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MEDICAL EXPENDITURE PANEL SURVEY
HOUSEHOLD COMPONENT
MAIN STUDY

GLOSSARY


TO BE USED FOR PANELS 13, 14, AND 15

October 2010


Table of Contents

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y

A

AARP: American Association of Retired Persons is a voluntary association of older persons which sponsors several health insurance plans.

Abscess: Refers to care for a localized area of swelling inside a tooth.

Accessible Restrooms: Special arrangements to make the room equipped with toilets and wash basins available to the person, such as locating them on a certain floor, widening doorways, lowering sinks, raising toilets, etc.

Accidents: Physical problems because of some sort of external trauma to the body such as a fall or being in an auto accident. This refers to unexpected and undesirable events. Accidents may include poisonings, where the condition results from swallowing, breathing, or coming in contact with some poisonous substance or gas. Poisoning may also occur from an overdose of a substance that is nonpoisonous when taken in normal doses. Illnesses and other types of problems due to a natural process in the body, such as any type of disease, should not be included.

Accident (Dental): Refers to dental problems that arose from some sort of external trauma to the mouth, such as being hit and having a tooth loosened, or falling and chipping a tooth. Do not include visits for routine examination or for work on problems that arose due to natural processes in the mouth, such as cavities or gum disease.

Accident Insurance: Pays for medical services related to injuries of accidental nature. Since the coverage is limited to accidents, such as car accidents, the study does not consider this coverage to be health insurance.

Activities of Daily Living (ADLs): Those activities that are required to maintain the basic level of life such as getting in or out of bed or a chair, walking, eating, going to the bathroom, bathing or showering, or dressing.

Actual Hours Worked Per Week: The number of hours actually worked during a typical work week. Hours worked will include overtime if the RU member worked overtime for most of the weeks during the reference period. The actual hours worked is often not the same as the hours on which the person's salary is based. In this question, we want the actual hours spent working on the job, whether the hours are paid or not. However, unpaid hours spent traveling to and from work are never included in hours worked per week.

Acupuncture: The Chinese practice of inserting needles into specific exterior body locations to relieve pain, induce surgical anesthesia, or for therapeutic purposes. It is considered to be an alternative medicine.

Acupuncturist: Person who uses a technique for relieving pain, treating medical conditions, inducing regional anesthesia, or improving general well-being, in which thin needles are inserted into the body at specific points.

AD&D: Accidental Death and Dismemberment Insurance is an insurance plan which provides payment in the event of death or dismemberment (e.g., loss of an arm or eyesight) resulting from an accidental cause.

ADAP: The AIDS Drug Assistance Program provides medications for the treatment of HIV disease, and may help to pay for health insurance. The program is available in all 50 states.

Adenoidectomy: Surgical removal of the adenoids.

Administrative Support Occupations, Including Clerical: Includes occupations concerned with preparing, transcribing, transferring, systematizing, and preserving written communications and records, collecting accounts, gathering and distributing information, operating office machines and electronic data-processing equipment, storing, distributing, and accounting for stores of materials, operating telephone switchboards, distributing mail and delivering messages, and performing other administrative and clerical duties. Examples include secretaries, computer operators, reproduction clerks, mail clerks, typists, hotel clerks, receptionists, library clerks, telephone operators, mail carriers, dispatchers, bank tellers, proof readers, data entry keyers, teacher aids, etc.

Admission: Formal acceptance of a patient by a hospital or other health care institution in order to provide care. An admission may be scheduled in advance because the illness or injury is not life-threatening or an admission may take place immediately because of a serious or life-threatening illness or injury.

Adoption: When a person or family takes a child (who is not their biological child) into their home through legal means and raises them as their own.

Adult Day Care: Daytime care given to the elderly or adults with severe mental or physical conditions. The adults arrive at the facility where they spend the day and then return to their homes at night. Each occurrence (day) should be classified as an event.

Adult Education: Adult education classes should not be included as regular school unless such schooling has been counted for credit in a regular school system. If a person has taken adult education classes, but not for credit, these classes should not be counted as regular school. Adult education courses given in a public school building are part of regular schooling only if their completion can advance a person toward an elementary school certificate, a high school diploma (or GED), or college degree.

Agricultural, Forestry, Fishing, and Related Occupations: Includes occupations concerned with the production, propagation, gathering, or catching of animals (land and aquatic), animal products, plant products (crop, timber, and ornamental), the provision of services associated with agricultural production, and game farms, fisheries and wildlife conservation. Examples include crop farmers, dairy farmers, bee keepers, farm hands, farm machinery operators, orchard and vineyard workers, crop pickers, livestock workers, ranchers, plant nursery workers, gardeners, groundskeepers, animal caretakers, dog groomers, forestry workers, loggers, fishers, hunters, trappers, etc.

AHRQ: The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, part of the United States Public Health Service and co-sponsor of MEPS. Formerly known as the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR).

AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): A terminal disease caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that makes persons with AIDS more susceptible to certain diseases, such as pneumonia, Kaposi's sarcoma, and meningoencephalitis.

AIDS Drug Assistance Program: see ADAP

Aids/Special Equipment: In the phrase "aids or any other special equipment", the key word is "special". Special equipment includes any device that is not used by the general population to perform a specific activity. Examples include canes, orthopedic braces, railings, telephone amplifiers, shower seats, etc. (See QxQs for additional discussion and examples.)

Aleut (Eskimo): Includes persons having origins in any of the original peoples of Alaska and northern Canada who maintain cultural identification through tribal affiliation or community recognition.

Alimony: An allowance that the court orders paid to a person by his/her spouse or former spouse after a legal separation or divorce or while legal action is pending.

Allergy Shot: A shot designed to reduce symptoms by making the patient immune to the cause of an allergy they have.

All Follow-up Care Received: This is the situation where the person has received all the care recommended by the provider.

Allowed (Approved) Charges): A charge that is a covered expense or benefit in a health insurance program.

Already Paid: The person or family assumes the source has sent in the payment to the provider/pharmacy/place for the care or services received.

Alterations: Alterations or modifications to the personís home or automobile to help him/her function better with his/her impairment or physical problem. Examples of changes to the home include ramps, handrails, elevators, or stair lifts. Examples of changes to the automobile include special controls, mirrors, doors, or wheelchair lifts.

Alternative/ Complementary Care : Approaches to health care that are different from those typically practiced by medical doctors in the U.S. Included in this type of care are acupuncture, nutritional advice or lifestyle diets, massage therapy, herbal remedies, bio-feedback training, meditation, imagery, or relaxation techniques, homeopathic treatment, spiritual healing or prayer, hypnosis, and traditional medicine, such as Chinese, Ayurvedic, American Indian, etc.

Ambulance Services: Any charges associated with the use of an emergency vehicle used for transporting patients to a health care facility after injury or illness. Includes three basic types of emergency transportation: ground or surface, helicopter, and airplane.

American Indian: Includes persons having origins in any of the original peoples of North America south of Canada and who maintain cultural identification through tribal affiliation or community recognition.

Amount You Pay (You Pay for Health Care): Includes deductibles, copayments, and coinsurance as well as other amounts not reimbursed by the insurance company. Does not include amounts the family has been or will be reimbursed for by the insurance company.

Amounts to Include (for Earnings or Loss from Own Farm): Include income or loss associated with being the sole proprietor of a farm. Farm business costs and expenses are deductible from farm gross business receipts in arriving at farm net profit or loss. Gains and losses from these sources are calculated on Schedule F.

Amounts to Include (for Interest from Savings Accounts, Bonds, NOW Accounts, Money market Accounts, or Similar Types of Investments): Include interest income from seller-financed mortgages, banks, savings and loan associations, money market certificates, credit unions, savings bonds, etc. These amounts can be found on forms 1099-INT or 1099-OID.

Amounts to Include (for Net Gain/Loss from Estates or Trusts, Partnerships, S Corporations, Royalties, or rental Income): Gains and losses from these sources are calculated on Schedule E of a Federal income tax return.

  • Estate or Trust: Includes income that was the beneficiaries' share of fiduciary income from any estate or trust, for example, income required to be distributed, amounts credited to beneficiaries' accounts from fiduciary income, and any "accumulation distribution" made by the fiduciary of a "complex trust" for income accumulated in prior tax years.
     
  • Partnership or S Corporation: Since partnerships and S corporations are not taxable entities, their net profit or loss is taxed, in general, directly to the members of the partnership or shareholders in the S corporation. This income includes the taxpayer's share of the ordinary gain or loss of the enterprise and certain payments made to the taxpayer for the use of capital or as a salary.
     
  • Rental Income: Income or loss less amounts for depreciation, repairs, improvements and other allowable expenses related to the rented property.
     
  • Royalties: Income from oil, gas and other mineral rights, patents, and literary, musical or artistic works.

Amounts to Include (for Net Gain/Loss from Sale of Property or Other Assets): Both sales of capital and non-capital assets are to be included. In general, capital assets for tax purposes include all property held for personal use or investment. Examples of such assets are personal residences, furniture, automobiles, and stocks and bonds. Net gains or losses from the sale of capital assets are reported on Schedule D. Net capital gains also include capital gain distributions reported directly on Form 1040 if the tax filer did not have other gains or losses to report on Schedule D. Property other than capital assets generally includes property of a business nature, and net gains or losses from the sale of such assets is reported on Form 9747.

Amounts to Include (for Non-Farm Business or Practice): Include income or loss associated with being the sole proprietor of a non-farm business, including self-employed members of a profession. Business costs and expenses are deductible from gross receipts or gross sales in arriving at net profit or loss. Compensation of the sole proprietor is taxable income and, therefore, not allowed as a business deduction in computing net income. The net gain or loss is computed on Schedule C or C-EZ.

Amounts to Include (for Private Pensions, Military Retirement, Other Federal Employee Pensions, State or Local Government Pensions or Annuities): Payments from pensions and annuities, including payments (distributions) from retirement plans, life insurance annuity contracts, profit-sharing plans, employee savings plans, disability pensions received after the tax filer has reached the minimum retirement age set by his/her employer.

Amounts to Include (for Total Charge for Medical Event): Any and all amounts paid directly (e.g., out-of-pocket, up-front) to the provider/pharmacy/place for the care or services received. This includes all amounts that may have been reimbursed later by any provider or insurance company.

Amounts to Include (for Wages or Salary, Tips, Commissions, or Bonuses): This includes all income from wages, salary, commissions, and bonuses and is shown in Box 2 of the tax filerís W-2 form. Tips, scholarships, fellowship grants, and dependent care benefits should also be included.

Ancestry/National Origin: A person's ancestry or national origin refers to the nationality that distinguishes the customs, characteristics, language, common history, etc. of the person and his/her ancestors. The country from which a person "comes", where s/he is born, or his/her descent.

Anemia: A deficiency of the oxygen carrying material in the blood (hemoglobin). Anemia is often accompanied by a reduced number of red blood cells, which causes an unnatural paleness, weakness, and shortness of breath.

Anesthesia: The loss of sensation induced by an anesthetic and limited to a specific area (local anesthesia) or involving a loss of consciousness (general anesthesia).

Another Household: This includes any place of private residence including apartments, townhouses, houses, co-ops, mobile homes, boarding rooms, etc.

Another Household - Not Full-Time Military: Person was a living in another household and was not on full-time active duty in the Armed Forces. This includes persons who were living in a different household. Do not include persons who were living in an institution or were living away at school, either grades 1-12 or post-secondary, in this category.

It is important to determine if the person being asked about was on full-time active duty in the military (i.e., the Armed Forces of the United States). Do not include persons who were on full-time active duty in the military in this category.

Another Household or Military Facility - Full-Time Military: Person was a living in another household or military facility and was on full-time active duty in the Armed Forces. This includes persons who were living in another household or in a military facility. Do not include persons who were living in an institution or were living away at school, either grades 1-12 or post-secondary, in this category. (cont.)

It is important to determine if the person being asked about was on full-time active duty in the military (i.e., the Armed Forces of the United States). Include only persons who were on full-time active duty in the military in this category. Persons who are considered to be ON FULL-TIME ACTIVE DUTY IN THE ARMED FORCES include:

  • Persons on full-time active duty in the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard unit presently activated as part of the regular Armed Forces.
     
  • Persons in the Reserve Forces on a six-month active service (in connection with the provisions of the Reserve Force Act of 1955).

Anyone's Previous Employer (COBRA) - Health Insurance: Health insurance purchased or obtained that covered an RU member during the reference period through any former employer. An RU member must have worked for this employer at some point in the past. This health insurance must continue through COBRA.

Anyone's Previous Employer (Not COBRA) - Health Insurance: Health insurance purchased or obtained that covered an RU member during the reference period through any former employer. An RU member must have worked for this employer at some point in the past.

Anything in Writing: A document that indicates the charges for services provided by a medical provider. This usually takes the form of a bill or statement listing the charges for a particular service or item. Also include receipts for payments.

Area Probability Sample Ė A sample design that begins with the process of enumeration (listing of households). Once listing is complete, sampling statisticians select a sample of households to be screened from all the listed households. Based on key household characteristics, a dwelling unit or DU is selected for inclusion in a study. The sample is constructed so that every DU listed in each Primary Sampling Unit (PSU) has a known chance of being selected for the study. The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is an area probability sample.

Armed Forces: Non-civilian members of any of the armed services of the federal government (Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, Marines).

Arthritis: An inflammation of one or more joints of the body, usually with pain, redness, and stiffness.

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic disease that can affect joints in any part of the body. The immune system mistakenly causes the joint lining to swell. Osteoarthritis is the most common type of arthritis. It occurs when the cartilage wears away, and can occur in any joint, but often affects the hands, knees, hips, and joints in the spine. Osteoarthritis is sometimes called degenerative joint disease.

Asian (Pacific Islanders): Includes persons having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, India, Japan, Korea, the Philippine Islands, and Samoa.

Assisted Living: This is a newer organization of care or help for elderly persons particularly, but can also be found for persons with disabilities.

Association (or Group) - Health Insurance: Includes many types of organizations, but principally groups like the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), church groups, or clubs. It also may include professional associations. These are organizations of individuals that share an interest or common characteristic or a professional affiliation (for example, the American Medical Association). Membership may include the right to buy health insurance through the organization or association.

Asthma: Asthma is a lung problem that makes breathing difficult. Asthma causes attacks of wheezing, but there are also time periods with relatively normal breathing. Treatment for mild asthma (rare attacks) typically includes use of inhalers on an as-needed basis. Treatment for significant asthma (symptoms occur at least every week) typically includes the regular use of anti-inflammatory medications, usually inhaled steroids and bronchodilators.

Asthma Attack: When you have an asthma attack, your airways narrow in response to some sort of irritation or "trigger," making breathing difficult. The muscles around the airways also tighten, further closing off breathing. The resulting symptoms include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. In a severe attack, breathing may be blocked. Asthma "attacks" range from mild to life-threatening and can last minutes to days.

Audiologists: Medical persons who evaluate and treat patients with impaired hearing and balance. This includes the fitting and dispensing of hearing aids.

Aunt: The sister of one's father or mother or the wife of one's uncle.

Authorization Form: Replaces the MEPS permission form. The authorization form complies with the requirements of HIPAA and prescribed elements of informed consent including:

  • What can be disclosed- A description of the information to be used or disclosed that identifies the information in a specific and meaningful fashion.
  • To whom the information can be disclosed
  • Purpose of the disclosure
  • Expiration date - includes expiration of authorization
  • Signature and date
  • Proxy relationship to individual
  • Right to revoke authorization
  • Consequences of refusing to sign
  • Disclosure after release - A statement that information used or disclosed pursuant to the authorization may be subject to re-disclosure by the recipient and no longer be protected by the privacy rule. As stated on our MEPS authorization form, the Public Health Service Act protects the confidentiality of information released by providers.

Authorization Form Booklet: The booklet replaces the Permission Form Booklet. This version has been revised to include information on HIPAA and the prescribed elements of informed consent. The Authorization Form Booklet is to be given to respondents during the Closing Section of the interview when asking for authorization forms to be signed. It contains a series of questions and answers frequently asked by respondents as well as directions for filling out and signing authorization forms.

Automatic Door(s): Doors that open mechanically on their own.

Away at School Status: Students under 24 who live away at school, but who consider their parents' household their usual residence. Students may live away at boarding school, post-secondary school (e.g., college, vocational school), etc.

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B

Bachelor's Degree: An educational degree given by a college or university to a person who has completed a four-year course or its equivalent in the humanities or related studies (B.A.) or in the sciences (B.S.).

Base RU: Also referred to as Standard RU or "A" RU. It most often consists of the key RU members who lived together at the time of the NHIS interview when the MEPS sample was selected. New (split) RUs and Student RUs are identified from the Base RU at Round 1.

Bathing: The overall complex behavior of getting water and cleaning the whole body. The RU member bathes without help if no other person is involved in any part of the process of taking a sponge, shower, or tub bath to wash the whole body. (Note that sponge baths count as bathing.) Help or supervision includes washing a part of the person's body, preparing the bath water, helping person get in tub, etc. (See QxQs for additional discussion and examples.)

Bathing Aids, e.g., Tub or Shower Bench, Hand Held Shower: Items used to assist in the process of bathing, showering, or using the toilet. Bathroom aids include, but are not limited to, portable commodes, raised toilet seats, portable tub seats, handrails, or other bathing equipment.

Bathroom Aids: Items used to assist in the process of bathing, showering, or using the toilet. Bathroom aids include, but are not limited to, portable commodes, raised toilet seats, portable tub seats, handrails, or other bathing equipment.

Beneficiary: A person who is eligible, as a subscriber or dependent, to receive benefits under a health insurance contract. Synonyms include enrollee, eligible individual, insured, member, and participant.

Best/Preferred Respondent: The best or preferred respondent for the interview is the person who is most knowledgeable about the familyís health care and who is keeping records about health care use and expenses. For ROUND 1, this is likely to be the person who was the respondent for the NHIS interview and, in most cases, was the person contacted on the advance contact effort. For ROUNDS 2-5, the best respondent is the person who was respondent for the previous roundís interview.

Bill: A statement from a provider of medical care, a medical laboratory, or a pharmacy that reports the charges for services, drugs, appliances, use of facilities, and other items (for a given patient's care).

Bill Has Not Arrived: The person expects to receive a bill from the health care provider as to the charges owed, however this bill has not arrived.

Bill Sent Directly to Other Source: This situation normally applies where the provider or the person sends the bill to the insurance company in order for the insurance company to pay the health care provider.

Bio-Feedback Training: A technique for learning to monitor and gain control over automatic body functions by using information obtained from various types of machines.

Birthing Center: A facility that provides prenatal, childbirth, and post-natal care, often using family-centered maternity care practices. Common features are a homelike setting and the optional use of a midwife instead of a medical doctor for delivery. May be freestanding or hospital-based.

Bitewings: Photographic images of the teeth obtained through the use of small amounts of radiation. These images are used to discover hidden cavities and flaws in teeth.

Black: Includes persons having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa.

Bleaching (Dental): A process used to improve the appearance of teeth by using chemical to whiten them.

Blind: Refers to persons who cannot see at all or who only have light perception. It also includes persons who are considered legally blind. Legal blindness is defined as visual acuity of 20/200 or less in the better eye (with the best possible correction) or as a visual field of 20 degrees or less.

Blood Cholesterol Check: A cholesterol check requires taking a blood sample from the person. The blood is then analyzed to determine the level of cholesterol it contains. Cholesterol is a type of fatty substance found in animal fats, blood, nerve tissues, and bile. High levels of cholesterol are thought to be a factor in coronary heart disease.

Blood Pressure Check: A blood pressure check is when a cuff is wrapped around your upper arm and pumped up to check your blood pressure.

Blood Stool Test: A blood stool test is a test that you do at home using a special kit or cards provided by a doctor or other health professional to determine whether the stool contains blood.

Blood Tests: Tests that identify or diagnose health conditions by analyzing a sample of the patient's blood.

Board and Care Homes: A place that offers residents help with activities such as bathing and dressing, but do not provide 24-hour nursing services. (Some residents at a residential care facility may not require such assistance, but it must be available to them.)

Bonds or Bond Funds (Government, Corporate, Municipal, or Foreign): A certificate of debt issued by a corporation, government (local or federal), or foreign country that guarantees payment of the original investment plus interest by a specified future date.

Bonding (Dental): A process used to improve the appearance of teeth by applying an overlay to cover stained or discolored teeth.

Bonuses: Special cash payments. Sometimes bonuses are given as a reward for an employee's production in excess of a quota or for completion of a job in less than a standard time period. Bonuses may also be paid by the employer to those employees who meet certain criteria (e.g. one-year of continuous employment with the establishment) or they may be lump sum payments to all employees (e.g., Christmas bonuses). Payments may be graduated according to a worker's length of service, position in the organization, or a combination of these and other criteria.

Book of Doctors or Medical Places: Printed material that lists which providers are directly associated or affiliated with a health insurance plan.

Braces (Dental): Refers to appliances fitted to some or all teeth to correct irregularly spaced teeth.

Braces for Arm, Leg, or Back: Braces are devices that clasp or connect to the arm, leg or back to provide support or to hold the joint or limb in place.

Braille, Enlarged Print, Audio Tape, or Special Lighting: Braille is a writing and reading system for the blind, where characters are formed by raised dots. Enlarged print means that the document is printed in a character size that is significantly larger than what would normally be used. Audio tape is transfer of written material to tape so that it can be listened to. Special lighting includes lamps or other light sources to improve vision.

Breast Exam: A breast exam is where a doctor or other health professional feels the breast for lumps.

