 1.7 0.5 0.7
45-64 22.5 1.6 1.6 0.3 0.8
65 and over 51.0 2.4 2.1 0.2 1.2
Sex
Male 18.4 1.8 1.7 0.5 0.7
Female 17.2 1.4 1.3 0.4 0.4
Race/ethnicity
White and otherb 14.9 1.3 1.3 0.3 0.4
Black 22.2 3.1 2.9 1.6 1.3
Hispanic 25.9 3.4 2.8 1.9 1.2
Insurance status
Under age 65: 14.4 1.1 1.2 0.1 0.4
  Any privatec 15.4 3.2 0.0 3.4 1.1
  Public only 51.2 2.0 0.0 0.0 2.0
  Uninsured
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 105.8 3.6 0.0 0.0 3.6
  Medicare and private 55.1 3.1 2.8 0.0 0.5
  Medicare and other public 45.4 7.4 0.0 4.8 6.3
Incomed
Poor 28.0 5.2 2.3 4.7 1.5
Near poor 48.8 6.2 4.4 5.3 0.3
Low income 36.5 4.2 3.4 1.9 1.3
Middle income 20.6 2.1 2.2 0.2 0.6
High income 18.5 1.3 1.4 0.0 0.6
Employment statuse
Employed 14.6 1.3 1.4 0.2 0.5
Not employed 28.0 2.1 1.7 0.6 1.0
Census region
Northeast 34.4 2.1 2.0 0.8 0.8
Midwest 17.5 2.2 2.2 0.4 0.5
South 23.0 1.9 1.9 0.3 0.8
West 30.3 2.3 2.3 0.9 0.7
a Includes the Department of Veterans Affairs; CHAMPUS or TRICARE (Armed-Forces-related coverage); Indian Health Service; military treatment facilities; Federal, State, and local programs other than Medicaid; and other kinds of insurance not specified.
b Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
c  Includes population with private and public coverage.
d Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
e For individuals ages 16 and over.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

Table F. Dental services: Standard errors for mean expense per person with a visit and percent distribution of source of payment, by selected population characteristics, United States, 1999
Corresponds to Table 6

Source of payment


Population
characteristic
Mean
expense
per person
with a visit
Out of
pocket
Private
health
insurance
Medicaid Othera
  Standard error
Total 13.4 1.2 1.1 0.4

0.4

Age in years
Under 6 17.1 4.7 5.6 8.5 1.4

6-18

35.4 2.2 2.2 1.0 0.6
19-44 14.0 1.5 1.5 0.7 0.5
45-64 21.3 1.7 1.6 0.2 0.7
65 and over 32.5 2.5 2.1 0.4 0.9
Sex
Male 16.2 1.7 1.7 0.6 0.4
Female 16.7 1.3 1.2 0.5 0.5
Race/ethnicity
White and otherb 14.8 1.3 1.2 0.4 0.4
Black 30.5 3.3 3.7 2.4 1.1
Hispanic 23.5 2.8 2.6 1.0 1.1
Insurance status
Under age 65: 15.0 1.3 1.2 0.2 0.4
  Any privatec 24.7 4.2 0.0 4.6 2.2
  Public only 31.0 3.1 0.0 0.0 3.1
  Uninsured
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 94.5 2.0 0.0 0.0 2.0
  Medicare and private 31.6 3.0 2.6 0.0 1.1
  Medicare and other public 41.6 9.0 0.0 8.7 4.0
Incomed
Poor 26.6 3.8 3.1 4.3 1.5
Near poor 33.6 7.0 3.0 6.9 3.2
Low income 25.0 3.1 3.1 2.2 1.3
Middle income 18.2 1.9 1.8 0.6 0.6
High income 20.4 1.7 1.6 0.1 0.5
Employment statuse
Employed 13.6 1.2 1.3 0.3 0.4
Not employed 20.2 2.0 1.8 0.8 0.6
Census region
Northeast 29.8 2.7 2.1 1.0 0.6
Midwest 16.4 2.3 2.2 0.3 0.7
South 17.1 1.9 1.7 0.5 0.6
West 40.7 2.4 2.5 1.0 0.9
a Includes the Department of Veterans Affairs; CHAMPUS or TRICARE (Armed-Forces-related coverage); Indian Health Service; military treatment facilities; Federal, State, and local programs other than Medicaid; and other kinds of insurance not specified.
b Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
c  Includes population with private and public coverage.
d Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
e For individuals ages 16 and over.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

Table G. Dental services: Standard errors for mean expense per person with a visit and percent distribution of source of payment, by selected population characteristics, United States, 2000
Corresponds to Table 7

Source of payment


Population
characteristic
Mean
expense
per person
with a visit
Out of
pocket
Private
health
insurance
Medicaid Othera
  Standard error
Total 14.2 1.1 1.1 0.9

0.4

Age in years
Under 6 20.5 3.3 4.2 6.7 2.6

6-18

45.0 2.8 3.3 1.6 0.4
19-44 17.1 1.8 2.0 2.5 0.8
45-64 23.0 1.5 1.6 0.3 0.8
65 and over 34.0 2.2 1.8 0.1 1.1
Sex
Male 17.4 1.3 1.5 1.6 0.7
Female 22.2 1.6 1.7 0.8 0.4
Race/ethnicity
White and otherb 15.9 1.2 1.2 1.0 0.4
Black 38.7 4.1 4.7 1.6 1.1
Hispanic 31.2 3.1 2.6 1.1 1.2
Insurance status
Under age 65: 19.2 1.3 1.1 0.8 0.4
  Any privatec 30.2 4.6 0.0 4.7 1.9
  Public only 46.7 3.7 0.0 0.0 3.7
  Uninsured
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 70.8 3.0 0.0 0.0 3.0
  Medicare and private 37.9 2.6 2.4 0.0 0.7
  Medicare and other public 106.5 11.4 0.0 4.7 14.5
Incomed
Poor 34.6 4.0 4.7 4.5 3.3
Near poor 128.4 10.7 8.4 16.5 2.6
Low income 29.3 3.0 2.4 2.6 1.3
Middle income 25.3 2.2 1.9 1.4 0.8
High income 27.1 1.6 1.6 0.1 0.5
Employment statuse
Employed 14.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 0.6
Not employed 26.8 1.6 1.6 1.1 0.8
Census region
Northeast 26.5 1.7 2.0 1.1 0.9
Midwest 24.7 1.5 1.6 1.4 0.8
South 26.9 2.6 2.7 0.2 0.8
West 42.8 2.9 2.3 3.0 0.6
a Includes the Department of Veterans Affairs; CHAMPUS or TRICARE (Armed-Forces-related coverage); Indian Health Service; military treatment facilities; Federal, State, and local programs other than Medicaid; and other kinds of insurance not specified.
b Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
c  Includes population with private and public coverage.
d Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
e For individuals ages 16 and over.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

Table H. Dental services: Standard errors for mean out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit and percent distribution pf amount of out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit, by selected population characteristics: United States, 1996
Corresponds to Table 8

Out-of-pocket expense


Population
characteristic
Mean
out-of-pocket expense
per person
with a visit
None $1-$99 $100-$199 $200 or more
  Standard error
Total 6.4 0.9 0.8 0.5

0.5

Age in years
Under 6 5.6 3.3 3.2 1.8 1.0

6-18

16.0 1.5 1.4 0.8 1.0
19-44 8.2 1.2 1.0 0.6 0.8
45-64 11.8 1.3 1.2 0.8 1.0
65 and over 21.2 1.3 1.8 1.4 1.7
Sex
Male 9.1 1.0 1.0 0.6 0.7
Female 8.9 1.0 0.9 0.6 0.8
Race/ethnicitya
White and other 7.1 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.6
Black 22.8 2.9 2.5 1.1 1.4
Hispanic 15.1 2.0 1.9 1.1 1.3
Insurance status
Under age 65: 7.1 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.6
  Any privateb 9.0 2.2 1.9 0.9 0.9
  Public only 29.2 1.7 2.4 2.0 2.3
  Uninsured
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 47.0 2.3 3.3 3.3 3.9
  Medicare and private 25.0 1.5 2.0 1.6 1.9
  Medicare and other public 115.8 8.5 7.5 4.5 6.4
Incomec
Poor 17.9 2.5 1.9 1.1 1.5
Near poor 27.8 5.0 3.6 2.8 3.0
Low income 14.6 2.2 2.3 1.4 1.5
Middle income 11.0 1.4 1.3 0.8 0.9
High income 10.7 1.1 1.1 0.7 0.8
Employment statusd
Employed 7.2 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.7
Not employed 14.0 1.2 1.2 0.9 1.1
Census region
Northeast 18.3 1.5 1.3 1.0 1.2
Midwest 10.5 1.6 1.4 0.8 1.1
South 10.8 1.7 1.4 0.8 1.0
West 12.5 2.0 1.8 0.9 1.1
a Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
b  Includes population with private and public coverage.
c Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
d For individuals ages 16 and over.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

Table I. Dental services: Standard errors for mean out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit and percent distribution pf amount of out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit, by selected population characteristics: United States, 1997
Corresponds to Table 9