Brother (for Caregiver Supplement): A brother includes biological, adoptive, step, and half brothers. A brother is one's male sibling who shares both of the same biological or adoptive parents. A step-brother is one's stepparent's son by a previous relationship. A half-brother is one's male relative who shares one of the same biological or adoptive parents.

Brother-In-Law: The brother of one's spouse.

Brother/Step-/Half- (for Reenumeration): A brother is one's male sibling who shares both of the same biological or adoptive parents. A step-brother is one's stepparent's son by a previous relationship. A half-brother is one's male relative who shares one of the same biological or adoptive parents.

Business: A business exists when one or more of the following conditions are met: (1) Machinery or equipment of substantial value is in use in conducting business, (2) an office, store or other place of business is maintained, or (3) the business is advertised by listing in the classified section of the phone book, displaying a sign, distributing cards or leaflets, or any other methods which publicize that the work or service is offered to clients.

Business Dissolved/Sold: Voluntary or involuntary cessation of operations by the owners of the business.

Business Income or Loss (for Tax Filing Purposes): Include income or loss associated with being the sole proprietor of a non-farm business, including self-employed members of a profession. Business costs and expenses are deductible from gross receipts or gross sales in arriving at net profit or loss. Compensation of the sole proprietor is taxable income and, therefore, not allowed as a business deduction in computing net income. The net gain or loss is computed on Schedule C or C-EZ.

Business (Vocational/Trade) School: When determining the highest grade or year of regular school the person ever completed, do not include secretarial school, mechanical or computer training school, nursing school where a Bachelor's degree is not offered, and other vocational trade or business schools outside the regular school system.

By the Job/Mile: Method of payment based on each mile driven or job completed.

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C

CDC (The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention): The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is the principal agency in the United States government for protecting the health and safety of all Americans and a co-sponsor of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

Caesarean Section: Surgical operation for delivering a baby by cutting through the mother's abdominal and uterine walls.

Cafeteria Plan: A type of benefit which may be offered as part of an employer's benefit package. A cafeteria plan provides employees with flexibility in choice between taxable and nontaxable benefits. The employer sets a required common core of benefits (usually including health insurance), and the employee can then choose how to allocate remaining benefit dollars. (See also Flexible Spending Account.)

CAPI: Computer Assisted Personal Interview

Capitation: One of the methods of paying providers in a managed care plan. The provider receives a fixed amount for each patient (per "capita" or per "head") for a given period (e.g. a month) in return for providing services. The provider is paid this fixed amount regardless of the amount of services the patient actually receives. For example, the provider is paid $35 each month by the insurer for Patient "X" regardless of whether or not Patient "X" receives care.

Capitation Agreement: An agreement between a provider and a managed care company in which the provider agrees to accept a capitated payment for a defined set of services.

Caps (Dental): An artificial substitute for the part of a tooth above the gumline. Can be made of gold, porcelain, etc.

Case Management: An individualized approach to obtaining the needed services for a person by using an individual who serves as a link between the person and direct service providers. May coordinate care for individuals.

CATSCAN: A computerized x-ray image of the internal body structures, displayable in various cross-sections. This is also referred to as CT imaging.

Cell Culture: A laboratory test, which involves the collection of cells (for example a Pap smear or a throat culture).

Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA): Persons who provide general nursing care to patients at home. This person must have received training in order to be certified to perform these duties. Duties may include things such as administering prescribed medicines and treatment in accordance with approved nursing techniques. They may record significant conditions and reactions and notify their supervisor of the patient's condition and reaction to drugs, treatments, and significant incidents. They may also take the patient's temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and other vital signs to detect deviations from normal.

Certificate of Deposit: A bank certificate acknowledging the receipt of a specified large sum of money in a special kind of time deposit drawing interest and requiring written notice for withdrawal and usually subject to financial penalties if withdrawals are made before the maturity date. Also know as a CD.

CHAMPVA: A health care benefits program for the spouse or widow(er) and for the children of a veteran who is rated permanently and totally disabled due to a service-connected disability, or died of a service-connected disability, or died on active duty and the dependents are not otherwise eligible for TRICARE benefits. Under CHAMPVA, the Veterans Administration shares the cost of covered health care services and supplies with eligible beneficiaries.

Channeler, Clergy, or Spiritualist: A person who treats and maintains physical, mental, emotional, or spiritual health through prayer, meditation, or drawing on the help of powers or beings from another realm.

Charge(s): The dollar amount asked ("charged") for a service by a health care provider. This may not be the actual amount paid to the provider.

Checking Account: A bank account against which the depositor can draw checks for transfer of funds to the name on the check. Checking accounts may or may not bear interest.

Check-up (Dental): Refers to the activity performed by either a dentist or a dental hygienist to determine whether cavities or gum disease have developed, or whether examination by a specialist may be necessary.

Chemotherapy: The treatment of disease through the use of drugs or chemicals designed to have a toxic effect upon the disease-producing microorganism, or to selectively destroy cancerous tissue.

Chicano: Refers to anyone of Mexican birth or descent. It refers to anyone who may call themselves "Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, or Tex-Mex."

CHIP: See State Childrenís Health Insurance Program (SCHIP)

Child Support: Payments that the court orders a parent to pay to cover the cost of the care of a child who is not living with the parent making the payment.

Chiropractor: Medical persons who practice a system of medicine based on the principles that the nervous system largely determines the state of health and that disease results from nervous system malfunctioning. Treatment consists primarily of the adjustment and manipulation of parts of the body, especially the spinal column.

Choice of Health Insurance Plans: Many employers/establishments offer, instead of one basic plan, different types of enrollments that attempt to tailor coverage to the needs of the employee. For each enrollment type, there may be a different set of coverage provisions, a separate premium rate, and a varying proportion of total cost assumed by the employer. Plans may be called HMO, PPO, indemnity, high deductible, etc.

Claim: A request to an insurer for payment of health care bills. The request can be initiated by either a covered member or a medical provider.

Cleaning (Dental): Refers to activities performed by a dentist or dental hygienist to maintain healthy teeth and prevent cavities. Cleaning includes scraping tartar deposits off teeth, both above and below the gumline.

Cleaning or Medical Treatment of Wound, Infection, or Burn: Removal of foreign material and dead or damaged tissue from wounds, infections, or burns.

Clergy, Spiritualist, or Channeler: A person who treats and maintains physical, mental, emotional, or spiritual health through prayer, meditation, or drawing on the help of powers or beings from another realm.

Clerk (Similar to Receptionist or Secretary): A person who assists a medical person in performing clerical tasks, such as scheduling appointments, filing and maintaining medical records, billing, and answering the telephone.

Clinic: Refers to a facility where medical care and advice are given by doctors, nurses, or other medical persons, but is not located at a hospital. (Exclude visits to hospital outpatient departments.)

Clinic Pharmacy: Pharmacy that is located within a clinic.

Clinical Trials: This includes all charges that were paid by the government or a research institute in return for the person's participation in medical research. The research may take the form of clinical trials of an experimental medication, which are part of the government's medical approval process. The person's participation does not necessarily involve a specific health condition.

Closed Panel Program: A managed care program that requires enrollees to use a specific limited number of providers. (The opposite is Open Panel Program.)

COBRA: Insurance provided by a former employer. This is a federal law that allows persons without any other group health insurance to continue their employment-related coverage at group rates for 18 to 36 months after having left a job. However, the primary insured person or policyholder usually has to pay the entire premium.

Coinsurance: Similar to a copayment except that it is defined as a percent of the total charges for the health care service. For example, a beneficiary may pay 20% of charges for a doctor's visit or 10% of charges for a hospital stay.

College Graduate: Use this code if the person obtained a Bachelorís Degree. Also use this code if the person has some graduate level education, but has not received a graduate degree. However, if the person got a college degree BEYOND a Bachelorís Degree, use the code for "Graduate Degree."

College (or University): Junior college, community college, four-year college or university, nursing school or seminary where a college degree is offered, and graduate school or professional school that is attended after obtaining a degree from a 4-year institution.

Colonoscopy: A colonoscopy is when a tube is inserted in the rectum to view the bowel for signs of cancer or other health problems.

Comments (Insurance Card): If there is something unusual about an insurance card or some other information which seems important, but does not fit into an entry field, record a comment.

Commissions: A method of incentive payment paid in addition to or in lieu of a base rate, based upon business created or sales confirmed. The commission period and the base rate period need not be of the same length. For example, the commission period could be monthly, daily, or hourly.

Communication Equipment, e.g., TTY/TDD, Communications Board, Speech Synthesizer: Communication equipment are devices used to help a person make his or her thoughts known and to help persons understand others. Examples include a TTY/TDD, a telecommunications device for the deaf which is a portable typewriter that can be coupled to a telephone receiver where the telephone conversation appears as a visual readout above the keyboard; and a communications board which includes any variety of devices with letters or words that permit communication by persons with impaired physical or verbal abilities.

Community Based Hospital: A hospital established primarily to provide services to the residents of the community in which it is located. Most community hospitals are nonprofit, non-federal, and for short-term patients.

Community Health Center: A facility set up to provide health care and social work services in an area where such services are otherwise difficult to obtain.

Companion (Home Health): Persons who care for elderly, disabled, or convalescent persons by attending to the patient's personal needs, reading aloud, playing cards, or other games to entertain the RU member because of the RU member's health problem.

Companionship: Services such as reading, talking, or going for a walk, a drive, or to a restaurant either paid or unpaid.

Company Clinic: A company doctor's office or medical facility which is operated principally for the employees (and sometimes their dependents).

Complementary/Alternative Care: Approaches to health care that are different from those typically practiced by medical doctors in the U.S. Included in this type of care are acupuncture, nutritional advice or lifestyle diets, massage therapy, herbal remedies, bio-feedback training, meditation, imagery, or relaxation techniques, homeopathic treatment, spiritual healing or prayer, hypnosis, and traditional medicine, such as Chinese, Ayurvedic, American Indian, etc.

Completed High School, No College: The person has a high school diploma or received a GED, but did not go on to college. College is considered junior college, community college, four-year college or university, nursing school or seminary where a college degree is offered, and graduate school or professional school that is attended after obtaining a degree from a 4-year institution.

Complete Physical: A physical examination performed by a medical doctor where the whole body is examined to determine the state of a personís health. Usually includes a blood pressure check and taking a sample of the personís blood for a complete blood count.

Comp Time: Method of compensation for any work in excess of the normal work schedule. In lieu of monetary compensation, "compensatory time" reimburses overtime work with paid time off.

Condition: A condition is a physical or mental health problem that can be identified by a health care professional by examining you and by using tests.

Condition Roster: A person level list of physical or mental health problems that affected the person during his or her reference period. It is first introduced in the Provider Probes section, and can be added to during Utilization, Disability Days, and Prescribed Medicines.

Contact Lenses: A curved shell of glass or plastic worn directly against the eye to correct vision problems.

Context Header: The area at the top of the screen that contains pieces of information (e.g., names, dates, providers, conditions, etc.), contained between two lines. This information is used for fills when reading the question to the respondent.

Construction Trades and Extractive Occupations: Includes occupations that normally are performed at a specific site, which will change over time. This is different to production workers, where the work is normally delivered to a fixed location. Examples include brickmasons, carpenters, electricians, painters, plumbers, carpet installers, concrete finishers, rail layers, roofers, sheetmetal workers, road pavers, air hammer operator, miners, drillers, explosive workers, etc.

Consultation: Upon request by one medical care person, another medical care person's review of a patient's history, examination of the patient, and recommendations.

Consultation (Dental): Upon request by one dental care person, another dental care personís review of a patientís history, examination of the patient, and recommendations.

Convalescent Home: A nursing facility for patients who are recovering from severe illnesses or injuries, or who require continued care for an ongoing illness that is not in an acute stage. This is not the same as a retirement home.

Conventional Indemnity Health Insurance Plan: A traditional group or individual health insurance plan. In conventional indemnity health insurance, the group or individual pays a premium to the insurer to administer, assume risk and pay for a defined benefit package. Features of conventional indemnity health insurance include total choice of provider, enrollee cost sharing, fee-for-service provider reimbursement and full insurer risk. Synonyms are Traditional Indemnity Health Insurance and FFS Health Insurance.

Coordination of Benefits (COB): A claims process which takes place when a person is covered by more than one health insurance policy. The intent of COB is to eliminate duplicate payments and to define a sequence in which coverage applies (primary and secondary).

Copayment: A fixed sum that a person pays for health services, regardless of the actual charge (the insurer pays the rest of the actual charge). For example, the person may pay $10 for each office visit, $75 for each day in the hospital, and $5 for each drug prescription.

Core Street Name: The core name is the street address without the street number, the pre-directional, or any suite identifier. Do not include punctuation in the core street name. Examples of core street names are shown below.

Address Core Street Name
149 N. Columbia Lane Columbia
2000 Wilson Ave., N.W. Wilson
832 S. 21st St., B-392 21

Cost Containment: Activities designed to hold down the cost of health care. Cost containment activities includes coverage for expanded benefits (like outpatient surgery, preadmission testing, and different levels of hospital care), thorough review of claims, development of the continually evolving forms of health care (like HMOs and PPOs) and emphasis on health education and health promotion.

Cost the Same Amount: Sometimes the respondent will not know the actual charge for any (or some) of the visits, but always makes the same copayment for each visit. As long as the visits were for the same condition(s) and/or the same services were received at each visit, code this question as 'YES' (visits were all for the same amount).

Cost Sharing: A provision of a health insurance plan that requires an enrollee to pay a portion of charges for covered services. The most familiar cost sharing provisions are coinsurance, copayments and deductibles.

Could Not Find Work: Unable to secure gainful employment while in an active job search.

Counseling: A treatment technique for certain forms of mental disorders relying principally on talk/conversation between the mental health professional and the patient. Can be individual, family, and/or group therapies. Include care provided by any type of health professional so long as treatment is for mental health. Does not include visits with clergy to discuss personal problems unless clergy provided services through a counseling center and the services were paid for. Any other professional mental health therapist such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, counselor, social worker, etc. would be included.

Cousin: A child of one's uncle, aunt, or cousin.

Covered Entity: Refers to health care providers, pharmacies, and insurers who are legally required to comply with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA).

Crowns (Dental): An artificial substitute for the part of a tooth above the gumline. Can be made of gold, porcelain, etc.

Cuban: Refers to anyone of Cuban birth or descent.

Currently Employed: Person is employed at this establishment as of the date of the interview.

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D

Daily Wage Rate: The amount a person earns for a regular day of work.

Daughter/Adopted Daughter: One's female child through birth or adoption.

Daughter-In-Law: The wife of one's son.

Deaf: Refers to inability to hear in both ears without the use of hearing aides. Also can include hearing loss greater than 70 DB (decibels) in the better ear without hearing aides.

Debts: A financial obligation or liability of one person to another or others. Includes formal arrangements such as bank loans as well as private arrangements such as loans from a parent. A debt may or may not include interest on the principal loan amount.

Debts Amount To: Include only the principal balance that has not yet been paid for all debts other than those specifically asked about in previous questions. The respondent should not include items such as interest, property tax, insurance, escrow, etc. that might be included in debt payments.

Deceased: The person is dead.

Deductible: The amount of money an insured person must pay "at the front end" before the insurer will pay. For example, if you have a plan with a $100 deductible, you would be responsible for the first $100 of your health care bills.

Delays in Cognitive or Mental Development: Cognitive or mental development involves the process of knowing things in the broadest sense, including perception, memory, judgment, etc., that is, various learning and understanding activities that involve the mind. Delays include being slow to understand or learn new skills.

Delays in Emotional or Behavioral Development: Emotional and behavioral development refers to young children displaying behaviors appropriate for their age. Delays include children consistently behaving in ways that are not considered appropriate for their age such as being aggressive, hyperactive, or overly anxious. Other delays include throwing temper tantrums, bedwetting, not sleeping through the night, excessively clinging to parents, etc. at ages when most children do not do these things.

Delays in Speech or Language Development: Speech or language development is a very young childís increasing ability to communicate with others through normal speech as he or she grows up. Delays include a child beginning to speak later than average, or being difficult to understand at an age when most children can communicate clearly.

Deliver (Delivery): Giving birth to a live baby. It does not include stillbirths.

Delivery at Home: Anywhere the person was living at the time of the delivery. It may be the RU member's home, the home of a friend, a hotel room, etc., but NOT a hospital, nursing home, or other health care facility. Also, code this category even when the delivery at home was assisted by a midwife or some other medical person.

Demographic Data: Descriptive characteristics including gender, age marital status, race, ethnicity, and education level.

Dental Accident or Injury: A dental problem that arose from some sort of external trauma to the mouth, such as being hit and having a tooth loosened, or falling and chipping a tooth. Do not include visits for routine examinations or for work on problems that arose due to natural processes in the mouth, such as cavities or gum disease.

Dental Assistant: A person who assists a dentist with in-patient care, and may perform other functions in the dental office or laboratory. Most dental assistants are trained by the dentist.

Dental Care: Health care that is related to teeth. Dental care includes general work such as fillings, cleaning, extractions, and also specialized work such as root canals, fittings for braces, etc.

Dental Care Person: See Dental Care Provider.

Dental Care Provider: Medical persons whose primary occupation is caring for teeth, gums, and jaws. Dental care includes general work such as fillings, cleaning, extractions, and also specialized work such as root canals, fittings for braces, etc.

Dental Care Visit: Any visit made during the person's reference period to a dental care provider for the purpose of dental care.

Dental Check-up: Is a visit to a dental care provider to check the health status of the personís teeth. It often includes examination, x-rays, and/or cleaning and polishing of the teeth.

Dental Hygienist: A person who is licensed to give certain dental services under the supervision of a dentist. These services include: teeth cleaning, x-rays, applying medications, and educating in dental matters.

Dental Insurance: This type of insurance covers the cost of specified aspects of dental care, ranging from coverage of basic diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services to coverage that includes oral surgery and orthodontics.

Dental Surgeon/Oral Surgeon: A dental surgeon is a specialist who deals with diseases, injuries and defects of the mouth and jaw through invasive procedures. Include specialties like endodontists, prosthodontists and orthodontists. An oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMFS) is a surgical specialty devoted to the well-defined anatomical region of the mouth, jaws, and the face as well as associated structures. Most oral surgeons are initially qualified in dentistry and have undergone a further 4-6 years of specialty surgical training.

Dental Technician: A person who works in a dental laboratory and prepares dentures and other appliances such as orthodontic devices and crowns to fit dental prescriptions.

Dental X-rays, Radiographs and Bitewings: All are different names for photographic images of the teeth obtained through the use of small amounts of radiation. These images are used to discover hidden cavities and flaws in teeth.

Dentist: Medical persons whose primary occupation is caring for teeth, gums, and jaws. Dental care includes general work such as fillings, cleaning, extractions, and also specialized work such as root canals, fittings for braces, etc.

Dentures: False teeth that are removable from the mouth.

Dependent (for insurance purposes): A person who is covered by an insurance policy purchased or obtained by another individual (the policyholder).

Dependents (for tax filing purposes): For tax filing purposes, a dependent of the tax filer is someone who meets all of the following criteria:

  • is a relative of the tax filer, and
  • if married, does NOT file a joint return, and
  • is a U.S. citizen or is a resident alien or is a resident of either Canada or Mexico or is the personís adopted child who is not a U.S. citizen, but who lived with the person all year in a foreign country, and
  • has a gross income of less than $2,500, and
  • the tax filer had to provide over half the personís total support in the tax year.

DHHS Ė The Department of Health and Human Services, part of the United States Public Health Service.

Diabetes: Diabetes is a health problem caused by decreased production of insulin, or by decreased ability to use insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that is necessary for cells to be able to use blood sugar. Diabetes occurs in several forms, the most common are: Type I, Type II, and gestational diabetes.

Note: Gestational diabetes should not be recorded as a Priority Condition.
Gestational diabetes starts or is first recognized during pregnancy. It usually becomes apparent during the 24th to 28th weeks of pregnancy. In many cases, the blood-glucose level returns to normal after delivery.

Diabetic Equipment/Supplies: Any materials a diabetic uses in his/her everyday procedures to maintain their blood sugar at normal levels. Food items do not count as diabetic supplies.

Diagnosis or Treatment for a Health Problem: Diagnosis is an examination or test to detect the presence of a disease or other physical problem. Treatment is any procedure to counteract the effects of a disease or health care problem.

An example of a visit for 'diagnosis and treatment' is a person who had a fever and a sore throat: the provider diagnosed the condition as the flu, and recommended treatment of bed rest and aspirin.

Even if the provider determines the person does not have a health condition or if the provider is unable to determine what the problem is, the visit was for purposes of diagnosis regardless of the outcome of the examination.

If the only care received during the visit was tests such as blood work or x-rays, consider this 'diagnosis or treatment for a health problem' even if there is no known condition. For example, if a woman has a baseline mammogram, this is considered 'diagnosis' even if no condition is suspected or discovered.

Diagnostic Procedures: Examinations or tests that detect the presence of a disease or physical problem.

Diagnostic Tests: The administration of examinations or tests to detect the presence of a disease or physical problem.

Dietitian: Persons concerned with the application of the principles of nutrition to plan and supervise the preparation and serving of meals. Includes planning menus and diets for special nutritional requirements, participating in research, or instructing in the field of nutrition.

Difficulty Participating in Strenuous Activities: Strenuous activities are those that require great effort or energy, such as running, jumping, climbing, bicycling, etc. Difficulty exists when the person has trouble or becomes distressed when performing the activity. Be sure to keep in the mind the age of the child and expected abilities when coding this question.