Out-of-pocket expense


Population
characteristic
Mean
out-of-pocket expense
per person
with a visit
None $1-$99 $100-$199 $200 or more
  Standard error
Total 7.3 0.7 0.7 0.4

0.5

Age in years
Under 6 5.0 2.9 2.9 1.3 1.1

6-18

12.1 1.2 1.3 0.6 0.8
19-44 8.2 1.0 1.0 0.6 0.7
45-64 23.4 1.1 1.1 0.8 1.0
65 and over 17.5 1.1 1.6 1.3 1.6
Sex
Male 13.9 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.7
Female 7.3 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.6
Race/ethnicity
White and othera 8.3 0.7 0.7 0.4 0.6
Black 20.1 2.3 2.2 1.1 1.2
Hispanic 16.0 1.8 1.6 0.8 1.4
Insurance status
Under age 65: 9.1 0.8 0.8 0.4 0.6
  Any privateb 11.7 2.0 1.8 0.7 0.9
  Public only 22.2 1.6 2.4 1.6 2.1
  Uninsured
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 43.7 1.8 4.1 2.8 3.8
  Medicare and private 20.3 1.2 1.7 1.5 1.8
  Medicare and other public 54.8 7.8 6.9 4.3 6.0
Incomec
Poor 20.5 2.1 1.7 0.9 1.3
Near poor 24.3 3.2 3.0 1.8 2.4
Low income 15.5 2.3 2.0 1.1 1.5
Middle income 9.4 1.2 1.1 0.6 0.9
High income 13.9 1.0 0.9 0.6 0.8
Employment statusd
Employed 11.3 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.7
Not employed 11.7 1.0 1.1 0.8 1.0
Census region
Northeast 25.6 1.3 1.4 0.8 1.0
Midwest 10.5 1.6 1.5 0.8 0.9
South 10.8 0.9 1.1 0.6 0.9
West 12.4 1.5 1.3 0.7 1.0
a Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
b  Includes population with private and public coverage.
c Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
d For individuals ages 16 and over.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

Table J. Dental services: Standard errors for mean out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit and percent distribution pf amount of out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit, by selected population characteristics: United States, 1998
Corresponds to Table 10

Out-of-pocket expense


Population
characteristic
Mean
out-of-pocket expense
per person
with a visit
None $1-$99 $100-$199 $200 or more
  Standard error
Total 9.4 0.8 0.9 0.5

0.6

Age in years
Under 6 7.1 3.3 3.2 1.7 1.1

6-18

18.0 1.5 1.6 0.8 1.0
19-44 10.7 1.2 1.3 0.7 0.9
45-64 14.4 1.4 1.2 1.1 1.2
65 and over 46.2 1.4 1.8 1.7 2.1
Sex
Male 13.8 1.0 1.2 0.6 0.9
Female 12.0 0.8 1.0 0.6 0.8
Race/ethnicity
White and othera 10.8 0.8 1.0 0.5 0.7
Black 15.1 2.5 2.2 1.2 1.3
Hispanic 20.0 2.2 2.0 1.0 1.3
Insurance status
Under age 65: 8.8 0.9 1.0 0.5 0.7
  Any privateb 7.2 2.2 1.9 0.9 0.9
  Public only 49.3 2.0 2.6 2.3 2.8
  Uninsured
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 91.2 2.4 3.2 3.7 3.2
  Medicare and private 52.0 1.7 2.4 2.0 2.5
  Medicare and other public 45.3 5.9 5.8 4.3 5.7
Incomec
Poor 27.7 2.4 2.0 1.2 1.8
Near poor 43.1 5.0 3.4 2.5 3.1
Low income 32.8 2.4 2.2 1.6 1.7
Middle income 16.6 1.2 1.2 0.8 1.0
High income 12.2 1.2 1.3 0.6 0.9
Employment statusd
Employed 9.7 0.9 1.0 0.6 0.9
Not employed 25.1 1.2 1.4 1.0 1.2
Census region
Northeast 22.9 1.5 2.3 0.8 1.8
Midwest 10.5 1.7 1.5 0.8 1.0
South 19.1 1.2 1.6 1.0 1.0
West 21.1 1.5 2.0 0.8 1.6
a Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
b  Includes population with private and public coverage.
c Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
d For individuals ages 16 and over.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

Table K. Dental services: Standard errors for mean out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit and percent distribution pf amount of out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit, by selected population characteristics: United States, 1999
Corresponds to Table 11

Out-of-pocket expense


Population
characteristic
Mean
out-of-pocket expense
per person
with a visit
None $1-$99 $100-$199 $200 or more
  Standard error
Total 8.7 0.8 0.8 0.5