Difficulty Talking: Talking is the process of expressing thoughts, feelings, and ideas through spoken words. A person has difficulty talking if he or she speaks very slowly, slurs his or her words, stutters, or is unable to speak due to an impairment or physical or mental health problem.

Difficulty Understanding: Understanding refers to the personís ability to comprehend or discern. Difficulty exists when the person has trouble with these activities or performs them at a level below his or her age.

Direct Payment: Any source that has paid the health care provider/pharmacy/place directly, that is, the family was not paid by the source in the anticipation that the family would in turn pay the provider. If this is the case, considered it a reimbursement, not a direct payment.

Disability: An inability to work or carry out roles that individuals are generally expected to be able to do because of limitations in physical or mental functioning caused by impairments, or physical or mental health conditions.

Disability Insurance: This kind of insurance pays all or part of an employee's salary (and possibly medical care costs) if the employee becomes unable to work due to physical or mental disability. The study does not consider this coverage to be health insurance.

Disallowed: A charge for a medical service rejected for coverage by a third party, such as Medicare, Medicaid, or an insurance company. Examples of situations where a charge may be disallowed by a third party are the deductible has not been met, the service is not covered under the person's plan, or the charge does not qualify as "usual and customary."

Disapproved: A charge not covered by a third party payer.

Discharge: The formal release of a patient from a physician's care or from a hospital. Sometimes a discharge is referred to as "signing out."

Discounted: A deduction from a specified sum a provider has charged for health care services. The discount may be accounting for a discrepancy between what the provider "asked" as the total charge and the sum of the amount paid by the person and the amount paid by a third party.

Discounted Fee-for-Service: A method of paying health care providers that is typical of some managed care arrangements. In discounted fee-for-service, providers charge a managed care plan a reduced amount for each service, in return for increased patient volume.

Disposable Supplies: Includes disposable medical items used in the treatment of a health problem. Disposable supplies include, but are not limited to, ostomy supplies, bandages, dressings, tape, adult diapers, catheters, syringes, and IV supplies.

Dividends: Profit from a company that is divided among stockholders, creditors, members of a cooperative, etc. These amounts can be found on form 1099-DIV.

Divorced: Legal cancellation of marriage.

Doctorate Degree: The highest educational degree given by a college or university to a person who has completed a prescribed course of advanced graduate study. Examples include a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.), Doctor of Laws (J.D.), Doctor of Medicine (M.D.), etc.

Doctors' Clinic: A group of doctors who have organized their practice in a clinical setting and work cooperatively; generally, patients either came in without an appointment or make an appointment and see whatever doctor is available.

Does Not Work Overtime: An employee who does not work more than the standard number of hours in a set work schedule, normally 40 hours per week or 8 hours per day, would be coded in this category.

Domestic Worker: Persons who provide cleaning, cooking, or other household chores services for the RU member because of his or her health problem.

Dread Disease Insurance: These plans are limited to only certain types of illnesses such as cancer, stroke, or heart attacks.

Dressing: The overall complex behavior of getting clothes from closets and drawers and then putting the clothes on. Dressing includes getting clothes from the closet and putting them on but does not include undressing. Whether the RU wears nightclothes or street clothes is irrelevant; it is the act of getting clothes and putting them on that matters.

Dressing Aids, e.g., Zipper Pull: Items used to assist in the process of putting on and removing clothes, such as devices for buttoning, pulling up zippers, putting on shoes, etc.

Drowning: Any situation in which a person dies or nearly dies because his nose and mouth are submerged in water too long to allow him to breathe. Drownings can occur in any body of water including pools and bathtubs.

Drug and Alcohol Rehabilitation Center: A facility with an organized professional and trained staff that provides rehabilitative services to drug and alcohol dependent patients.

Drug or Alcohol Treatment: Any program of drug therapy or isolation used to help a patient withdraw from drug or alcohol dependency. An example of this kind of treatment is the prescription of a drug such as methadone to wean the patient from a harder drug.

Drug Store Pharmacy: An independent or chain retail store where the primary business is the service provided by the pharmacy.

DU: Dwelling Unit. The person or group of persons who live at an eligible address.

DU Member Roster: A list of all the persons in the Dwelling Unit.

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E

Earned Income Credit: An amount that can be deducted from the tax filerís net income in determining his/her taxable income. It is available to tax filers who do not have any qualifying children, earned less than $9,230 in the tax year, and the tax filer(s) are at least 25 years old on the last day of the tax year.

Ear Tubes (Tympanostomy Tubes): Tubes placed through the ear drum (tympanic membrane) to allow ventilation of the middle ear as part of the treatment of ear infections (otitis media with effusion).

Eclampsia: A toxemia of late pregnancy characterized by convulsions and coma, in addition to the symptoms listed for pre-eclampsia.

ECG (Electrocardiogram): A graphic record of the electrical activity of the heart.

EEG (Electroencephalogram): A graphic record of the electrical activity of the brain

EKG (Electrocardiogram): A graphic record of the electrical activity of the heart.

Elementary School, Grades 1-12 (for Caregiver Supplement): For this study, we have classified grades 1 through 8 as elementary school, and grades 9 through 12 as high school. However, you should note that the final grade of elementary school may be anywhere from grade 5 to grade 8, depending on the school system. So, if the respondent says the person you are asking about completed elementary school, probe to determine what grade that represents.

Elevator: A mechanism for raising or lowering people or things from one level to another.

Eligibility: Refers to whether data should be collected in the current round for the person. (See QxQs for a more detailed description.)

Emergency (e.g., Accident or Injury): Refers to immediate care intended to assess and address an acute problem that has the patient in extreme discomfort or threatens his/her life.

Emergency Room: A medical department at a hospital that is open 24 hours a day where no appointment is necessary in order to receive care. Medical care may be administered by a physician, nurse, physician assistant, or other medical provider. Do NOT include "urgent care centers," which are owned by, or affiliated with a hospital. Visits made to that type of facility should be coded as an outpatient department.

Emergency Room Visit: Any visit made during the person's reference period to a hospital emergency room.

Emotional Problem: A kind of mental health problem affecting a person's emotional well being.

Employee Assistance Program (EPA): A relatively new program that may be offered as part of an employer's benefit package. An EAP provides confidential assistance to employees with personal problems (substance abuse, physical or behavioral issues) adversely affecting job performance. An EAP is not a form of health insurance, but is often coordinated with health insurance benefits.

Employer Health Care Coalition: A voluntary organization involved with issues of health care costs, quality of care, utilization data analysis and legislative concerns. Originally open only to employers, employer coalition membership now includes health care providers, purchasers of care, consumer members and union groups.

Employer-Sponsored Coverage: Coverage for an individual or family which is generally purchased by their employer or a family member's employer. At least a portion of the premiums are paid by the employer and sometimes a portion is paid by the policyholder.

Employment: Paid work for wages, salary, commission, or pay "in kind". Examples of "pay in kind" include meals, living quarters, or supplies provided in place of wages. This definition of employment includes work in the person's own business, professional practice, or farm, paid leaves of absence (including vacations and illnesses), and work without pay in a family business or farm run by a relative. This definition excludes unpaid volunteer work (such as for a church or charity), unpaid leaves of absences, temporary layoffs (such as a strike), and work around the house.

Endodontist: A dental specialist who performs root canal work and otherwise deals with diseases of the dental pulp and roots.

Enrollee: A person who is eligible, as a subscriber or dependent, to receive benefits under a health insurance contract. Synonyms include beneficiary, eligible individual, insured, member and participant. (See also Subscriber.)

EOB - Explanation of Benefits: A form which explains how benefits are paid by an insurance plan.

Epidural (Spinal): Injection of a local anesthesia into the spinal column in order to anesthetize the abdominal and pelvic area during childbirth. The purpose of an epidural or spinal is to decrease the amount of pain the mother feels during childbirth.

EPO - Exclusive Provider Organization: Similar to a PPO, it is an arrangement between purchasers and providers to deliver health services to a group of employees/patients. An insurance carrier or employer negotiates discounted fees with providers in return for guaranteeing a certain volume of patients. Unlike a PPO, employees/patients are limited to an exclusive panel of providers and receive no reimbursements for using providers outside of the panel. Providers are usually reimbursed by discounted fee-for-service payments.

Eskimo (Aleut): Includes persons having origins in any of the original peoples of Alaska and northern Canada who maintain cultural identification through tribal affiliation or community recognition.

Establishment Roster: An RU level list of names and addresses of employers, unions, and sources of health insurance associated with the family members.

Estate or Trust (for tax Filing Purposes): Include income that was the beneficiaries' share of fiduciary income from any estate or trust, for example, income required to be distributed, amounts credited to beneficiaries' accounts from fiduciary income, and any "accumulation distribution" made by the fiduciary of a "complex trust" for income accumulated in prior tax years.

Exact Amount (for Overtime): Flat amount not derived from the straight time wage.

Exclusion: A specific illness or treatment that is not covered by a health plan or insurance contract. Generally, exclusions are listed in a separate section of the insurance contract.

Exclusive Provider Organization (EPO): Similar to a PPO, it is an arrangement between purchasers and providers to deliver health services to a group of employees/patients. An insurance carrier or employer negotiates discounted fees with providers in return for guaranteeing a certain volume of patients. Unlike a PPO, employees/patients are limited to an exclusive panel of providers and receive no reimbursements for using providers outside of the panel. Providers are usually reimbursed by discounted fee-for-service payments.

Executive, Administrative, and Managerial Occupations: Includes top and middle management occupations and occupations directly supportive to management which are concerned with achieving the overall objectives of an industrial, commercial, governmental, or other establishment. Top level managers include persons concerned with policy making, planning, staffing, directing and/or controlling activities. Middle managers include persons who plan or organize staff, direct and/or control activities at the operational level. Examples include program administrators, public officials, general managers, financial administrators, school administrators, company presidents, vice-presidents, etc.

Existing Condition: A condition that has been previously reported and recorded in the interview and, therefore, appears on the Condition Roster.

Extra Cash for Hospital Stays: These plans pay a specified amount of cash for each day or week that a person is hospitalized. The cash payment is not related in any way to the person's hospital or medical bills, and can be used for purposes other than paying medical expenses. For example, the extra cash can be used to pay for childcare when a parent is ill or to replace income from lost work. This study does not consider this coverage to be health insurance.

Extraction (tooth pulled): Removal of a tooth; includes both adult and baby teeth.

Eyeglasses: Devices worn outside the eye to correct vision problems. A magnifying glass for reading is not considered glasses.

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F

Facility (Type Provider): The provider is either a place, such as a hospital, clinic, emergency room, laboratory, etc., or the provider is an individual who is associated with a group practice, HMO, clinic, etc.

This category does not include individual providers or facilities all working at the same location, such as a "medical building" which houses several independently functioning medical offices, laboratories, doctors, etc.

Facility for the intellectually disabled: A facility which houses and tends to the daily needs of individuals who have been diagnosed with impaired learning ability and vocational limitations. Do not include "day care" facilities for the intellectually disabled.

Factory: Refers to factory buildings, railway yards, warehouses, workshops, loading platforms of factories or stores, etc. Construction projects (houses, bridges, new roads, etc.) as well as public or commercial buildings undergoing remodeling are also included. Other examples are logging camps, shipping piers, oil fields, shipyards, sand and gravel pits, canneries, and auto repair garages.

Fall: Any time a person is injured unintentionally because s/he hit the ground or another surface too hard. Do not include falls related to sports. These should be coded as 'sports injuries'.

Family Planning Center: A facility that provides social, educational, or medical services and supplies to help individuals determine family size or prevent unplanned pregnancies. This may include birth control counseling and referral, abortion services and referral, pregnancy testing, sterilization counseling, venereal disease referrals, public education service, and infertility counseling and referrals.

Family Sends in Claim Forms: The RU member or family must pay the full amount of the prescription 'up-front' to the pharmacy or prescription mail-order firm. The family later completes a claim form so his or her insurance company will reimburse all or a portion of the prescription cost.

Family Support Services and Respite Care: Family support services include discussion groups or instruction to help family members care for people with impairments or physical or mental health problems. Respite care is care received for only a limited time by severely disabled or impaired persons (e.g., quadriplegics, developmentally disabled children, or Alzheimer patients) as a way of providing an interval of rest or relief to family members who are the usual primary caregivers at home.

Farm and Business:

  • Farm: Includes buildings on the premises of a farm, such as a barn or farm house, or on any land that is part of the farm, such as land under cultivation.
     
  • Business: A business exists when one or more of the following conditions are met: (1) Machinery or equipment of substantial value is in use in conducting business; (2) an office, store or other place of business is maintained, or (3) the business is advertised by listing in the classified section of the phone book, displaying a sign, distributing cards or leaflets, or any other methods which publicize that the work or service is offered to clients.

Farm Income or Loss (for Tax Filing Purposes): Include income or loss associated with being the sole proprietor of a farm. Farm business costs and expenses are deductible from farm gross business receipts in arriving at farm net profit or loss. Gains and losses from these sources are calculated on Schedule F.

Father (for Reenumeration): One's male biological or adoptive parent. Does not include step-father or foster father.

Father-In-Law: The male parent of one's spouse.

Father's Partner: When there are two people living together as married (both same sex or different sexes), this is the relationship of the partner to her/his counterpart's child.

Federal Employees Health Benefit Program (FEHBP): Voluntary group health insurance plan offered to employees and retirees of the Federal government. An important feature of the FEHBP is the wide range of available plans.

Federal Government: Federal employees include individuals working for any branch of the federal government, as well as elected officials and civilian employees of the armed forces.

Fee-for-Service (FFS): The traditional payment arrangement between a provider and a patient in which a provider charges a specified amount for each encounter or service.

Female Partner: A female in a relationship of two people who are living together as married. This applies both to relationships of people of the same sex and of different sexes.

Fertility Clinic: A facility that provides services designed to aid in the capacity to conceive or induce conception. People sometimes go to fertility clinics when they are having difficulty getting pregnant (or getting someone else pregnant).

FFS - Fee-for-Service: The traditional payment arrangement between a provider and a patient in which a provider charges a specified amount for each encounter or service.

Filing Jointly: When the person files his/her tax return under the tax filing status of Ďmarried filing joint return.í This tax filing status can be used by anyone who was married as of December 31st of the tax year (even if person was not living with the spouse at the end of the tax year) or whose spouse died between January 1st of the tax year and April 31st of the following year and the person did not remarry. Reports taxable income of two tax filers: a husband and wife.

Fillings: A substance of plastic, amalgam, gold, etc. which are used to close a cavity in a decayed tooth. The substance is placed directly into the cleaned cavity and then shaped to match the rest of the tooth.

Fire: Include any heated surface or material which would cause a burn specifically because it is hot. Examples would be scalding water, a stove top, and a radiator. Also include chemicals which cause burns.

First Dollar Coverage: A type of health insurance coverage with no deductible. The insurer pays "from the first dollar."

Fixed Bridges: A fixed replacement for one or several natural teeth, attached at each end to a natural tooth.

Flat Fee: A situation where the person is charged a 'lump sum' for a variety of services or a series of visits which relate to the same condition.

Flexible Spending Account (FSA): A benefit which may be offered as part of an employer's benefit package. An FSA provides employees with a choice between increased taxable income and nontaxable funds set aside for medical, dental, legal and day-care services. An FSA is not a type of health insurance but can be used to reimburse health-related expenses (deductibles, copayment and non-covered benefits). (See also Cafeteria Plan.)

Fluoride Treatment: The application of a solution containing the chemical fluoride, which is intended to make the teeth more resistant to tooth decay.

Flu Vaccination: A flu vaccination protects a patient against "influenza," also called the flu.  The vaccine, which may be in the form of a shot given in the arm or a nasal spray, can help to prevent the patient from catching a severe respiratory infection that can be caused by the flu virus.

Follow-up Care: Additional consultations or treatments with a medical provider after the condition had initially been diagnosed and treated.

Follow-up Visit: Includes visits to check on patient's progress after some type of surgery or other medical treatment. This includes visits to verify that patient has fully recovered, to remove stitches or a cast, or to adjust medications.

Food Stamps: The Food Stamps Program enables low-income families to buy eligible nutritious foods with coupons and Electronic Benefits Transfer (EBT) cards in authorized retail food stores.

Foot Doctors (Podiatrists): Medical person who deals with examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases, conditions, and malfunctions affecting the human foot and its related structures.

Forceps: An instrument used to grasp, hold, or pull objects during surgery. In the context of pregnancy and delivery, forceps are used during childbirth to apply to the infant's head and then pull gently in order to pull the infant out from the birth canal.

Foreign Country (FC): Please use the code 'FC' anytime the respondent indicates that the address, provider, job, pharmacy, etc. was not in one of the 50 states. Record the name of the city or province, and the country name in the city field. Record 'FC' in the state field. For example, if your respondent lives in Buffalo, NY and reported that he or she worked in Toronto, Canada, you would record 'Toronto, Canada' in the city field and 'FC' in the state field.

Foreign (Non-U.S.) Government: Individuals who work for a government other than the U.S. This includes all levels of government as long as it is non-U.S. Do not use this answer category for individuals working at some level of non-foreign government, but who work outside the boundaries of the U.S. For example, a person working for the U.S. State Department in Africa.

Foster Care Relationship: A relationship between a substitute family and a minor child who is unable to live with his/her biological parent(s). The minor living in this relationship is considered a "foster child."

A 401(K) is a optional retirement plan supported by many companies. This money is taken out and invested before the employee's paycheck is taxed. The plan is set up by a qualified employer with the primary contributions being deposited by the employee. Often there is a company matching plan where they will also contribute a percentage of the money the employee contributed. While the 401(k) continues to grow, taxes will not be paid on it. When the employee withdraws the money at retirement, he/she will be taxed on the amount in the account. There is a penalty to remove the money prior to retirement age; however, many plans allow the employee to borrow money using the plan as collateral or remove the money without penalty in certain emergencies. These amounts can be found on form 1099-R.

Free Clinic: A neighborhood clinic or health program that provides health services in a relatively informal setting to students, transient youth, and minority groups. Care is provided free or for a nominal charge by staff members who are predominantly volunteers.

Free from Provider (Professional Courtesy/Free Sample): The provider provided the services as a professional courtesy extended from one provider to another or to family members or office staff. This can also include free samples of medicine, or the donation of a provider's services. This does not include visits to public or 'free' clinics where the services are covered by public and/or private funding sources. Such situations should be coded as '10' (No bill sent: Public clinic/health center or private charity).

Free Samples: Limited amounts of a prescription medication which are given out by doctors to patients free of charge, sometimes in lieu of a written or verbal prescription.

Friend (Home Health Provider): A medical or non-medical person providing some type of home health services to the RU member. This person must fulfill the following requirements:

  1. Friend was not paid.
     
  2. Friend is not part of the RU or DU.
     
  3. Friend is not related to the RU member receiving the care.
     
  4. Friend is not providing the care because of an affiliation with a volunteer group.

Full-Time (School Attendance): A person is considered to be attending school full-time if s/he is carrying a full load of class hours in a semester or quarter.

Full-Time Active Duty (with the Armed Forces): This includes persons on full-time active duty in the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard unit presently activated as part of the regular Armed Forces and persons in the Reserve Forces on a six-month active service (in connection with the provisions of the Reserve Force Act of 1955).

Fully Recovered: A person is recovered if he/she has returned to a previous state of health or function that preceded the occurrence of the disease, disability, or accident.

Functional Limitations: A subjective assessment of inability to perform physical or mental tasks associated with usual roles and daily activities that are caused by an impairment or physical or mental health problems. Includes restriction in physical mobility, dexterity, communication, learning ability and cognitive capacity.

Further Treatment or Consultation: This refers to additional medication, tests, examination, surgery, procedures or consultations in addition to the treatments and consultations the patient had already been through.

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G

GED (General Educational Development): An exam certified equivalent of a high school diploma.

General Checkup: A visit to determine the general state of a person's health. Includes physical examinations required to obtain employment, for college entrance, to obtain insurance, periodic (yearly) general checkups, visits to the well-baby clinic, etc. Not included are visits for a checkup or examination for a specific condition such as TB or a heart condition.

General Dentist: A general dentist conducts routine examinations, fills cavities, extracts teeth (except for wisdom teeth), and performs services not done by the specialists listed in the other parts of this question.

General Educational Development (GED) or High School Equivalency: If the person has not actually completed all four years of high school, but has acquired his/her GED (high school equivalency), count this as you would a high school graduate and enter code "12".

General Exam (Dental): Refers to the activity performed by either a dentist or a dental hygienist to determine whether cavities or gum disease have developed, or whether examination by a specialist may be necessary.

General Health Coverage: Health insurance that covers a broad range of health care services, including those caused by illnesses, disease, etc., as well as, injuries and accidents.

Gestational Diabetes: The onset or recognition of diabetes during pregnancy.

Give Birth to a Baby (mother): Hospital stays due to the emergence and separation of offspring from the body of the mother. Includes normal childbirth (delivery of baby through the birth canal) and cesarean section (surgical operation for delivering a baby by cutting through the mother's abdominal and uterine walls).

Going to School: RU member is no longer employed in order to attend classes at any kind of public or private school, including trade or vocational schools in which students receive no compensation in money or kind, or only minimal educational stipends (fellowship, scholarship).

Government, Corporate, Municipal, Foreign Bonds and Bond Funds: A certificate of debt issued by a corporation, government (local or federal), or foreign country that guarantees payment of the original investment plus interest by a specified future date.

Government-Financed Research and Clinical Trials: This includes all charges that were paid by the government or a research institute in return for the person's participation in medical research. The research may take the form of clinical trials of an experimental medication, which are part of the government's medical approval process. The person's participation does not necessarily involve a specific health condition.

Government Savings Bond: Any of various series of interest-bearing certificates issued by a government (local, state, or federal). promising to pay the holder a specified sum on a specified date, usually maturing over long periods.

Grade or Year (of Regular School): For this study, we have classified grades 1 through 8 as elementary school, and grades 9 through 12 as high school. However, you should note that the final grade of elementary school may be anywhere from grade 5 to grade 8, depending on the school system. So, if the respondent says the person you are asking about completed elementary school, probe to determine what grade that represents.

Completing a given grade in school should be counted as the number of years it normally takes to complete that grade level of education, regardless of how many years it actually took the person to finish. This means that for persons who skipped or repeated grades in elementary school, you will enter the highest grade completed regardless of the number of years they were in school. This rule is true for elementary school through high school and is especially relevant to college. For example, if the person you are asking about is reported as having a 'Bachelor's degree', it should be coded as '16' (College - Fourth Year) regardless of how many years it took him/her to receive it. Code '17' (College - Five or More Years) should be entered only if the person has completed one or more years of graduate or professional school.

Grades 1-12: Includes elementary school, middle school, and high school (both junior and senior high school). The school can be public, private, military, or parochial.

Graduate Degree: Any college degree BEYOND a Bachelorís Degree including masterís degrees (e.g., M.A., M.S., etc.) or doctorate degrees (e.g., Ph.D., J.D., M.D., D.D.S., etc.). If the person has some graduate level education, but has not received a graduate degree, use the "College Graduate" category.

Grandchild: A child of one's daughter or son.

Granddaughter: The female child of one's son or daughter.

Grandfather: The male parent of one's mother or father.

Grandmother: The female parent of one's mother or father.

Grandson: The male child of one's son or daughter.

Grandparent: A parent of one's mother or father, includes grandmother (the female parent of one's mother or father) and grandfather (the male parent of one's mother or father).

Group (or Association) - Health Insurance: Includes many types of organizations, but principally groups like the American Association of Retired Persons (AARP), church groups, or clubs. It also may include professional associations. These are organizations of individuals that share an interest or common characteristic or a professional affiliation (for example, the American Medical Association). Membership may include the right to buy health insurance through the organization or association.

Group Homes: A place that offers residents help with activities such as bathing and dressing, but do not provide 24-hour nursing services. (Some residents at a residential care facility may not require such assistance, but it must be available to them.) This is typically a family type setting which encourages individual participation in household roles and facilitates self-care goals in conjunction with day placement activities and other services. A group home may be Medicaid certified.

Guide Dogs or Other Animal Assistants: Guide dogs are specially trained dogs to assist the blind or partially sighted persons with mobility. There are a variety of animals (dogs, monkeys, etc.) that assist persons with special needs, including alerting the person to various noises, bringing things to them, etc.

Gum Surgery: Procedures or surgeries that treat diseases in the bone, connective tissue, and gums surrounding and supporting the teeth.

Gun: Includes guns that do not shoot bullets, such as BB guns, air rifles, and pellet guns. Do not include guns that are clearly intended to be toys, such as water guns, dart and cap guns.

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H

Half Day or More: If a person's work or school day is 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m., for example, and he/she stayed home from work or school for more than 3 hours of that time, we consider this as having missed a half day or more. If a person's work for pay is usually done at home, or if a person does housework for pay, include any half days missed from such work when it is due to illness or injury.

Handlers, Equipment Cleaners, Helpers, and Laborers: Includes occupations helping other workers and performing routine nonmachine tasks. Examples includes helpers within various trades, construction laborers, garbage collectors, baggage handlers, garage and service station attendants, parking lot attendants, vehicle washers and equipment cleaners, hand packers, manual workers, etc.

Handrails or Ramps: Handrails serve as a support to be held by the hand. Ramps are sloping surfaces that connect different levels.

Hands On (Help with Bathing or Showering): Providing physical help with bathing or showering such as preparing the bath water (either in a tub or shower or in a basin for a sponge bath), helping the person get in or out of the tub or shower, washing any part of the personís body, shampooing the personís hair, helping dry the person, etc.

Hands On (Help with Dressing): Providing physical help with dressing such as getting the clothes from the closet or dresser, putting the clothes on the person, zipping or buttoning the clothes, etc.

Hands On (Help with Eating): Providing physical help with eating such as placing the food in the personís mouth, helping the person guide the fork or spoon to his or her mouth, etc.

Hands On (Help with Getting Out of Bed or a Chair): Providing physical help with getting out of bed or a chair such as lifting the person from the bed or chair or supporting the person as they get up.

Hands On (Help with Getting To/Using Toilet): Providing physical help with toileting such as getting to the bathroom, adjusting clothes, helping person on and off toilet, cleaning the person after elimination, etc.

Have High School Diploma: A certificate that verifies that a person has successfully completed the required courses of a high school curriculum. By "have a high school diploma," we mean did the person graduate from high school rather than literally do they have the document bearing record of graduation.

Head of Household: This is the person in the household who has the primary responsibility for the care of the family.

Head of Household with Qualifying Person: A tax filing status that can be used by anyone who is UNMARRIED and who paid over half of the cost of keeping up a home that was the main home for all of the tax year for any of the following people:

  • the personís parent(s); or
  • the personís UNMARRIED child, adopted child, stepchild, grandchild, etc. (the child does not have to be a dependent); or
  • the personís MARRIED child, adopted child, stepchild, grandchild, etc. (the child must be a dependent); or
  • the personís foster child (the child must be a dependent); or
  • any other of the personís relatives who is a dependent.

This filing status can also be used by someone who is married and who is legally separated from his/her spouse in the tax year and who:

  • has lived apart from his/her spouse for the last six months of the tax year, and
  • files a separate return from his/her spouse, and
  • paid over half of the cost of keeping up his/her home during the tax year, and
  • provided his/her home as the main home of his/her child, adopted child, stepchild, or foster child for more than half of the tax year, and
  • claimed this child as his/her dependent.

Reports taxable income of one tax filer.

Health Aide: A nursing assistant who provides personal care and home management services to allow patients to live in their own homes. They work under the supervision of a physician or registered nurse and may help patients bathe, exercise, and dress. They may also check the patient's temperature, blood pressure, pulse and respiration rates, and help give medications.

Health Care Purchasing Alliance: An organization which allows individuals or small employers to band together in order to buy insurance at more favorable premium rates. Its basic functions are to bargain with and purchase health insurance on behalf of consumers and to furnish information to consumers on the services provided, evaluations of the quality of care available, and price of competing health care sources.

They may also be referred to as:

  • HA: health alliances,
  • HIPC: health insurance purchasing corporations,
  • HIPC: health insurance purchasing cooperative, or
  • HPPC or HICK-PIX: health plan purchasing cooperative.

Health Care Events: Visits to and care received by medical providers.

NOTE: Events are collected through the Provider Probes and can be edited through the Event Driver. Each event is unique and is identified by the following three elements:

  1. the RU member;
  2. the medical provider; and
  3. the date(s) of the visit/service.

Health Clinic: Refers to a facility where medical care and advice are given by doctors, nurses, or other medical persons, but is not located at a hospital.

Health Conditions: Diseases or ailments. A disease is an illness or disorder of the function of the body or of certain tissues, organs, or systems, which is characterized by an identifiable group of symptoms. An ailment is a mild mental or physical disorder. An example of a health condition is influenza; some of its symptoms are fever, chills, and dizziness. Health conditions may be either physical or mental. Be sure to record conditions only; do not record symptoms here unless the respondent cannot give a condition name.

Health Insurance: Health benefits coverage which provides persons with health-related benefits. Coverage may include the following; hospitalization, major medical, surgical, prescriptions, dental, and vision.

Health Insurance or Another Source of Coverage: Any individual, company, or organization, besides the person or family, that made any payments to the pharmacy for the prescription medicines received. This includes: health insurance companies, HMOs, Medicare, Medicaid, SCHIP (State Childrenís Health Insurance Program) or other types of public health programs. This also includes other types of coverage which may sometimes pay for prescription medicines, such as employers, car or home ownerís insurance, workerís compensation policies, etc.

Health Insurance Deduction: Since 1996, self-employed individuals may deduct as an adjustment to gross income 30 percent of the amount paid for medical insurance for themselves and their family. The balance of the cost may be included with other medical care expenses as an itemized deduction subject to the 7.5 percent deduction threshold based on AGI. However, self-employed persons are not allowed this deduction if they or their spouses were employees and eligible to participate in an employer-subsidized health plan. Persons who are not self-employed do not get this special deduction, but can include what they pay out of pocket for health insurance premiums if they itemize their deductions, subject to the 7.5 percent AGI threshold. If the person responds that he/she does not qualify for this deduction, code '3' (not applicable).

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA): Federal legislation that went into effect April 14, 2003. HIPAA created national standards for ensuring the privacy of health care records. It establishes guidelines for medical providers, pharmacies, and health insurers to follow in handling health care information that identifies individual patients. One important section of the new law requires medical providers to obtain a signed authorization form from a patient before releasing information about that patient to a third party who is not involved in providing health care. The law also creates new requirements for the information that must appear on the authorization form.

Health Insurance Purchasing Alliance: An organization which allows individuals or small employers to band together in order to buy insurance at more favorable premium rates. Its basic functions are to bargain with and purchase health insurance on behalf of consumers and to furnish information to consumers on the services provided, evaluations of the quality of care available, and price of competing health care sources.

They may also be referred to as:

  • HA: health alliances,
  • HIPC: health insurance purchasing corporations,
  • HIPC: health insurance purchasing cooperative, or
  • HPPC or HICK-PIX: health plan purchasing cooperative.

Health Maintenance Organization (HMO): HMOs are organizations that have responsibility for providing comprehensive health care services in exchange for fixed periodic payment. With an HMO, a person must generally receive care from HMO physicians; otherwise the expense is not covered unless the person was referred by the HMO or there was a medical emergency. With an HMO, the cost of a visit is typically covered in full or you have to pay a fixed amount of money per visit. HMOs can be sponsored by government, medical schools, hospitals, employers, labor unions, consumer groups, insurance companies, and hospital-medical plans.

Health Problem: Disease, illness, or a problem with the functioning of the body or organs. Health problems may be either physical or mental. An example of a health problem is influenza; some of its symptoms are fever, chills, and dizziness. Health problems may be either physical or mental. Be sure to record health problems only; do not record symptoms at CE03 or CE04 unless the respondent cannot give a condition name. For this study, pregnancy is also considered a medical condition and SHOULD be recorded on the conditions roster. Although not an illness or impairment, it calls for medical advice and assistance and is an important element in a study of health care utilization and costs.

Health Professional: A person whose job is to provide medical treatment, nursing care, or therapy to persons with health problems. Examples include medical doctors, nurses, and physical therapists.

Health Purchasing Alliance: An organization which allows individuals or small employers to band together in order to buy insurance at more favorable premium rates. Its basic functions are to bargain with and purchase health insurance on behalf of consumers and to furnish information to consumers on the services provided, evaluations of the quality of care available, and price of competing health care sources.

They may also be referred to as:

  • HA: health alliances,
  • HIPC: health insurance purchasing corporations,
  • HIPC: health insurance purchasing cooperative, or
  • HPPC or HICK-PIX: health plan purchasing cooperative.

Hearing Aid: A small electronic apparatus that amplifies sound and is worn in or behind the ear to compensate for impaired hearing.

Hearing Devices: Items used to correct or assist with impaired hearing. Hearing devices include, but are not limited to, hearing aids, amplifiers for a telephone, adaptive speech equipment, and speech synthesizers.

Help and Assistance: Help and assistance from other household members includes a range of behaviors. The concept includes physically assisting an activity (including another person doing the entire activity, such as bathing RU member from head to toe), instruction (guiding the person through the activity), making sure the activity is done correctly (without harm), and being present or nearby (in case the person needs help with the activity).

Help (Similar to Supervision): Help or supervision from another person includes a range of behaviors. The concept includes physically assisting an activity, instruction, and being present or nearby. (See QxQs for additional discussion and examples.)

Help Bathing or Showering: Bathing and showering is the overall complex behavior of getting water and cleaning the whole body. Bathing includes the process of taking a sponge, shower, or tub bath to wash the whole body. Note that sponge baths count as bathing. Help includes a range of behaviors including another person physically assisting the RU member in bathing or showering, providing instruction, and being present or nearby.

Help Dressing: Dressing is the overall complex behavior of getting clothes from closets and drawers and then putting the clothes on. Tying shoelaces is NOT considered part of dressing, but putting on socks or hose is. Whether a person wears nightclothes or street clothes is irrelevant. Help includes a range of behaviors including another person physically assisting the RU member dress, providing instruction, and being present or nearby.

Help Eating: Eating involves the process of getting food from a plate or its equivalent into the mouth, chewing the food, and swallowing. Pre-cutting of meat and preparation of food, such as buttering bread, are not included as part of eating. A person who does not ingest food by mouth (i.e., is fed by tube or intravenously) does not eat at all. Help includes a range of behaviors including another person physically assisting the RU member, providing instruction, and being present or nearby.

Help Getting Out of Bed or a Chair: Getting out of bed or a chair involves completely lifting the body out of the chair or bed. Wheelchairs should be included as chairs. Help includes a range of behaviors including another person physically assisting the RU member, providing instruction, and being present or nearby.

Help Getting To/Using Toilet: Getting to and using the toilet is the overall complex behavior of going to the room termed the "toilet room", "bathroom", or "restroom" for bowel and bladder function, moving on and off the toilet, cleaning after elimination, and washing hands and arranging clothes when done. Help includes a range of behaviors including another person physically assisting the RU member, providing instruction, and being present or nearby.

Help/Supervision Doing Laundry: Doing laundry includes washing and drying clothes. This includes washing things out by hand in a sink, using a washer and dryer in the home, hanging clothes on a clothes line to dry, and using the facilities at a laundromat. Help or supervision includes a range of behaviors

including another person physically assisting the RU member, providing instruction, and being present or nearby.

Help/Supervision Doing Light Housework: Doing light housework includes housekeeping activities that do not require a great deal of strength or endurance such as straightening up, putting things away, washing dishes, dusting, vacuuming, sweeping, making beds, etc. Do NOT include more difficult activities such as washing windows, scrubbing floors, yard work, etc.

Help/Supervision Getting Around in Community Outside of Walking Distance: Getting around in the community outside of walking distance involves driving, using public transportation, or arranging for and taking taxis. Help or supervision includes a range of behaviors including another person physically assisting the RU member, providing instruction, and being present or nearby.

Help/Supervision Managing Money: Managing money refers to the overall complex process of paying bills, handling simple cash transactions, and generally keeping track of money coming in and money going out. It does not include managing investments, preparing tax forms, or handling other financial activities for which members of the general population often seek professional advice. Help or supervision includes a range of behaviors including another person physically assisting the RU member, providing instruction, and being present or nearby.

Help/Supervision Preparing Meals: Preparing meals is the overall complex process of cutting, mixing, and cooking food. The amount of food prepared is not relevant. Preparing meals may be as simple as heating up a TV dinner, using the microwave, or boiling an egg. Help or supervision includes a range of behaviors including another person physically assisting the RU member, providing instruction, and being present or nearby.

Help/Supervision Shopping for Groceries: Shopping for groceries includes the complex behavior of going to the store, selecting the items, and getting them home. Delivery service is not help with shopping if done as a convenience. Help or supervision includes a range of behaviors including another person physically assisting the RU member, providing instruction, and being present or nearby.

Help/Supervision Taking Medications: Taking medications includes opening the medicine container, reading the correct dosage, preparing the dose, and administering the medicine, whether it be swallowing a pill or spreading a lotion. Help or supervision includes a range of behaviors including another person physically assisting the RU member, providing instruction, and being present or nearby.

Help with Daily Activities: Includes help with getting to places outside of walking distance, using the telephone, paying bills, going shopping, housework, preparing meals, taking medications, or doing laundry because of the personís impairment or a physical or mental health problem.

Help with Personal Care: Includes help with getting in or out of bed or a chair, walking, eating, going to the bathroom, bathing or showering, or dressing because of the personís impairment or a physical or mental health problem.

Herbal Remedies: The use of plant-based substances to prevent or treat a health problem or to maintain good health. Herbal remedies are available in many forms, including pills, liquids, and creams.

Herbalist: A person who uses plant-based substances to prevent or treat a health problem or to maintain good health. Herbal remedies are available in many forms, including pills, liquids, and creams.

HH Membership Rules: Persons are considered members of this RU if they are related to the reference person by blood, marriage, or adoption and who have no other permanent address elsewhere, or who spend most of the year in this dwelling unit even though they may have another residence.

Consider persons who are just temporarily away (in a hospital, away on a business trip, or on vacation) as still in this RU. A student in grades 1 through 12 who is away at school should NOT be excluded from this RU. However, a student who is living away at post-secondary school should be excluded from this RU at this question.

During Round 1 you may learn that a person listed as a member of the household at the time of the NHIS was listed incorrectly. That is, he or she did not meet the rules of household membership for this RU at the time of the NHIS. For example, the person may have been just visiting at the time of the NHIS, but had a primary residence elsewhere or the person may not be related to the reference person. If either situation applies, enter code 3 ĎIncorrectly listed in RU during NHISí for this person.

High Blood Pressure: Also known as hypertension, persistently high arterial blood pressure that is associated with increased risk of sickness and mortality from heart disease and kidney disease.

High Blood Sugar: A diagnosis that there is a greater than normal amount of glucose (blood sugar) in the blood.

High Option: With a high option choice, the premiums are typically much higher, however, the cost-sharing requirements are usually much lower. For example, the percentage the family must pay for services such as hospital stays, x-rays, outpatient visits, other diagnostic tests, etc., after the deductible is met, is typically lower, such as 10% versus 25% with a low option choice.

High School Diploma: A certificate that verifies that a person has successfully completed the required courses of a high school curriculum. By "have a high school diploma," we mean did the person graduate from high school rather than literally do they have the document bearing record of graduation.

High School Equivalency (GED-General Educational Development): An exam certified equivalent of a high school diploma.

HIPA: Health Insurance Policy Abstraction.

HIPS: Health Insurance Provider Survey, one of the four components of MEPS

HIPAA: See Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act.

HMO Plan: (See Health Maintenance Organization).

HMO Clinic: A medical facility sponsored by an HMO that typically includes a group of doctors on staff.

HMO Medicare Contracts: HMOs may have special prepaid contracts with the Health Care Financing Administration to enroll persons on Medicare. There are three types of contracts - Risk, Cost and Health Care Prepayment (HCPP). Risk contracts basically serve as a replacement to Medicare. Cost and HCPP contracts are more similar to regular Medicare supplements.

HMO Pharmacy: Pharmacy that is located within an HMO.

Home: Anywhere the person was living at the time of the medical person's visit or accident. It may be the RU member's home, the home of a friend, a hotel room, etc., but not a hospital, nursing home, or other health care facility.

Home (Delivery): Anywhere the person was living at the time of the delivery. It may be the RU member's home, the home of a friend, a hotel room, etc., but NOT a hospital, nursing home, or other health care facility. Also, code this category even when the delivery at home was assisted by a midwife or some other medical person.

Home Health Agency: A public or private business or organization that provides nursing and general patient care services to patients in their homes. Home health agencies may provide therapeutic services (e.g., nursing services, physical therapy, occupational therapy, medical social services).

Home Health Care: Includes services received due to a health problem or condition. These services may be medical (e.g., physical therapy; checking temperature, blood pressure, and pulse and respiration rates; or helping to give medications) or personal (e.g., cleaning, repairs, cooking, or companionship).

Home Health/Home Care Aide: A certified health care worker who provides personal care and home management services to allow patients to live in their own homes. Working under the supervision of a physician or registered nurse, the home health aide may provide any of the following services: patient bathing, exercise, dressing, assisting the patient with medications, checking patient temperature, blood pressure, respiration and pulse.

Home Health Person: This includes two types:

  1. Medical home health person -- Nurses, home health aids, social workers, therapists, medical doctors, and any other medical persons who provide help with a health problem or condition in a person's home.

  2. Personal care home health person -- Non-medical person(s) who provide non-medical services such as cleaning, cooking, shopping, or companionship. Such a person can be paid or unpaid, such as a friend, neighbor, relative or volunteer.

Home Health Visit: Visits to the home from persons (e.g.: nurses, home health aids, social workers, therapists, or medical doctors) who provide help to a person who has a health problem or condition.

Non-medical services such as cleaning or cooking may be included if the service is provided for a person having a health problem. Such a person can be paid or unpaid, such as a friend, neighbor, relative or volunteer.

Homemaker: Persons who advise or help the RU member in dealing with problems, such as nutrition, cleanliness, and household utilities because of his or her health problem.

Homeopathic Doctor: A person who treats health problems based on a system of medicine based on the principle of Ďlike cures like.í Substances that cause the symptoms of a particular health problem are used in very small doses to treat the problem.

Homeopathic Treatment: A system of medicine based on the principle of Ďlike cures like.í Substances that cause the symptoms of a particular health problem are used in very small doses to treat the problem.

Hospice Care: A type of program that provides care and support services to the terminally ill. The intent is to allow the patient to live as fully as possible. Care and support may come from a variety of sources such as family, volunteers, nurses, social workers, the clergy, as well as physicians.

Hospice Worker: A person who provides health and personal care in the home to persons who are dying. They may administer medical treatments, help people bathe, dress, and eat, or help them manage their household affairs.