0.6

Age in years
Under 6 7.5 3.2 2.7 1.9 1.2

6-18

21.3 1.7 1.5 0.8 1.0
19-44 8.4 1.1 1.1 0.7 0.8
45-64 15.1 1.2 1.3 0.8 1.1
65 and over 31.5 1.0 1.7 1.6 1.8
Sex
Male 11.3 1.0 1.1 0.6 0.8
Female 11.3 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.7
Race/ethnicity
White and othera 9.8 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.6
Black 14.7 2.4 2.1 1.3 1.7
Hispanic 18.3 1.8 1.8 0.9 1.1
Insurance status
Under age 65: 9.2 0.9 0.9 0.5 0.6
  Any privateb 12.4 2.2 1.7 0.9 1.4
  Public only 29.9 2.5 2.9 2.1 2.3
  Uninsured
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 94.5 1.7 3.5 3.0 3.7
  Medicare and private 28.6 1.2 2.1 1.9 2.0
  Medicare and other public 36.5 6.3 5.7 4.3 5.9
Incomec
Poor 17.8 2.5 1.8 1.2 1.7
Near poor 31.3 4.3 4.0 2.6 3.0
Low income 16.3 2.1 2.1 1.7 1.6
Middle income 14.1 1.1 1.2 0.8 1.1
High income 13.8 1.2 1.1 0.6 0.8
Employment statusd
Employed 9.0 1.0 1.0 0.6 0.8
Not employed 18.3 1.1 1.2 1.0 1.3
Census region
Northeast 25.7 1.7 1.6 0.9 1.6
Midwest 11.0 1.8 1.6 0.8 0.9
South 11.9 1.4 1.5 0.9 0.9
West 2.0 1.7 1.6 1.0 1.1
a Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
b  Includes population with private and public coverage.
c Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
d For individuals ages 16 and over.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

 

Table L. Dental services: Standard errors for mean out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit and percent distribution pf amount of out-of-pocket expense per person with a visit, by selected population characteristics: United States, 2000
Corresponds to Table 12

Out-of-pocket expense


Population
characteristic
Mean
out-of-pocket expense
per person
with a visit
None $1-$99 $100-$199 $200 or more
  Standard error
Total 8.1 0.8 0.7 0.5

0.6

Age in years
Under 6 6.8 3.6 3.1 1.6 1.2

6-18

25.0 1.4 1.2 0.8 1.1
19-44 7.7 1.0 1.1 0.9 0.8
45-64 16.6 1.2 1.0 0.9 1.2
65 and over 26.0 1.2 1.6 1.3 2.0
Sex
Male 9.9 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.7
Female 12.9 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7
Race/ethnicity
White and othera 9.2 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.6
Black 18.6 2.9 2.6 1.0 1.6
Hispanic 21.2 2.1 1.8 1.3 1.3
Insurance status
Under age 65: 9.3 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.7
  Any privateb 15.1 1.9 1.4 0.7 1.2
  Public only 41.2 2.0 2.3 2.0 2.0
  Uninsured
Age 65 and over:
  Medicare only 62.5 1.9 3.0 2.6 3.4
  Medicare and private 26.8 1.3 2.0 1.7 2.2
  Medicare and other public 33.3 6.0 4.0 5.7 4.3
Incomec
Poor 18.0 2.8 2.1 1.4 1.4
Near poor 26.9 4.7 3.4 2.3 3.0
Low income 22.4 2.2 2.2 1.7 1.7
Middle income 15.3 1.4 1.1 0.8 1.0
High income 1.2 1.0 0.9 0.7 0.9
Employment statusd
Employed 8.3 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.8
Not employed 19.0 1.0 1.2 0.9 1.2
Census region
Northeast 16.8 1.8 1.9 1.1 1.2
Midwest 14.8 1.5 1.1 0.8 0.9
South 12.6 1.3 1.0 0.8 1.0
West 21.6 2.0 1.5 1.1 1.4
a Includes all other ethnic/racial groups not shown separately.
b  Includes population with private and public coverage.
c Poor refers to persons living in families with incomes below the Federal poverty line; near poor, over the poverty line through 125 percent of the poverty line; low income, over 125 percent through 200 percent of the poverty line; middle income, over 200 percent through 400 percent of the poverty line; and high income, over 400 percent of the poverty line.
d For individuals ages 16 and over.
Source: Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, 1996-2000.

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Suggested Citation:
Brown, Jr., E. and Manski, R. Research Findings #20: Dental Services: Use, Expenses, and Sources of Payment, 1996-2000. January 2004. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.meps.ahrq.gov/data_files/publications/rf20/rf20.shtml