Hospital: A health care organization that has a governing body, an organized medical staff and professional staff, and inpatient facilities. Hospitals provide medical, nursing, and related services for ill and injured patients twenty-four hours per day, seven days per week.

Hospital Clinic or Outpatient Department: A unit of a hospital, a facility, or Ďurgent care centerí owned by or affiliated with a hospital. The hospital clinic or outpatient department provides health and medical services to individuals who do not require hospitalization overnight and may also provide general primary care. Do NOT include Ďurgent care centersí which are not owned by, or affiliated with a hospital. Urgent care centers which are NOT affiliated with or owned by a hospital should be coded as a Medical Provider visit. Examples of outpatient clinics include:

  • well-baby clinics/pediatric OPD;
  • obesity clinics;
  • eye, ear, nose, and throat clinics;
  • cardiology clinic;
  • internal medicine department;
  • family planning clinics;
  • alcohol and drug abuse clinics;
  • physical therapy clinics; and
  • radiation therapy clinics.

Hospital Emergency Room: A medical department at a hospital that is open 24 hours a day where no appointment is necessary in order to receive care. Medical care may be administered by a physician, nurse, physician assistant, or other medical provider. Do not include "urgent care centers," which are owned by, or affiliated with a hospital. Visits made to that type of facility should be coded as outpatient department visit.

Hospital Emergency Room Visit: Any visit made during the person's reference period to a hospital emergency room.

Hospital Outpatient Department Visit: Any visit made during the person's reference period to a hospital outpatient department. Urgent Care Center visits that are part of a hospital may be coded as an Outpatient visit (OP) depending on the situation.

Hospital and Physician Benefits: This category represents insurance plans that cover beneficiaries for health care services received from hospitals and physicians. Do not include dental insurance, vision insurance, etc.

Hospital Pharmacy: Pharmacy that is located within a hospital.

Hospital Stay: A visit to a hospital where a person is admitted to the hospital. While most in-patient stays are 24-hours or longer, a person need not have stayed overnight to have been "admitted" to a hospital; it is possible to be admitted and discharged on the same day

Hospitalization: See Hospital Stay.

Hospitalization (Coverage): The insurance plan in question provides coverage for when a person is admitted to a hospital.

Hours Worked Per Week (on which salary based): The number of hours worked per week on which the person's salary is based is often not the same as the hours actually worked. In this question, we want the number of hours on which the salary is based, regardless of how many actual hours the person works during the week. Overtime hours should not be included. By definition, salaried RU members are not compensated for overtime.

House Cleaner: Persons who provide cleaning services for the RU member because of his/her health problem.

Household: The household is all of the family members who are currently living in the RU being interviewed.

Household Component: One of the four components of MEPS. Households are selected and interviewed from a group of families previously interviewed in the National Health Interview Survey.

Household Chore Services: Help in the home with services like cooking or cleaning either paid or unpaid.

How Much Is In (For Certificates of Deposit, Savings Bonds, Treasury Bills, Checking, Savings, Money Market Accounts): The amount you would receive if you withdrew all the money in these accounts today. Do not deduct from this amount any penalties that might be incurred because of early withdrawal.

Husband/Spouse: One's male partner by a legal marriage.

Hypertension: Hypertension is also known as high blood pressure. It is defined as a long-term high resting systolic blood pressure (the "top" number, which represents the pressure generated when the heart beats) higher than 140, and/or high diastolic blood pressure (the "bottom" number, which represents the pressure in the vessels when the heart is at rest) above 90. Hypertension often has no symptoms, though patients often complain of headaches. Treatment typically includes medications and lifestyle changes, such as weight loss, exercise, and dietary adjustments.

NOTE: Pregnancy-induced hypertension, also known as preeclampsia, can happen in late pregnancy and is characterized by persistently high blood pressure, swelling of the extremities, and protein in the urine. Typically with pregnancy-induced hypertension, blood pressure returns to normal shortly after delivery. This type of pregnancy-induced hypertension should not be recorded as a Priority Condition.

Hypnosis: In order to treat a health problem or change unwanted behavior, an individual enters a trancelike state. The individual passively receives ideas, instructions, or suggestions from the hypnotist in order to treat phobias, anxiety, manage pain, or change behaviors.

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I

Illness: A medical condition that causes a person to feel sick. Many times this is characterized by a specific disease.

Illness/Injury (in terms of Employment): Inability to work due to impairments, or physical or mental health problems. The impairments or problems should be of such severity that it incapacitates the individual and prevents him/her from doing any kind of gainful employment.

Imagery, Meditation, or Relaxation Techniques: Techniques for attaining a state of physical relaxation and psychological calm such as the repetition of a mantra, concentration on mental images, or sitting quietly in a quiet place with eyes closed and body relaxed while paying close attention to breathing.

Immunizations: Oral medications or shots given to prevent the patient from contracting a communicable disease.

Impairment: Examples include missing limbs, fingers or other body parts; partial paralysis from an early case of polio, accident or war wound; stiff joints, deformed fingers or other physical evidence of arthritis; and vision or hearing loss.

Implants (Dental): Metal posts permanently imbedded in the jawbone to which false teeth are attached.

Improving Abilities: Improving the child's ability to participate in play activities where his/her ability to participate is limited because of some kind of difficulty associated with an impairment or a physical or mental health problem. Improving activity participation (for example, playing games) means that a child can do the activity for a longer period of time or in an improved way than he/she did before the intervention services.

In Another Store Pharmacy: Pharmacies that are located within another store, such as a department or grocery store. Pharmacies located within a K-mart or Wal-Mart are common examples of this type of pharmacy.

Included with Other Charges: This normally applies to a 'flat fee' situation where the person is charged a 'lump sum' for a variety of services or a series of visits which relate to the same condition.

Income Tax Refunds: These amounts represent that part of a refund of State (and Local, if applicable) income tax attributable to itemized deductions taken in a prior year that resulted in a Federal tax benefit. Typically the taxpayer reports as an itemized deduction for Federal income taxes the amount of State (and Local) income tax withheld from their earnings during the year. If the tax filer has more State and Local income tax withheld during the year than was required, the State government will reimburse or "refund" the over-payment during the following year.

Incorporated: Act which makes a business a taxable entity through establishment of a charter and the satisfaction of all state and/or federal regulations. Incorporated businesses act through its officers as a distinct entity, with by-laws and publicly or privately held stock.

Independent (or Individual) Practice Association (IPA): A physician or an organized group of physicians who contracts with a managed care plan to provide medical services to the planís enrollees. The enrollees prepay the plan with a monthly premium; the physicians are reimbursed by the plan on either a fee-for-service, discounted fee-for-service, capitation or other basis.

Indian Health Service (IHS): A Department of Health and Human Services health care program that provides medical care to eligible American Indians and Alaska Natives at IHS facilities and pays for the cost of selected health care services at non-IHS facilities.

Individual Coverage: Coverage (in a health insurance plan) for an individual or family which is generally purchased through an insurance agent or broker, but can sometimes be purchased directly through an insurance company. Proof of good health may be required. Premiums are paid directly to the plan by the policyholder and are usually higher than group premiums.

Industry Site: Refers to factory buildings, railway yards, warehouses, workshops, loading platforms of factories or stores, etc. Construction projects (houses, bridges, new roads, etc.) as well as public or commercial buildings undergoing remodeling are also included. Other examples are logging camps, shipping piers, oil fields, shipyards, sand and gravel pits, canneries, and auto repair garages.

Infection Treatment (Dental): Refers to care for a localized infected area of the gum surrounding a tooth.

Infirmary: A place for care of sick or injured people, especially a small hospital or dispensary in an institution such as a school or other institution.

Informed Consent: This is when a study subject "consents" to participation after being fully informed about the research, his/her role in it, and risks or benefits posed by participation. As prescribed by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of April 2003, the following elements are detailed in study materials such as advance letters, brochures, fact sheets, and item B of the authorization form:

  • What can be disclosed
  • Who can disclose
  • To whom the information can be disclosed
  • Purpose of the disclose
  • Consequences for refusing to sign
  • Expiration of authorization
  • Right to revoke authorization, and
  • Disclosure after release

Injection: Medications taken directly into the bloodstream or directly into internal tissues through a shot with a needle. Insulin is a common type of injected medication.

Injury: Refers to physical problems that arose from some sort of external trauma to the body such as a fall or being in an auto accident. This refers to unexpected and undesirable events. Accidents may include poisonings, where the condition results from swallowing, drinking, breathing, or coming in contact with some poisonous substance or gas. Poisoning may also occur from an overdose of a substance that is nonpoisonous when taken in normal doses. Note that not all conditions with the word "poison" in them are the results of accidents or injuries; for example, poison oak, poison ivy, and ptomaine poisoning are diseases. Illnesses such as these, and other types of problems that arise due to a natural process in the body, such as any type of disease, should not be included.

Injury (Dental): Refers to dental problems that arose from some sort of external trauma to the mouth, such as being hit and having a tooth loosened, or falling and chipping a tooth. Do not include visits for routine examination or for work on problems that arose due to natural processes in the mouth, such as cavities or gum disease.

Inlay: A filling of metal, porcelain, or the like which is first shaped to fit a cavity and then cemented into it. The inlay is prepared outside of the patient's mouth.

Institution: A person is living in an institution if s/he is living in a facility that provides continuous nursing and personal care or if s/he is living in a correctional facility. Institutions include nursing homes, other long-term care facilities (excluding community-based hospitals, and other non-health care facilities. (See definitions of specific institution types elsewhere in Glossary.)

Institutional/Long Term Care Stay Event: When an RU member is admitted to one of the following types of health care institutions:

  • Convalescent/nursing home -- A nursing facility for patients who are recovering from severe illnesses or injuries, or who require continued care for an ongoing illness that is not in an acute stage. This is not the same as a retirement home.
     
  • Psychiatric institution -- A residential facility that provides diagnostic and treatment services to patients with mental or emotional disorders.
     
  • Facility for the intellectually disabled -- A facility which houses and tends to the daily needs of individuals who have been diagnosed with impaired learning ability and vocational limitations. This does not include "day care" facilities for the intellectually disabled.
     
  • Hospice care -- A type of program that provides care and support services to the terminally ill. The intent is to allow the patient to live as fully as possible. Care and support may come from a variety of sources such as family, volunteers, nurses, social workers, the clergy, as well as physicians. Do not include hospice care services delivered at the patient's home.
     
  • Respite care -- Care received for only a limited time by severely disabled or impaired persons (e.g., quadriplegics, developmentally disabled children, or Alzheimer patients) in a long-term care place (e.g., a nursing home) or another person's home, as a way of providing an interval of rest or relief to family members who are the usual primary caregivers at home.

Institutionalized: A person is institutionalized if s/he is living in a facility that provides continuous nursing and personal care (i.e., provides 24 hour nursing care and is staffed with trained medical personnel) or if s/he is living in a correctional facility. Institutions include nursing homes, other long-term health care institutions (exclude community-based hospitals), and other non-health care institutions. (See definitions of specific institution types elsewhere in Glossary.)

Institutionalized in a Health Care Facility: A person is institutionalized in a health care facility if s/he is living in a facility that provides continuous nursing and personal care (i.e., provides 24 hour nursing care and is staffed with trained medical personnel). Institutions that provide this type of care include:

  • Nursing Homes -- An institution that provides continuous nursing and other services to patients who are not acutely ill, but who need nursing and personal services as inpatients. A nursing home has permanent facilities and an organized professional staff.
     
  • Other Long-Term Care Institutions (Excluding Community-Based Hospitals) -- An institution, other than a nursing home or a community based hospital, that provides long-term care. Long-term care is care for patients, regardless of age, who have chronic diseases or disabilities, and who require preventative, diagnostic, therapeutic, and supportive services over long periods of time. Long term care may call on a variety of health care professionals (such as physicians, nurses, physical therapists, and social workers) as well as non-professionals (family, others) and may be delivered in a health care or other institution.

Institutionalized in a Non-Health Care Facility: A person is institutionalized in a non-health care facility if s/he is living in a correctional facility. Non-health care facilities include homes for juvenile delinquents, jails, and prisons.

Instruction or Prompting (with Bathing or Showering): Providing guidance while the person baths or showers, such as telling the person when he or she needs to bathe, telling the person where to wash, showing the person how to use the tub or shower, making sure the activity is done correctly, without harm, etc.

Instruction or Prompting (with Dressing): Providing guidance while the person dresses, such as telling the person when to get dressed, where to find the clothes, which things to wear, how to put the clothes on, etc.

Instruction or Prompting (with Eating): Providing guidance while the person eats, such as telling the person which food to put in their mouth, to chew and swallow, how to put the food in their mouth, etc.

Instruction or Prompting (with Getting Out of Bed or a Chair): Providing guidance while the person gets out of the bed or chair.

Instruction or Prompting (with Getting to/Using Toilet): Providing guidance while the person uses the toilet, such as asking the person if he or she needs to go to the toilet, telling the person where the toilet is or how to use the toilet, etc.

Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: Those activities that enhance life but are not required to maintain the basic level of life such as using the telephone, paying bills, going shopping, housework, preparing meals, taking medications, or doing laundry.

Insulin: A chemical used in the treatment of diabetes. Typically, insulin is administered with a syringe by the patient.

Insurance Agent: An individual primarily engaged in the business of selling insurance policies to the public.

Insurance Company: A corporation primarily engaged in the business of selling insurance policies to the public.

Insurance Company/Provider of Insurance (Insurance Cards): Enter the full name of the insurer or provider of the insurance as it is printed on the card. This may include a general name of an insurance or managed care company, as well as a specific product name. Record only the general insurer or managed care name. Record the product name under plan name. Some examples of general insurer names are Blue Cross/Blue Shield, Aetna, Humana, etc.

Insurance for Long Term Care (in a Nursing Home): Insurance that pays only for a nursing home or other long term care. This does not include living in a "life care center" even though long term care may be available as part of the living arrangement.

Interest: Money paid to a person as compensation for the use of his/her money that is held in seller-financed mortgages, banks, savings and loan associations, money market certificates, credit unions, savings bonds, etc.

Intermediate Care Facilities: A place that offers residents help with activities such as bathing and dressing, but do not provide 24-hour nursing services. (Some residents at a residential care facility may not require such assistance, but it must be available to them.) This type of place can be certified by Medicare.

Intervention Services (Early Intervention Services): Refer to services for infants and toddlers that attempt to improve a child's physical or cognitive ability when developmental delays have been diagnosed or noticed. Includes infant stimulation programs, programs that offer physical or speech therapies, patterning programs, early identification and screening services and family training.

IPA - Independent (or Individual) Practice Association: A physician or an organized group of physicians who contracts with a managed care plan to provide medical services to the planís enrollees. The enrollees prepay the plan with a monthly premium; the physicians are reimbursed by the plan on either a fee-for-service, discounted fee-for-service, capitation or other basis.

IRA (Individual Retirement Account) and 401K:

  • An Individual Retirement Account, or IRA, is a personal retirement plan whereby a limited amount of annual earnings may be invested, as in mutual funds or a savings account, with the investment money and its earnings being tax-free until retirement. Payments from these accounts must be reported on the tax filerís income tax return. Payments include regular distributions, early distributions, rollovers, and any other money or property the person received from his/her IRA account or annuity. These amounts can be found on form 1099-R.
     
  • A 401(K) is a optional retirement plan supported by many companies. This money is taken out and invested before the employee's paycheck is taxed. The plan is set up by a qualified employer with the primary contributions being deposited by the employee. Often there is a company matching plan where they will also contribute a percentage of the money the employee contributed. While the 401(k) continues to grow, taxes will not be paid on it. When the employee withdraws the money at retirement, he/she will be taxed on the amount in the account. There is a penalty to remove the money prior to retirement age; however, many plans allow the employee to borrow money using the plan as collateral or remove the money without penalty in certain emergencies. These amounts can be found on form 1099-R.

Itemized Deduction: When the deduction that is used in the process of determining the tax filerís taxable income is determined by listing and totaling a variety of expenses (e.g., medical expenses, various taxes such as state or real estate taxes, mortgage interest, charitable contributions, etc.). These expenses are listed on the Schedule A tax form for itemized deductions.

IV (Infusion) Therapist: A person who administers, monitors, and maintains equipment which is used to provide medication or nutrition intravenously (placed in a person's body by inserting a needle into a vein). The needle is attached to a tube and bag, and is left in place for an extended period of time. The bag is replaced when empty.

IV (Intravenous) Therapy: The administration of liquid substances like fluids or medications directly into a vein. IV Therapy can be delivered intermittently or continuously.

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J

Job: A definite arrangement for regular work every week or month, for pay or other compensation (e.g., profits, anticipated profits, or pay in kind, such as room and board). A job may also be a formal arrangement with one or more employers to work on a continuing basis for a specified number of hours per week or days per month, but on an irregular schedule during the specified week or month.

Job Coach: A person who provides on-the-job instruction, assistance or direction to help an individual carry out job requirements due to an impairment or a physical or mental health problem.

Job Ended: Voluntary or involuntary termination of employment based on the completion or cancellation of a predetermined task or work order. For example, construction workers may no longer be employed due to the fact that a specific project has been completed and no subsequent projects have begun.

Job for Pay: Paid work for wages, salary, commission, or pay 'in kind'. Examples of 'pay in kind' include meals, living quarters, or supplies provided in place of wages. This definition of employment includes work in the person's own business, professional practice, or farm, paid leaves of absence (including vacations and illnesses), and work without pay in a family business or farm run by a relative. This definition excludes unpaid volunteer work (such as for a church or charity), unpaid leaves of absences, temporary layoffs (such as a strike), and work around the house.

Job Redesign, Alternative Responsibilities, Options: In order to accommodate the personís special needs, the activities he or she performs at work are different than usually would be expected for that occupation.

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K

Key/Keyness: A key RU member is any person sampled (part of a sampled RU) at the time of the NHIS interview and anyone who joins the RU after the NHIS interview who had no chance of being selected. Key RU members will be followed if they leave the RU (as long as they remain eligible). (See Interviewerís Manual for a more detailed description.)

Keogh Account: A retirement plan for self-employed persons and certain groups of employees whereby a limited amount of annual earnings may be invested, as in mutual funds or a savings account, with the invested money and its earnings being tax-free until retirement. (Also see IRA and 401K.)

Kidney Dialysis: The process whereby a patient is connected to an artificial kidney machine called a dialyzer or hemodialyzer, which performs the functions of healthy kidneys. Kidney dialysis is used in patients with kidney (or renal) failure and may be carried out in the hospital or, in certain circumstances, in the home. Kidney dialysis is also referred to as hemodialysis, dialysis or renal dialysis.

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L

Labor Union: An organization of wage or salary earners formed for the purpose of serving their collective interests with respect to wages, working conditions and benefits. Participation in a labor union normally requires that the employee pay dues that may be directly deducted from their gross wages or salary.

Laboratory Tests: The non-invasive collection of samples of blood, urine, or any other body fluids, tissues, or other substances to be examined by a medical person in order to get more information about the patient's condition. This includes the collection of stool samples, or cells from smears like Pap tests. Test should be coded here if the specimen was collected during the particular event, regardless of where or when the specimens were examined.

Laid Off: Persons are on layoff if they are waiting to be recalled to a job from which they were temporarily separated for business-related reasons, such as temporary drops in demand, business downturns, plant remodeling, material shortages, and inventory taking. They must have either been given a date to report back to work or, if not given a date, must expect to be recalled to their job within six months.

Laid Off (Temporarily): Persons are on temporary layoff if they are waiting to be recalled to a job from which they were temporarily separated for business-related reasons, such as temporary drops in demand, business downturns, plant remodeling, material shortages, and inventory taking. They must have either been given a date to report back to work or, if not given a date, must expect to be recalled to their job within six months.

Leave the Health Care Facility: The person must have been discharged from or have formally left the health care facility because the person is deceased or because the person is now living somewhere other than the health care facility. If the person has only temporarily left the health care facility to visit family or for a stay in the hospital, do not count this as having left the facility.

Lifestyle Diets or Nutritional Advice: The prevention or treatment of a health problem or the maintenance of good health through eating specific foods or monitoring intake of various food components such as calories, fat, cholesterol, vitamins, or minerals.

Lift: Equipment that allows an immobilized person to be moved from bed to chair or from chair to shower; or a device that moves an individual from one level to another.

Limited Ability: Difficulties in performing a task independently. We are only interested in difficulties that are associated with an impairment or a physical or mental health problem. Limited activity ability (for example, work activity) means that a person cannot do the role as long or in the same way as he/she did previous to the impairment or physical or mental health problem, but still does it to some extent (as opposed to not being able to do it at all).

Limited Activities: Difficulties that limit the child's ability to participate in the activities. We are only interested in difficulties that are associated with an impairment or a physical or mental health problem. Limited activity participation (for example, playing games) means that the child cannot do the activity as long or in the same way as he/she did previous to the impairment or physical or mental health problem, but still does it to some extent (as opposed to not being able to do it at all). If the child has had the impairment or physical or mental health problem since birth, limited activity participation means the child cannot do the activity as well as other children of his/her age, or as well as he/she might if he/she did not have the impairment or health problem.

Limited Attendance: Difficulties that limit the child's ability to attend school. We are only interested in difficulties that are associated with an impairment or a physical or mental health problem. Limited school attendance (for example, frequent school absences) means that the child cannot attend school as long or in the same way as he/she did previous to the impairment or physical or mental health problem, but still attends to some extent (as opposed to not being able to attend at all). If the child has had the impairment or physical or mental health problem since birth, limited school attendance means the child cannot attend school in the same way as other children of his/her age, or in the same way as he/she might if he/she did not have the impairment or health problem.

Limited in Participating: Difficulties that limit the person's ability to participate in the activities. We are only interested in difficulties that are associated with an impairment or a physical or mental health problem. Limited activity participation (for example, playing sports) means that a person cannot do the activity as long or in the same way as he/she did previous to the impairment or physical or mental health problem, but still does it to some extent (as opposed to not being able to do it at all).

Linking of Samples: The linking of the MEPS sample to the NHIS sample. The sample unit in MEPS becomes the family or person(s) who participated in the NHIS, regardless of where they are living at the time of contact for MEPS.

List of Doctors or Medical Places: Printed material that lists which providers are directly associated or affiliated with a health insurance plan.

Live Birth: The delivery of a living baby. For a delivery to qualify as a live birth, the baby does not have to be capable of living without the aid of life-support systems.

Living In an Institution: A person is living in an institution if s/he is living in a facility that provides continuous nursing and personal care (i.e., provides 24 hour nursing care and is staffed with trained medical personnel) or if s/he is living in a correctional facility. Institutions include:

  • Nursing Homes -- An institution that provides continuous nursing and other services to patients who are not acutely ill, but who need nursing and personal services as inpatients. A nursing home has permanent facilities and an organized professional staff.
     
  • Other Long-Term Care Institutions (Excluding Community-Based Hospitals) -- An institution, other than a nursing home or a community based hospital, that provides long-term care. Long-term care is care for patients, regardless of age, who have chronic diseases or disabilities, and who require preventative, diagnostic, therapeutic, and supportive services over long periods of time. Long term care may call on a variety of health care professionals (such as physicians, nurses, physical therapists, and social workers) as well as non-professionals (family, others) and may be delivered in a health care or other institution (cont.)
     
  • Other Non-Health Care Institutions -- This includes homes for juvenile delinquents, and jails or prisons.

Living Outside U.S. This includes all countries other than the United States as well as territories such as Puerto Rico, Guam, or the U.S. Virgin Islands. Hawaii and Alaska are considered inside the United States.

Living Together as Married (Partner Relationships): In addition to marriage, two people in a "partner" relationship who are not married are considered related. This applies both to partners of the same sex and of different sexes.

Because these are relationships between the household member and the Reference Person that the respondent may not have considered or offered, you may need to probe to determine if this category applies.

Example: If the respondent is the Reference Person and is female and reports the relationship of an unrelated male to be a 'friend', you would want to tactfully probe to determine if she considers him her boyfriend or living together as married partners instead of just friends. If she says they are living together as married, they would be considered related. If they are NOT living together as if they are married partners, they should be viewed as unrelated.

Living Within U.S. This includes all the states in the United States, including Hawaii and Alaska. It does not include the U.S. territories of Puerto Rico or Guam.

Living With This Family: Person is living with this family at the time of the current round interview. This is the personís usual place of residence where the person plans to live for the foreseeable future.

Living With This Family (Person Left Off NHIS Roster): Person was living with this family at the time of the NHIS interview, but was not included as part of the family during the NHIS interview.

Living With This Family (Person Left Off Roster Last Interview): Person was living with this family, but was not included as part of the family during the previous interview.

Local Government: Local government employees include individuals employed by cities, towns, counties, parishes, and other local areas, as well as employees of city-owned businesses, such as electric power companies, water and sewer services, etc.

Locating Address: Address where the RU members actually live. This will not necessarily be the same as the address where mail their mail is received or as their legal or voting residence. It is the address you will use to locate the RU for the in-person interview. Try to obtain as complete an address as possible, verifying or obtaining house numbers and apartment numbers when necessary. If the locating address is a description (for example, brick house with green shutters and front porch), probe the respondent for the actual address, such as the one the post office uses to deliver mail to the home. Be sure to verify all parts of the address, including the zip code. If the respondent reports that there is a separate mailing address (for example, a post office box), tell the respondent that you will be asking for the mailing address at the end of the interview.

Long-Term Care in a Nursing Home (Health Insurance): Refers to an insurance policy that pays only for a nursing home or other long term care.

Long term care does not include living in a "life care center" even though long term care may be available as part of the living arrangement. If the respondent mentions a "life care center" as a policy, record that information using the code "91" (Other) and record the name "life care center" on the "Specify" line. This study does not consider this coverage to be health insurance.

Long-Term Care Insurance: Refers to an insurance policy that pays only for a nursing home or other long-term care. Long-term care does not include living in a "life care center" even though long-term care may be available as part of the living arrangement.

Long-Term Care Place that Provides Hospice Care: A type of program that provides care and support services to the terminally ill. The intent is to allow the patient to live as fully as possible. Care and support may come from a variety of sources such as family, volunteers, nurses, social workers, the clergy, as well as physicians.

Do not include hospice care services delivered at the patient's home.

Long-Term Care Place that Provides Respite Care: Care received for only a limited time by severely disabled or impaired persons (e.g., quadriplegics, developmentally disabled children, or Alzheimer patients) in a long-term care place (e.g., a nursing home) or another person's home, as a way of providing an interval of rest or relief to family members who are the usual primary caregivers at home. This question is interested in eliciting only care received at long-term care places.

Long-Term Health Care Institution: An institution that provides long-term care. Long-term care is care for patients, regardless of age, who have chronic diseases or disabilities, and who require preventative, diagnostic, therapeutic, and supportive services over long periods of time. Long term care may call on a variety of health care professionals (such as physicians, nurses, physical therapists, and social workers) as well as non-professionals (family, others) and may be delivered in a health care or other institution

Looking for Work: Whether or not an RU member is looking for work is determined by their activities while they have been jobless. Activities which constitute an active job search are: registering at an employment office; visiting, telephoning, or writing applications to prospective employers; placing or answering advertisements for a job; and being "on-call" at a union hiring hall.

Low Lying Placenta (Placenta Previa): A placenta, or afterbirth, which attaches in the lower uterus, in the zone of dilation, so that it covers or adjoins the internal cervical opening. The most common symptom of low lying placenta is painless internal bleeding in the last trimester, particularly during the eighth month.

Low Income/Medically Needy: Persons who have sufficient income to cover routine daily expenses but are unable to pay for health care.

Low Option: With a low option choice, the premiums are typically much lower, however, the cost-sharing requirements are usually much higher. For example, the percentage the family must pay for services such as hospital stays, x-rays, outpatient visits, other diagnostic tests, etc., after the deductible is met, is typically higher, such as 25% versus 10% with a high option choice.

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Made a Copayment: A co-payment is a fixed sum that a person pays for health services, regardless of the actual charge (the insurer pays the rest of the actual charge). For example, the person may pay $10 for each office visit, $75 for each day in the hospital, and $5 for each drug prescription.

Mail-Order Pharmacy: Refers to a service that delivers prescriptions through either the mail, a rapid mail service such as Federal Express, or through United Parcel Service (UPS).

Main Business: A business exists when one or more of the following conditions are met: (1) Machinery or equipment of substantial value is in use in conducting business, (2) an office, store or other place of business is maintained, or (3) the business is advertised by listing in the classified section of the phone book, displaying a sign, distributing cards or leaflets, or any other methods which publicize that the work or service is offered to clients. If only one current business, that business is the main one. If more than one current business, the respondent should designate as main, the business he/she considers the most important or the one worked the most hours. The main business is not necessarily the business held the longest.

Main Job: A definite arrangement for regular work every week or month, for pay or other compensation (e.g., profits, anticipated profits, or pay in kind, such as room and board). A job may also be a formal arrangement with one or more employers to work on a continuing basis for a specified number of hours per week or days per month, but on an irregular schedule during the specified week or month. If only one current job, that job is the main one. If more than one current job, the respondent should designate as main, the job he/she considers the most important or the one worked the most hours. The main job is not necessarily the job held the longest.

Major Medical Coverage: A type of traditional indemnity health insurance coverage. Features of major medical coverage include extensive cost-sharing, high maximums and occasional limits on specific conditions.

Male Partner: A male in a relationship of two people living together as married. This applies both to relationships of people of the same sex and of different sexes.

Mammogram: A mammogram is an x-ray taken only of the breast by a machine that presses against the breast.

Managed Care: A generic term used to describe a variety of health care organizations and insurance programs, emphasizing "gatekeepers" and utilization controls. Managed care plans include HMOs, PPOs, and POS plans. One provider may have contracts with several managed care plans.

Managed Indemnity Health Insurance Plan: A health insurance plan with the same features as traditional indemnity coverage except for limited implementation of cost containment or managed care concepts. For example, a managed indemnity plan may require approval for hospital admissions or second surgical opinions.

Marketing and Sales Occupations: Includes occupations concerned with selling goods and services, purchasing commodities and property for resale and with conducting wholesale and retail business. Examples include marketing and sales supervisors, insurance sales, real estate sales, securities and financial services sales, advertising, salesclerks, cashiers, street vendors, appraisers, etc.

Married: Refers to legal marriage. This includes common law marriages in states where common law marriages are recognized (i.e., if state law considers them married, we consider them married).

Married Filing Joint Return: A tax filing status that can be used by anyone who was married as of December 31st of the tax year (even if person is not living with the spouse at the end of the tax year) or whose spouse died between January 1st of the tax year and April 31st of the following year and the person did not remarry. Reports taxable income of two tax filers: a husband and wife.

Married Filing Separately: A tax filing status that can be used by anyone who meets the criteria for Ďmarried filing joint return,í however, the tax return reports the taxable income of ONE tax filer: either the husband OR the wife.

Massage Therapist: A person who treats a health problem through manipulation, methodical pressure, friction, and kneading of the body.

Massage Therapy: Treatment of a health problem or the maintenance of good health through manipulation, methodical pressure, friction, and kneading of the body.

Master's Degree: An educational degree given by a college or university to a person who has completed a prescribed course of graduate study in the humanities or related studies (M.A.) or in the sciences (M.S.). It ranks above a bachelor's degree and below a doctorate degree and usually takes two years to complete.

Maternity Care (Pre/Postnatal): Consultations and examinations relating to pregnancy, i.e., prenatal (or before delivery) and postnatal (or after delivery) care of the mother up to 6 weeks after childbirth.

Maternity/Paternity Leave: Paid or unpaid leave of absence due to pregnancy or care for a newborn child.

Meals Delivered to the Home (Including Meals on Wheels): Delivery of meals to the personís home, including meals that are already heated and ready to eat and those that require some minor preparation, such as heating.

Meal Delivery Service: Any public or private services that only provide meals to individuals at home. For example, Meals-on-Wheels.

Mechanics, Installers, and Repairers: Includes occupations concerned with the adjustment, maintenance, part replacement, and repair of tools, equipment, and machines. Examples include automobile mechanics, automotive body repair, aircraft mechanics, appliance repairers, telephone line installers and repairers, camera or watch repairers, locksmiths, etc.

Medicaid: Medicaid is often known by different names in different states and is a Federally-assisted State-administered program. This program offers health benefits to low income persons on public assistance and, in some states, to those deemed medically needy because their incomes are only slightly above public assistance standards or because they have incurred substantial medical bills. Most SSI (Supplemental Security Income) recipients are covered by Medicaid, as are most TANF recipients and their dependents. The aged, the blind, and the disabled who are in financial need are also eligible for Medicaid.

Medical Care: The provision of health care services by a health care person.

Medical Doctor: Include both doctors of medicine (M.D.) and doctors of osteopathy (D.O.). Specific examples of physicians include: allergists, anesthesiologists, cardiologists, dermatologists, endocrinologists, family practice physicians, gastroenterologists, general physicians, geriatricians, gynecologists, internists, neurologists, obstetricians, ophthalmologists, orthopedists, otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat doctor), pediatricians, psychiatrists, physiatrist (rehab medicine), radiologists, surgeons (any), or urologists. Types of providers not to be counted as medical doctors are chiropractors, dentists, nurses, optometrists, paramedics, podiatrists, or psychologists.

Medical Equipment: Includes durable medical items used to assist with an impairment or physical health problem. Medical equipment includes, but is not limited to, hospital beds, lifts (used to help the person out of chairs), monitors (used to measure body functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, or breathing, intercom systems used to listen to person, etc.), special chairs, oxygen, bed pans, adaptive feeding equipment, vaporizers, and nebulizers.

Medical Facility: A place where health care services are provided. Examples of medical facilities include hospitals, clinics, and doctor's offices.

Medically Needy/Low Income: Persons who have sufficient income to cover routine daily expenses but are unable to pay for health care.

Medical Person: A person who gives advice or treatment whether or not he/she has a medical degree. Examples include physicians, dentists, psychiatrists, and nurses, among others.

Medical Practitioner: An individual entitled by training and experience, and possibly licensure, to practice health care.

Medical Provider: A doctor, clinic, hospital, laboratory, nurse, or any person or place that delivers medical or health related care.

Medical Provider Visit: Any visit made during the person's reference period to a medical provider. Note that visits to Urgent Care Centers that are freestanding and not part of, or affiliated with a hospital should be coded as a Medical Visit (MV).

Medical Therapy (Examples):

  • Physical
  • Occupational
  • Infusion
  • Respiratory
  • Speech
  • Mental Health
  • Art
  • Orientation and Mobility
  • Music
  • Dance
  • Corrective
  • Industrial
  • Horticultural

Medical Treatment (Examples):

  • Changing bandages
  • Wound care
  • Giving medication
  • Taking blood pressure
  • Giving shots or injections
  • Other medical treatments

Medicare: A Federal health insurance program for people 65 or older and for certain persons under 65 with long-term disabilities. Almost everyone with Social Security is covered by Medicare. It is run by the Health Care Financing Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Medicare consists of three parts, A and B and D:

  • Part A is called the Hospital Insurance Program. It helps pay for inpatient care in a hospital or in a skilled nursing facility, and for hospice care. It is available to nearly everyone 65 or older.
     
  • Part B is called the Supplementary Medical Insurance Program. It helps pay for the doctor and surgeon services, outpatient hospital services, medical equipment, and a number of other medical services and supplies.
     
  • If a person chooses this additional insurance, the monthly premium is deducted from his/her Social Security to obtain coverage for Part B of Medicare.
     
  • Part D Medicare Part D coverage, also referred to as Medicare prescription drug coverage, is insurance that covers both brand-name and generic prescription drugs at participating pharmacies. Everyone with Medicare can choose this additional coverage, regardless of income and resources, health status, or current prescription expenses.

Medicare Supplement: Private insurance products that supplement Medicare insurance benefits.

Medigap: Private insurance products that supplement Medicare insurance benefits.

Medicine: Any drug given to the patient for medical purposes. The medicine need not require a prescription.

Meditation, Imagery, or Relaxation Techniques: Techniques for attaining a state of physical relaxation and psychological calm such as the repetition of a mantra, concentration on mental images, or sitting quietly in a quiet place with eyes closed and body relaxed while paying close attention to breathing.

Member ID Number (Insurance Card): Enter the complete membership identification number as printed on the card. This may be referred to on the card as the Member Identification Number, Family Identification Number, ID Number, the policyholder's social security number, or some similar phrase. It is a unique number assigned by the insurance or managed care company to each covered family unit or to each family member. On Medicaid cards it may incorporate other specific state information, like the type or category of assistance, with the identifying number.

Memory: The mental registration, retention, and recall of past experiences, knowledge, ideas, sensations, and thoughts.

Mental Health: The state of a person's emotional, social, and behavioral well-being. Mental health varies from time to time for individuals, and some people in general are more mentally healthy than others.

Mental Health Counseling (Psychotherapy): A treatment technique for certain forms of mental disorders relying principally on verbal communications between the mental health professional and the patient. Can be individual, family, and/or group therapies. Include care provided by any type of health professional so long as treatment is for mental health. Does not include visits with clergy to discuss personal problems. Any other professional mental health therapist such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, counselor, social worker, etc. would be included.

Mental Health Facility: A facility that provides the diagnosis, treatment, and care of patients with mental disorders.

Mental Health Person/Professional: A person trained to diagnose and treat emotional or mental health problems: including, psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, social workers.

Mental Health Services (Coverage): The insurance plan in question provides coverage for services that deal with a personís emotional, social, and behavioral well-being. These services includes such things as diagnosis, treatment, counseling, and care of patients with mental disorders or mental health problems.

Mental Health Therapist: A person trained to diagnose and treat emotional or mental health problems, including, psychiatrists, psychologists, counselors, social workers, etc.

Mental Problem: A problem having to do with state of mind; an emotional problem.

MEPS Ė Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, a national survey designed to collect data on the health care use and expenses of the US civilian, non-institutionalized population.

Mexican, Mexican-American, Mexicano: Refers to anyone of Mexican birth or descent. It refers to anyone who may call themselves "Mexican, Mexican-American, Chicano, or Tex-Mex."

Midwife: A female who practices the art of aiding in the delivery of babies.

Migrant Health Center: A health care center that provides health services for migrant and seasonal farm workers and their families.

Military: Military includes Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine, or Coast Guard, as well as, military training schools or academies.

Military Facility: Refers to any building or grounds on an Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine, or Coast Guard base; military training schools or academies; any other facility owned exclusively by the military or used exclusively for military purposes.

Military Occupations: Includes occupations that are unique to the Armed Forces. Many military occupations are similar to occupations described above and should be coded within the other categories. Examples of military occupations include infantry unit leader, recruit instructor, survival specialist, antitank assault gunner, camouflage specialist, combat rifle, field artillery and infantry weapons crew member, etc.

Moderate or Vigorous Physical Activity: Moderate physical activity causes only light sweating or a slight or moderate increase in breathing or heart rate and would include activities such as fast walking, raking leaves, mowing the lawn, or heavy cleaning. Vigorous physical activity causes heavy sweating or large increases in breathing or heart rate and would include activities such as running, race walking, lap swimming, aerobics classes, or fast bicycling.

Modifications: Alterations or modifications to the personís home or automobile to help him/her function better with his/her impairment or physical problem. Examples of changes to the home include ramps, handrails, elevators, or stair lifts. Examples of changes to the automobile include special controls, mirrors, doors, or wheelchair lifts.

Modified Work Hours or Days: Work hours or days that are different than would usually be expected in order to accommodate the personís special needs.

Money Market Account: An account that requires that you keep a minimum balance and allows you to write checks, but limits the number you may write and has a minimum allowable amount of each check written.

Money Owed and Outstanding Loans (For Real Estate and Vehicles):

  • Money Owed: Include only the principal balance that has not yet been paid. The respondent should not include items such as interest, property tax, insurance, escrow, etc. that might be included in the mortgage or vehicle payments.
     
  • Outstanding Loans: These are loans that have not been paid in full, that is, money is still owed.

More Than One Location (Similar to Multi-Facility Establishment): This question pertains to the establishment which directly employs (pays) the RU member. A direct employer may have facilities at more than one location. However, if the employer is a franchise of a national or international firm with only one location, then the employer is considered not to have facilities in more than one location.

Most Days: The majority (more than half) of the days the person has worked at this particular job during the reference period.

Mother (for Reenumeration): One's female biological or adoptive parent. Does not include step-mother or foster mother.

Mother-In-Law: The female parent of one's spouse.

Mother's Partner: When there are two people living together as married (both same sex or different sex), this is the relationship of the partner to his/her counterpart's child.

Motor Vehicle: Includes all vehicles powered by a motor, not on rails, which carry at least one person and travel on streets/roads/highways. Includes cars, trucks, vans, buses, farm equipment, and construction equipment such as bulldozers or graders.

Moved - Currently Not in Military: This includes persons who have moved out of the household to other households, either inside the U.S. or outside the U.S. Do not include persons who moved to an institution or are living away at school, either grades 1-12 or post-secondary, in this category. People in this category should not currently be on full-time active duty in the military (i.e., the Armed Forces of the United States). (See definition of "Currently on Full-Time Active Duty in the Armed Forces" elsewhere in Glossary.)

Moved - Currently on Full-Time Active Duty in Armed Forces: This includes persons who have moved out of the household to another household or to a military facility, either inside the U.S. or outside the U.S. Do not include persons who moved to an institution or are living away at school, either grades 1-12 or post-secondary, in this category. People in this category should currently be on full-time active duty in the military (i.e., the Armed Forces of the United States). (See definition of "Currently on Full-Time Active Duty in the Armed Forces" elsewhere in Glossary.)

MPC: Medical Provider Component, one of the four components of MEPS. Formerly referred to as MPS (Medical Provider Survey).

MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): A non-invasive process that generates electronic images of specific atoms and molecular structures inside the human body such as cells, tissues, and organs. The process uses a magnetic field outside the body to generate images.

Multi-Facility Establishments: A direct employer may have facilities at more than one location. However, if the employer is a franchise of a national or international firm with only one location, then the employer is considered not to have facilities in more than one location.

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N

Name (Insurance Card): Enter the full name of the person with this health insurance plan as printed on the card. This may be identified on the card as the Policyholder Name, Subscriber Name, Contract Holder Name or some similar term. Conventional insurance and managed care companies, as well as State Medicaid agencies, may issue cards only in the primary insured name, or they may issue cards for each covered family member. Obtain information from the primary insured person's card if at all possible.

National Origin/Ancestry: A person's national origin or ancestry refers to the nationality that distinguishes the customs, characteristics, language, common history, etc. of the person and his/her ancestors. The country from which a person "comes", where s/he is born, or his/her descent.

Naturopathic Doctor: A person who treats health problems based on the curative abilities of natureís elements, such as sun, water, air, and earth. Many naturopathic physicians also use modern medical methods in conjunction with naturopathic therapies.

NCHS Ė National Center for Health Statistics, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention which is part of the Department of Health and Human Services. NCHS is a co-sponsor of MEPS.

Near-Drowning: Any situation in which a person dies or nearly dies because his nose and mouth are submerged in water too long to allow him to breathe. Drownings can occur in any body of water including pools and bathtubs.

Neighbor (Home Health Provider): A medical or non-medical person providing some type of home health services to the RU member. This person must fulfill the following requirements:

  1. Neighbor was not paid.
     
  2. Neighbor is not part of the RU or DU.
     
  3. Neighbor is not related to the RU member receiving the care.
     
  4. Neighbor is not providing the care because of an affiliation with a volunteer group.

Neighborhood Health Clinic: A free-standing facility located where it will be easy for patients to go, which provides diagnostic and treatment services. Neighborhood health clinics are frequently maintained by government agencies or private organizations.

Nephew: A son of one's brother or sister.

Never Married: Person has never been legally married. If the person has had informal unions in the past but has never had a legal marriage, s/he is never married even if s/he considered themselves as living together as married partners.

New Condition: A condition that has not been previously reported and recorded in the interview and, therefore, does not appear on the Condition Roster.

New RU: Also referred to as Split RU. It consists of one or more key RU members who have moved out of an RU to another location and are still eligible for the survey (that is, part of the civilian, non-institutionalized population living within the U.S.). A New RU has a letter other than "A" as the RU identifier in the RU ID. (See QxQs for a more detailed description.)

NHIS: National Health Interview Survey: National Health Interview Survey. An on-going annual survey of households conducted by the Census Bureau for NCHS. NHIS serves as the sampling frame for MEPS.

Niece: A daughter of one's brother or sister.

No Bill Sent:

  • HMO Plan - No bill was sent to the person since the charges were paid by the person's Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) or the services were received at an HMO facility. HMOs are organizations that have responsibility for providing comprehensive health care services in exchange for fixed periodic payment. With an HMO, a person must generally receive their care from HMO physicians; otherwise the expense is not covered unless the person was referred by the HMO or there was a medical emergency. With an HMO, the cost of a visit is typically covered in full or you have to pay a small amount. HMOs can be sponsored by the government, medical schools, hospitals, employers, labor unions, consumer groups, insurance companies, and hospital-medical plans.
     
  • VA (Veterans Administration) / CHAMPVA - No bill was sent to the person since the charges were paid by either the Veterans Administration (VA), which provides medical services to veterans of the Armed Forces (particularly those with service-connected disabilities) or The Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Department of Veteran's Affairs (CHAMPVA), which provides health coverage to dependents and survivors of disabled or deceased veterans.
     
  • Military Facility - No bill was sent to the person because care was obtained at a military hospital or clinic located on a military base.
     
  • Public Assistance/Medicaid/SCHIP - The charges were paid by public assistance, Medicaid or SCHIP. Medicaid is a Federally-assisted State-administered program that offers health benefits to low income persons on public assistance. The program also may cover the aged, the blind, and the disabled who are in financial need. Medicaid may be known by different names in different states. SCHIP is a program which gives each state permission to offer health insurance for children, up to after 19, who are not already insured and for uninsured families with limited income and resources who earn too much to qualify for Medicaid. SCHIP is a state administered program and may be known by different names in different states.
     
  • Worker's Compensation - Worker's compensation is a system, required by law, of compensating workers injured or disabled in connection with work. The system establishes the liability of an employer for injuries or sickness that arise over and in the course of employment. The liability is created without regard to the fault or negligence of the employer. The benefits under this system generally include hospital and other medical payments and compensation for loss of income.
     
  • Private Health Center/Clinic - No bill was sent because the care was provided by a school clinic, an employer clinic, or some other private health center or clinic. Care received in these types of clinics is usually provided as "benefits" to the recipient and the cost of the care is paid by the school, employer, or private health center.
     
  • Public Clinic/Health Center/ Private Charity - No bill was sent by the health care provider since the person went to a provider providing health care at no charge. These providers can include community and migrant health centers, a Federally-qualified health center, and the Indian Health Services, among others.
     
  • Indian Health Service - No bill was sent because the person went to a provider employed by, or under contract to, the Indian Health Service (IHS), the agency responsible for providing federal health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives.
     
  • No Charge (Telephone Call) - No bill was sent by the health care provider because the provider does not charge for consultations received over the telephone.

No Degree (Highest Educational Degree): If the person has some years of college, but has not yet obtained an educational degree. For example, the person is in his/her last term towards earning a Bachelor's degree.

No Follow-up Care Received: This is the situation where the person has not or will not seek any of the follow-up care recommended by the health care provider. Again, the reason the person does not seek care is not relevant for the question.

No Formal Schooling: Person has not received any school instruction.

No Other Reasons (Employment): No additional reasons for the period of unemployment or unpaid leave other than those specified in the previous question.

Non-Health Care Institution: This includes homes for juvenile delinquents, and jails or prisons.

Non-Key: A person not living in a MEPS sampled RU at the time of the NHIS interview who was part of the civilian (i.e., non military), non-institutionalized population in the U.S. on the date of the NHIS interview. These persons will not be followed if they leave the RU and are not living with a key, eligible person. (See Interviewerís Manual for a more detailed description.)

Non-Military: Not in the Army, Air Force, Navy, Marine, Coast Guard, military training schools or academies, or any other military institution.

Non-Preferred (Non-Participating) Provider: Any health care provider (for example, a physician, dentist, other health care professional, hospital, skilled nursing facility or other health care institution) who does not participate in a managed care plan's network. Members usually pay more (or the total amount) for services from non-preferred providers.

Normal/Natural Childbirth: Delivery of an infant through the normal openings of the uterus and vagina.

Not Either Type of Situation (Charge Payment): This includes all other types of payment arrangements not described above. For example, the person must pay the full amount of the prescription with no reimbursement from any insurer, you would code this category.

Not Part of Plan/Not Referred by Plan: This "provider" is not affiliated with any health insurance plan held by the family. This "provider" was also not referred by any health insurance plan (or a provider who is part of this plan). Typically when this is the case, the costs for the visits to this provider are not covered.

Not Related (Relationship Code): Refers to the relationship between two people when there is no family relationship through blood, marriage, adoption, or partnership (i.e., living together as married).

Not Yet Born: Person had not yet been born on date in question.

Nurse: Includes several types of nursing specialists, such as registered nurse (RN), licensed practical nurse (LPN), nurse's aid, occupational health nurse, community health nurse, or public health nurse (PHN).

Nurse Midwife: A nurse who provides medical care and treatment to OB/GYN patients under the supervision of a physician or doctor. The duties of a nurse midwife may include routine gynecological care, delivering babies, instructing patients in prenatal and postnatal health practices, instructing patient in the care of herself and the infant, examinations, etc.

Nurse Practitioner: A registered nurse (RN) who has completed additional training beyond basic nursing education. They have qualifications which permit them to carry out expanded health care evaluation and decision-making regarding patient care.

Nurse's Aide: Persons who may perform any combination of tasks, and may be directed by nursing and medical staff, to care for patients at home. Their duties may include bathing patients; giving alcohol rubs; measuring and recording the intake and output of liquids; taking and recording temperature, pulse and respiration rates; examining equipment to detect maintenance needs and notifying the supervisor of these needs.

Nursing Home: An institution that provides continuous nursing and other services to patients who are not acutely ill, but who need nursing and personal services as inpatients. A nursing home has permanent facilities and an organized professional staff.

Nursing Home Unit of a Hospital: A hospital-based skilled nursing facility. This unit is usually part of a larger facility or campus. Skilled care is the performance of an injection or other medical procedure with a sufficient mastery of the specific technique in order to make the risk to the patient negligible. This proficiency can be general as in the case of a trained health worker or acquired specifically for use at this type of place.

Nutritional Advice or Lifestyle Diets: The prevention or treatment of a health problem or the maintenance of good health through eating specific foods or monitoring intake of various food components such as calories, fat, cholesterol, vitamins, or minerals.

Nutritionist: Persons concerned with the application of the principles of nutrition to plan and supervise the preparation and serving of meals. Includes planning menus and diets for special nutritional requirements, participating in research, or instructing in the field of nutrition.

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Occupational Therapists: Medical persons who are concerned with improving the person's ability to perform self help tasks, tasks that are associated with employment activities or tasks that allow an individual to more fully enjoy and participate in leisure time activities. Occupational therapy is used in retraining individuals after illnesses and accidents, as well as providing ongoing help to persons with more permanent disabilities from stroke, paralysis or deterioration from degenerative diseases such as arthritis or multiple sclerosis.

Occupational Therapy: Treatment which helps improve a personís ability to do various tasks which are constructive and often will permit gainful employment or participation in household or leisure activities. Occupational therapy is used over a long period with disabled individuals, but is also used on a short-term basis in re-training individuals after illnesses and accidents.

Office (Any part of building): A room, set of rooms, or a building where the business of a commercial or industrial organization or a professional person takes place.

Open Enrollment Period: A limited time period which generally occurs on an annual basis, during which employees may change health insurance plans or elect coverage they previously declined. Open Enrollment is sometimes referred to as Open Season.

Open Panel Program: A health care program that allows participants to select from among all or nearly all licensed providers. Restrictions on provider choice are minimal. (See also Closed Panel Program.)

Operation (Surgical Procedure): Any procedure which involves cutting into the skin, including stitching of cuts and wounds. For this question, surgery includes the following:

  • Cutting of tissue or scraping of internal parts as in curettage of the uterus (e.g., abortions);
     
  • Insertion of instruments in body openings for internal examination and treatment such as bronchoscopy, proctoscopy, cystoscopy, cardiac catheterization (also called angiography), laparoscopy, and introduction of tubes for drainage;
     
  • Diagnostic biopsy including aspiration or needle biopsy; and
     
  • Dental surgery.

Injections, transfusions and routine blood tests are not considered surgery here, nor are pumping or washing out of the stomach or bowels.

Ophthalmologist: A doctor of medicine (MD) who specializes in treating eye diseases.

Optometrists: A medical person who examines the eyes and vision system for visual defects, diagnoses eye impairments, prescribes corrective lenses, and provides other types of treatment. Not to be confused with medical doctors who specialize in treating eye diseases, such as ophthalmologists.

Oral Surgeon/Dental Surgeon: An oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMFS) is a surgical specialty devoted to the well-defined anatomical region of the mouth, jaws, and the face as well as associated structures. Most oral surgeons are initially qualified in dentistry and have undergone a further 4-6 years of specialty surgical training. A dental surgeon is a specialist who deals with diseases, injuries and defects of the mouth and jaw through invasive procedures. Include specialties like endodontists, prosthodontists and orthodontists.

Oral Surgery: Surgery for disorders, diseases, and injuries of the jaws and adjacent structures. Also known as maxillofacial surgery.

Orthodontia: Refers to services and appliances fitted to some or all teeth to correct irregularly spaced teeth.

Orthodontist: A dental specialist who deals with preventing and correcting irregular teeth through devices such as braces and retainers.

Orthopedic Items: Items used to prevent, correct, or assist with disorders of the musculoskeletal system (e.g., skeleton, joints, muscles, ligaments, etc.). Orthopedic items include, but are not limited to, corrective shoes and inserts, braces, crutches, canes, walkers, wheelchairs, and scooters.

Orthopedic Shoes, Orthodics: Includes items used to prevent, correct, or assist with disorders of the musculoskeletal system (e.g., skeleton, joints, muscles, ligaments, etc.). These items include corrective shoes and inserts.

Other Diabetic Equipment/Supplies: Any other type of diabetic equipment or supplies not listed here that is typically prescribed by a physician; for example, a blood monitor machine.

Other Diagnostic Test: Include any other non-invasive test performed with chemicals or machines on body tissue or fluid samples and any test of range of motion, sensitivity, etc. performed by a medical person directly on a patient.

Other Kind of Place: A medical place that is not a hospital outpatient department or clinic, or a hospital emergency room. Include in this category group practices, private doctorís offices, health clinics, walk-in surgi-center/clinics, walk-in urgi-centers/clinics, company or school clinics, infirmaries, neighborhood health clinics, family planning centers, and mental health facilities.

Other Latin American: Refers to anyone who says they were born in or had ancestors from one of the Latin American countries or territories (excluding Mexico) where Spanish is the primary language.

Other Long-Term Health Care Institution (Exclude Community-Based Hospital): An institution, other than a nursing home or a community based hospital that provides long-term care. Long-term care is care for patients, regardless of age, who have chronic diseases or disabilities, and who require preventative, diagnostic, therapeutic, and supportive services over long periods of time. Long term care may call on a variety of health care professionals (such as physicians, nurses, physical therapists, and social workers) as well as non-professionals (family, others) and may be delivered in a health care or other institution.

Other Medical Expenses (OM) Event: Any purchase made during the reference period of one of the following types of medical supplies:

Regular OM Events (Collected in all Rounds):

  1. Glasses or Contact Lenses - The actual purchase of the item during the reference period; eye exams should be classified as a medical provider visit.
     
  2. Insulin - Any purchases of this drug during the reference period.
     
  3. Other Diabetic Equipment or Supplies - Any purchases of any diabetic supplies or equipment, other than insulin, made during the reference period. Include purchases of supplies prescribed by a physician such as syringes, test paper or strips, blood glucose monitors, glucose meters, insulin pumps, lancets, alcohol swabs or control solution. Even if during the reference period, a person purchases or obtained multiple items from a single group, for example, glasses AND contact lenses, create only one OM event in CAPI.

Additional OM Events (Collected in Rounds 3 and 5 only):

Medical expenses such as hearing devices, ambulance services, wheelchairs, bathroom aids, prostheses, etc. These additional medical expenses are collected for a longer reference period (between January 1st and December 31st) i.e. once per year.

Other Medical Persons: Medical providers who give advice or treatment whether or not they have medical degrees.

Other Military: Includes any health care received on military bases by current active duty personnel and their dependents and retired Armed Forces members and their dependents or survivors.

Other Non-Health Care Institution: This includes homes for juvenile delinquents, and jails or prisons.

Other Oral Surgery: Includes surgical procedures on the jaw.

Other - Paid (Home Health Provider): A medical or non-medical person, group or agency providing some type of home health services to the RU member. Any type of provider who was paid (other than a relative) should be included in this group.

Other Related, Specify (Relationship Code): Refers to relationships that aren't specifically listed such as great grandmother or foster parent. It also refers to more ambiguous relationships that exist where there are two people living together as married (both same sex or different sex). For example, a man and woman live together as married and the woman's sister lives with them. The relationship of the sister to the male partner would be sister-in-law if they were married, but since they are not married, she is 'other related.'

Other Savings or Assets: Includes any savings or assets owned by an RU member which have not already been accounted for in previous questions. For example, cash stored in the home, jewelry, art, antiques, money owed to an RU member by others, a collection for investment purposes (Ďcollectiblesí such as coins, postage stamps, baseball cards, etc.), rights in a trust or estate where an RU member is the beneficiary, and annuities.

Other School Systems: If the person attended school in another country, in an ungraded school, in a "normal school," under a tutor, or under other special circumstances, ask the respondent to give the nearest equivalent of years in regular U.S. school.

Other Source (Health Insurance): This includes health insurance provided to an RU member by some source not described above.

Other Spanish: Refers to anyone who says they were born in or had ancestors from a non-Latin American country or territory where Spanish is the primary language.

Other State Programs: Any public program that provides health services administered by the state that is not considered Medicaid or SCHIP. The programs we are interested in appear on the CAPI screen and vary by state. Typically, these programs do not provide hospital and physician benefits. Pharmacy assistance, AIDS Drug assistance and kidney disease programs are the most common types of other state specific programs.

In addition to condition-specific programs, enrollment in a state program such as TANF, SSI, WIC, Indian Health Services (HIS), public health clinic access and VA health should also be included if the respondent mentions it.

Do not include medical programs that use an alternative name such as Medi-Cal, Welfare, SCHIP and Medical Assistance.

Examples of other state programs include:

  • TANF - This is a cash assistance program. TANF is known by different names in different states. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families provides assistance and work opportunities for needy families.
     
  • SSI - Also known as Supplemental Security Income (SSI), this federal program provides monthly cash payments in accordance with uniform, nationwide eligibility requirements to persons who are both needy and aged (65 years or older), blind, or disabled.
     
  • WIC - This program provides food assistance and nutritional screening to low-income pregnant and postpartum women and their infants, as well as to low-income children up to age 5. WIC is short for the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children.
     
  • Indian Health Service (IHS) - A Department of Health and Human Services health care program that provides medical care to eligible American Indians and Alaska Natives at IHS facilities and pays for the cost of selected health care services at non-IHS facilities.
     
  • Public Health Clinic - Clinics that are run by state and local Public Health Departments to provide services such as prenatal care.
     
  • Veterans' Administration (VA) Health Care - This program provides health care to veterans of the Armed Forces.

Other Training School After High School: Secretarial school, mechanical or computer training school, nursing school where a college degree is not offered, and any other vocational, trade, or business school where a college degree is not offered. The person need not have obtained a high school diploma or equivalency to attend this type of school.

Out-of-Pocket: The amount of money which an enrollee or family is required to pay directly to a provider for a medical service.

Out-of-Pocket Maximum: A maximum amount of money which an enrollee or family is required to pay during a period of time. The out-of-pocket maximum may also be referred to as an out-of-pocket cap.

Outpatient Department: A unit of a hospital, a facility, or Ďurgent care centerí owned by or affiliated with a hospital. The outpatient department provides health and medical services to individuals who do not require hospitalization overnight and may also provide general primary care. Examples include well-baby clinics/pediatric OPD; obesity clinics; eye, ear, nose and throat clinics; cardiology clinic; internal medicine department; family planning clinics; alcohol and drug abuse clinics; physical therapy clinics; and radiation therapy clinics.

Outpatient Department Visit: Any visit made during the person's reference period to a hospital outpatient department. Include visits made to outpatient departments for medical tests only.

Over-the-Counter Medicines (OTC): Medications that can be purchased without a prescription to treat a variety of specific health problems. OTCs are generally used to treat health problems that can be divided into seven major problem areas:

  • Digestive System - This category includes medications purchased to treat problems such as an upset stomach, indigestion, constipation, diarrhea, ulcer problems, and overindulgence of food or alcohol.

    Digestive system medication types include: antacids, laxatives, adult pain relievers, and diarrhea remedies.
     
  • Respiratory - This category includes medications purchased to treat problems such as the common cold, sinus problems, asthma, hay fever and related allergies, sore throat NOT associated with a cold, viruses, flu, influenza, bronchitis, and coughs NOT associated with a cold.

    Respiratory medication types include: allergy/hay fever remedies, adult and children pain relievers and cold capsules/tablets, room vaporizers, liquid cold remedies, cough remedies, chest rubs/ointments, sprays/inhalers, cough drops, sore throat lozenges/gum, anesthetic throat lozenges, asthma remedies, nose drops, and special sinus remedies.
     
  • Pain - This category includes medications purchased to treat problems such as headaches (other than sinus, menstrual, cold or tension), muscle aches and pains, arthritis, rheumatism, bursitis, back problems, migraine headaches, and pain associated with an injury.

    Pain medication types include: adult and children pain relievers and pain relieving rubs.
     
  • Skin - This category includes medications purchased to treat problems such as acne or pimples, boils, warts, minor cuts and scratches, bruises, insect bites and stings, infections, poison ivy/oak, animal bites, head or body lice, sunburn and burns other than sunburn, painful dry skin, ring worm, jock itch, ingrown toenail, athlete's foot, bunions, corns, calluses, hemorrhoidal problems, chronic dandruff (seborrhetic dermatitis), baldness or loss of hair, eczema, psoriasis, age spots or "liver spots", diaper rash, and other miscellaneous rashes.

    Skin medication types include: jock itch remedy, hemorrhoid remedies, anti-itch cream/lotion, diaper rash remedies, medicated powder/talc, antiseptics, suntan lotion, sunburn remedies, acne cream/lotion, athlete's foot remedies, dandruff shampoos, wart removers, psoriasis remedies, skin spot remedies, ingrown toenail remedies, and skin cream/lotion.
     
  • Eye/Ear/Mouth - This category includes medications purchased to treat problems associated with the lips, eyes, teeth, gums, and ears.

    Eye, ear, and mouth medication types include: eye drops, eye washes, ear drops, lip products, mouth or gum pain reliever, cold sore remedies, dental floss products, sensitive teeth remedies, dental rinse, and adult and children pain relievers.
     
  • Feminine - This category includes medications purchased to treat things such as pre-menstrual, menstrual, and vaginal problems, as well as problems associated with menopause.

    Feminine medication types include: adult pain relievers, pre-menstrual/menstrual relief products, vaginal itching and irritation creams, feminine douches, and water pills.
     
  • General well-being - This category includes medications purchased to treat things such as sleeping problems, minor fatigue, overweight and underweight problems, minor anxiety problems, motion sickness, fainting, and dehydration.

    General well-being medication types include: adult pain relievers, diet pills, sleep aids, stay awake products, and motion sickness remedies.

Overnight Stay: A medical event when a person is admitted to a hospital. Note that a person need not have stayed overnight to be "admitted" to a hospital. A person may be admitted and discharged on the same day.

Overtime: Work in excess of the standard number of hours in a set work schedule (normally more than 40 hours per week or eight hours per day).

Owns/Rents Home (For Reenumeration): A person owns the home even if s/he is still paying on a mortgage. A person rents the home if s/he pays on a continuing basis without gaining any rights to ownership.

Own This Home (For Assets): ĎThis homeí refers to the RUís primary residence, where we assume the interview is being conducted. To Ďown the home,í the RU memberís name must be on the title. Even if the RU member(s) are currently making mortgage payments on the home, we consider them to Ďown the home.í

Oxygen or Respirator: Oxygen is a gaseous chemical element used in breathing that is essential for life. Oxygen contained in a tank is administered by mask, nasal tube, or tent. A respirator is a mechanical method of assisting breathing by producing either intermittent or continuous positive pressure in the lungs.

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P

Pacific Islander (Asian): Includes persons having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, the Indian Subcontinent, or the Pacific Islands. This area includes, for example, China, India, Japan, Korea, the Philippine Islands, and Samoa.

Paid at Time of Visit: The charge was paid at the time of the visit to the provider, and the person may not have received a bill.

Paid by the Day: Method of payment where the period of employment for which wages are dispersed is one working day. A common example is child day care where workers may be compensated for each day worked (not on an hourly or yearly basis).

Paid by the Hour: Method of payment is which earnings are paid for each hour worked. Each straight-time hour is paid at the same rate and the rate is not dependent on any measure of straight-time hours worked.

Paid Some Other Way: Other means of payment for work include being paid on commission, paid with bonuses, and payment by the day, piecework, job, or mile.

Pap Smear Test: A Pap or Papaniculou smear is a test in which the doctor examines the cervix, takes a cell sample from the cervix with a small stick or brush and sends it to the lab.

Paramedic: A medical person who is licensed to perform advanced cardiac life support procedures and other emergency medical treatment under the direction of a physician.

Partner Relationships (Living Together as Married): In addition to marriage, two people in a "partner" relationship who are not married are considered related. This applies both to partners of the same sex and of different sexes.

Because these are relationships between the household member and the Reference Person that the respondent may not have considered or offered, you may need to probe to determine if this category applies.

Example: If the respondent is the Reference Person and is female and reports the relationship of an unrelated male to be a 'friend', you would want to tactfully probe to determine if she considers him her boyfriend or living together as married partners instead of just friends. If she says they are living together as married, they would be considered related. If they are not living together as if they are married partners, they should be viewed as unrelated.

Partnership: An unincorporated business owned by two or more individuals, needing only a business license to operate.

Partnership or S Corporation (for tax Filing Purposes): Since partnerships and S corporations are not taxable entities, their net profit or loss is taxed, in general, directly to the members of the partnership or shareholders in the S corporation. This income includes the taxpayer's share of the ordinary gain or loss of the enterprise and certain payments made to the taxpayer for the use of capital or as a salary.

Part of Plan: This "provider" is directly affiliated with insurance held by someone in the family. That is, special permission to see this "provider" is not needed.

Partner's Daughter: When there are two people living together as married (both same sex or different sexes), this is the relationship of one partner's female child to his/her counterpart.

Partner's Son: When there are two people living together as married (both same sex or different sexes), this is the relationship of one partner's male child to his/her counterpart.

Part-Time (School Attendance): A person is considered to be attending school part-time if s/he is carrying less than a full load of class hours in a semester or quarter.

Passed GED: A GED (general educational development) is an exam certified as the equivalent to attaining a high school diploma.

Paternity/Maternity Leave: Paid or unpaid leave of absence due to pregnancy or care for a newborn child.

Payments Made Directly to Provider: Any source that has paid the provider/pharmacy/place directly, that is, the family was not paid by the source in the anticipation that the family would in turn pay the provider. If this is the case, considered it a reimbursement, not a direct payment.

Pay the Provider Directly: Any source that has paid the provider/pharmacy/place directly, that is, the family was not paid by the source in the anticipation that the family would in turn pay the provider. If this is the case, considered it a reimbursement, not a direct payment.

Pension: Employment benefit which provides income payments to employees upon their retirement. Pension plans provide benefits to employees who have met specified criteria, normally age and/or length of service requirements. The two main types of pension plans are:

  • defined benefit plans Ė retirees receive a fixed monthly payment from their former employer, determined by years of service and average earnings; and
     
  • defined contribution Ė Funds available to retirees are based on their own contributions and any employer match made to an account such as a 401(k) or 403(b) plan during working years.

Periodontal Recall Visit (Periodic or Regular): Refers to periodontal treatment that occurs on a periodic or regular basis.

Periodontal Scaling: Procedures or surgeries that treat diseases in the bone, connective tissue, and gums surrounding and supporting the teeth.

Periodontist: A dental specialist who deals with diseases in the bone, connective tissue, and gums surrounding and supporting the teeth.

Permission Form: This has been replaced by the MEPS authorization form. The authorization form complies with the requirements of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) which went into effect April 14, 2003.

Person (Type Provider): The provider works individually, that is, the provider is not associated with any group practice, HMO, clinic, etc.

Personal Assistant/Interpreter: A personal assistant provides instruction, assistance or direction to help an individual carry out everyday activities due to an impairment or a physical or mental health problem. An interpreter assists individuals who are hard of hearing or deaf with communication

Personal Care: Home care services including bathing, dressing, or help getting around the house either paid or unpaid.

Personal Care Attendant: Non-medical persons who are usually paid (but can be unpaid) who help a disabled person perform activities of daily living, including: bathing, dressing, meal preparation, feeding, paying bills and transportation.

Personal Care or Homemaker Service Providers: Non-medical person(s) who provide non-medical services such as cleaning, cooking, shopping, or companionship. Such a person can be paid or unpaid, such as a friend, neighbor, relative or volunteer.

Pharmacy: A place that prepares, preserves, compounds, dispenses, and provides instructions on proper use of drugs.

Pharmacy Automatically Files Claims: The RU member or family has some type of insurance that will cover the cost of prescription drugs. The family pays only a portion of the full cost of the prescription or does not have to pay any portion of the cost. The pharmacy will then file the insurance claims for the family and is reimbursed for the remainder of the prescription charge directly from the insurance company.

Pharmacy Roster: An RU level list of names and addresses of pharmacies used by RU members during the reference period.

Physiatrist: Medical doctor who specializes in rehabilitation medicine. Frequently directs a team of medical professionals which can include occupational and physical therapists.

Physical Problem: Many people do not do some of the activities at all but not because of a health or physical problem. For example, consider gender roles. Some men may have difficulty preparing meals or doing laundry because their wives have always done it for them. If the respondent says he or she doesn't do the activity at all, remember to ask if that is due to an impairment or a physical health problem.

Physical Therapist: Medical person who is concerned with the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders with physical agents and methods -- such as massage, manipulation, therapeutic exercises, cold, heat, hydrotherapy, electric stimulation, and light -- to assist in rehabilitating patients and in restoring normal function after an illness or injury.

Physical Therapy: The use of means such as exercise, massage, light, cold, heat, electricity, and mechanical devices in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, injuries, and other physical disorders. Physical therapy does not include the use of X-rays or other types of radiation. Physiotherapy is the same as physical therapy.

Physician: Include both doctors of medicine (M.D.) and doctors of osteopathy (D.O.). Specific examples of physicians include: allergists, anesthesiologists, cardiologists, dermatologists, endocrinologists, family practice physicians, gastroenterologists, general physicians, geriatricians, gynecologists, internists, neurologists, obstetricians, ophthalmologists, orthopedists, otolaryngologists (ear, nose, and throat doctor), pediatricians, psychiatrists, physiatrist (rehab medicine), radiologists, surgeons (any), or urologists.

Physician Assistant: A Physician Assistant (PA) is a medical person who provides health care services with the direction and supervision of a doctor of medicine (MD) or osteopathic physician (DO). Physician's Assistants train for several years in order to earn the certification to perform diagnostic, therapeutic, preventive, and health maintenance services. Not to be confused with non-medical persons who also "assist" the physician.

Physician Choice: The ability of a person to select a physician. In a managed care plan, an insured person is generally more limited in physician choice than in a traditional indemnity plan.

Piecework: A method of incentive wage payment where earnings are based on a constant rate of pay for each unit of output. For example, $3.50 for each garment produced.

Placenta Previa (Low-Lying Placenta): A placenta, or afterbirth, which develops in the lower uterus, in the zone of dilation, so that it covers or adjoins the internal cervical opening. The most common symptom of low lying placenta is painless internal bleeding in the last trimester, particularly during the eighth month.

Plan Letter: Medigap insurance is designed to supplement coverage offered under the Medicare program. Medigap policies sold after 1991 are assigned a letter A through L. These letters indicate what kind of coverage the Medigap policy offers.

Plan Name (Insurance Card): Enter the full name of the health insurance plan name as it is printed on the card. This may also be the product name. Some examples of plan names or product names may be high option, low option, gold, extra plus, etc.

Podiatrist: A podiatrist (DPM) (sometimes referred to as a "foot doctor"), is a medical person who deals with examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases, conditions, and malfunctions affecting the human foot and its related structures.

Pointing or Using Gestures/Facial Expressions: Communications by aiming a finger or hand toward relevant objects or body or facial movements or contortions that convey various emotions or meanings.

Poison: A substance that when inhaled, ingested, or absorbed impairs health or causes death. Can include items like gasoline or a cleaning fluid or chemical. Do not include drugs of any type: prescription, non-prescription, or illicit (illegal).

Policyholder: The person in whose name the policy is written or the primary insured person.

Policy Information: Booklets or any other printed materials that describe the amount and type of coverage included in a health insurance policy are considered policy information. For example, this material may be:

  • A brochure or pamphlet summarizing a planís benefits;
     
  • A brochure or pamphlet that describes ALL the plans offered by an insurer (e.g., employer, union, federal government) (so that plans can be compared); or
     
  • A copy of the actual health insurance policy.

We are interested in the type of information that an employer or union usually provides those with coverage under a health insurance plan.

Only collect policy booklets or information for the person who is the policyholder or primary insured person, unless the only booklets available are for a covered dependent.

Policy Number (Insurance Card): Enter the complete policy number of the health insurance plan as printed on the card. This may be identified on the card as the Group Number, the Employer Number, the Control Number, the Contract Number, the Policy Identification Number or some similar phrase. It is generally a unique number assigned by the insurance or managed care company to the organization sponsoring the insurance (such as a state program, am employer, a union, etc.).

Polishing (Dental): Refers to activities performed by a dentist or dental hygienist to maintain healthy teeth and prevent cavities. Cleaning includes scraping tartar deposits off teeth, both above and below the gumline.

Potential Caregiver Roster: An RU level list of the names of individuals outside of the RU who make up the potential caregiver network for disabled RU members.

POS - Point of Service Plan: There are two types of POS plans. One type is tied to an HMO, so that the POS option allows members/patients to use providers who are outside of the HMO panel and receive some reimbursements, usually at a much lower rate.

There are also POS plans that are not tie to an HMO. Similar to a PPO or an EPO, there is an arrangement between purchasers and providers to deliver health services to a group of employees/patients. An insurance carrier or employer negotiates discounted fees with providers in return for guaranteeing a certain volume of patients. Members/patients receive the most benefits when they use providers who are "in plan." They receive lower reimbursements when they use providers who are "out-of-plan." There is often a third and lowest level of reimbursement when members/patients use providers who have no arrangement with the plan at all. Providers are usually reimbursed by discounted fee-for-service.

Post-Operative Visit: Includes visits to check on patient's progress after some type of surgery or other medical treatment. This includes visits to verify that patient has fully recovered, to remove stitches or a cast, or to adjust medications.

Post-Secondary School: This refers to one of the following types of schools:

  • College or University -- Junior college, community college, four-year college or university, nursing school or seminary where a college degree is offered, and graduate school or professional school that is attended after obtaining a degree from a 4-year institution.
     
  • Some other training school after high school -- Secretarial school, mechanical or computer training school, nursing school where a college degree is not offered, and any other vocational, trade, or business school where a college degree is not offered. The person need not have obtained a high school diploma or equivalency to attend this type of school.

PPO - Preferred Provider Organization: An arrangement between purchasers and providers to deliver health services to a group of employees/patients. An insurance carrier or employer negotiates discounted fees with providers in return for guaranteeing a certain volume of patients. Members who use preferred providers receive a higher level of benefits than members who use out-of-plan providers.

Prayer or Spiritual Healing: The restoration or maintenance of physical, mental, emotional, or spiritual health through prayer, meditation, or drawing on the help of powers or beings from another realm.

Pre-Eclampsia: A toxemia of late pregnancy characterized by persistently high blood pressure, swelling of the extremities, and protein in the urine.

Pre-existing Condition Limitation: A physical or mental condition which existed before a health insurance policy was issued. Some insurance policies exclude certain pre-existing conditions or require a waiting period before benefits are covered.

Preferred/Best Respondent: The best or preferred respondent for the interview is the person who is most knowledgeable about the familyís health care and who is keeping records about health care use and expenses since January 1, 2003 or since the date of the prior round interview. For ROUND 1, this is likely to be the person who was the respondent for the NHIS interview and, in most cases, was the person contacted on the advance contact effort. For ROUNDS 2-5, the best respondent is the person who was respondent for the previous roundís interview.

Preferred Provider: Any health care provider (for example, a physician, dentist, other health care professional, hospital, skilled nursing facility or other health care institution) who participates in a managed care plan's network. Members usually pay less (or nothing) for services from preferred providers. Preferred providers contract with a managed care plan to provide services on a discounted basis in return for increased patient volume.

Pregnancy Related (including prenatal care and delivery): Consultations and examinations relating to pregnancy, i.e., prenatal (before delivery) and postnatal (after delivery) care of the mother up to six weeks after childbirth. This category also includes normal childbirth (delivery of the baby through the birth canal) and cesarean section (surgical operation for delivering a baby by cutting through the motherís abdominal and uterine walls).

Pregnancy Related Complications: Describes the reason for a hospital stay related to a womanís pregnancy, where the result was NOT a love birth. This could include reasons such as stillbirth, miscarriage, placenta previa, or other pregnancy related complications that resulted in a hospital-stay admission.

Premature Labor: Birth of a baby before the normal end of a pregnancy. Premature labor usually occurs between the 28th and 37th week of pregnancy.

Premium: A payment required in exchange for insurance policy coverage for a specific period of time.

Prepaid Group Practice: An organized group of physicians or dentists, generally working together in a central location. Prepaid group practice providers are usually salaried or capitated and provide services only to members of a prepaid plan (such as an HMO).

Preparing Light Meals: The overall activities of cutting, mixing, and cooking food. The amount of food prepared is not relevant as long as it is sufficient to sustain a person over time. Preparing meals may be as simple as heating up a TV dinner or boiling an egg.

Prescribed Medicine: Prescribed medicines are those ordered by a physician or other authorized medical person through a written or verbal prescription for a pharmacist to fill. Prescription medicines can also be given by a medical provider directly to a patient to take home, such as free samples. (Free samples are collected separately in the Prescribed Medicine Section.)

Prescription medicines do not include:

  • medicines administered to the patient during the event in the office as part of the treatment (such as an antibiotic shot for an infection, a flu shot, or a medicine taken orally)
     
  • diaphragms and IUD's (Intra-Uterine Devices);
     
  • prescriptions for eyeglasses or contact lenses; or
     
  • over-the-counter medications that do not have a written prescription from a doctor.

Some state laws require prescriptions for over-the-counter medicines. Sometimes physicians write a prescription for over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin. Therefore, consider any medicine a prescribed medicine if the respondent reports it as prescribed. If it is an over-the-counter drug, however, the prescription must be a written one to be filled by a pharmacist, not just an oral instruction. If in doubt, probe whether the patient got a written prescription to fill at a pharmacy. If there is still any doubt, report the medicine as a prescription medicine.

Prescribed Medicine Roster: A person level list of the prescription medicine names obtained or purchased for the person during his or her reference period.

Prescription: See Prescribed Medicine.

Prescription Drugs Insurance: Insurance that provides coverage for prescription drugs.

Prescription Medications (Coverage): The insurance plan in question provides coverage for medicines that are ordered by a physician or other authorized medical person through a written or verbal prescription for a pharmacist to fill.

Prescription Medicines: See Prescribed Medicine.

Preventive Health Care (Coverage/Services): The (insurance plan/provider) in question provides coverage for care or services that prevent physical or mental health problems. Preventive health care or service may include things such as: immunizations, routine physicals, cholesterol checks, prenatal care, "stop smoking" classes, nutritional advice, etc.

Previous Employer (Health Insurance): Health insurance purchased for this business through any former employer. The RU member being asked about must have worked for this employer at some point in the past.

Previous Employer (COBRA) (Health Insurance): Health insurance purchased for this business through any former employer. The RU member being asked about must have worked for this employer at some point in the past. This health insurance must continue through COBRA.

Previously Employed: Person is not employed as of date of the interview, but has been employed at this establishment in the past.

Primary Care Doctor: A primary care doctor or provider is the person or place an individual would go to if they had a new health problem, needed preventive health care, or needed a referral to a specialist. Examples of primary care providers include general practitioners, family practitioners, pediatricians, internists, and some nurses and nurse practitioners who make decisions regarding patient care.

Primary Care Provider: A primary care provider is the person or place an individual would go to if they had a new health problem, needed preventive health care, or needed a referral to a specialist. Examples of primary care providers include general practitioners, family practitioners, pediatricians, internists, and some nurses and nurse practitioners who make decisions regarding patient care.

Primary Insured: The person who actually holds the contract for coverage under a health insurance plan. The primary insured person and his/her dependents are all enrollees; all enrollees are not primary insureds. Synonyms include policyholder, contract holder and subscriber. (See also Enrollee.)

Primary Responsibility: The person who is most often responsible for the health and health care for the person being asked about. This includes making sure the person being asked about receives all need health care (doctor visits, dental visits, takes medications, etc.) and paying for that health care.

PSUs: Primary Sampling Units. Counties or groups of counties that have been carefully selected to represent the entire country.

Printing or Writing: Words or symbols displayed on paper or other material that can be viewed and interpreted.

Private, Military, or Government Pensions: Pensions are employee benefits which provide income payments to employees upon their retirement. Pensions provide benefits to employees who have met specified criteria, normally age and/or length of service requirements. Pensions can be paid by various employers including private companies, the military, or any level of the government.

Prior Authorization: A process used by some managed care companies to review and authorize non-emergency procedures and hospitalizations in advance. When members don't receive precertification, benefits are usually paid at a lower level or are not paid at all. Synonyms include preauthorization, predetermination and precertification.

Privacy Rule: This section of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) establishes conditions under which individually identifiable health information can be used or disclosed by "covered entities" (includes medical providers, pharmacies, and health insurers) requires that covered entities maintain records of disclosures and establishes penalties for unauthorized disclosure or release of identifiable health information by covered entities.

Private Charity: Medical services provided for free. Charities are funded with private contributions. An example of a private charity is the Salvation Army.

Private Company, Individual, or Organization: Employees of an organization whose operations are owned by private individuals and not a governmental entity.

Private Doctor's Office: A private doctor's office refers to a physician or group of physicians who see patients outside of a hospital or clinic. Medical doctors who practice not as part of a larger medical facility such as a hospital or HMO clinic. Medical doctors are those who have an M.D. (Medical Doctor) or D.O. (Doctor of Osteopathy) degree. (This may include ophthalmologists, gastroenterologist, general or family practice physicians, internists, neurologists, obstetricians, gynecologists, orthopedists, pediatricians, psychiatrists, etc.).

Private Duty Nursing Services: Nurse who is employed by a patient and provides direct nursing care to the patient.

Private Employer (Health Insurance): This category includes insurance obtained through employment with a private company, individual or organization. These are organizations whose operations are owned by private individuals and not a government entity.

Private Insurance Company: A corporation primarily engaged in the business of selling insurance policies to the public.

Production Occupations: This category includes a variety of occupations as follows:

  • Precision Production Occupations:
    Includes occupations concerned with performing production tasks that require a high degree of precision or attainment of rigid specifications and operating plants or large systems. Examples include tool and die makers, machinists, boilermakers, jewelers, engravers, sheet metal workers, cabinet makers, furniture finishers, typesetters, tailors, upholsterers, shoemakers, butchers, bakers, water, sewer, gas or power plant operators, etc.
     
  • Production Working Occupations:
    Includes occupations concerned with setting up, operating, and tending of machines and hand production work usually in a factory or other fixed place of business. Examples include machine setup operators, machine operators and tenders, fabricators, assemblers, and hand working occupations, production inspectors, testers, samplers, and weighers, etc.
  • Professional Association: An organization of individuals that share a professional affiliation (for example, the American Medical Association). Membership may include the right to buy health insurance through the organization or association.

    Professional Staff: Professional staff are all persons who work with a provider or work at a providerís office who are directly involved in providing medical care. Examples of professional staff include nurses, physicianís assistants, nurse practitioners, nursing assistants, physical therapists, etc.

    Professional Specialty Occupations: This category includes a variety of occupations as follows:

    • Engineers, Surveyors, and Architects:
      Includes occupations concerned with the application of fundamental architectural and engineering principles in the design and construction of buildings, equipment and processing systems, highways and roads, and utilization of land areas. Examples include architects, nuclear engineers, civil engineers, land surveyors, cartographers, etc.
       
    • Natural Scientists and Mathematicians:
      Includes occupations concerned with the application of scientific and mathematical knowledge to the conduct of research and development and related activities. Examples include computer scientists, actuaries, statisticians, astronomists, physicists, geologists, biologists, etc.
       
    • Social Scientists, Social Workers, Religious Workers, and Lawyers:
      Includes occupations concerned with the social needs of people and in basic and applied research in the social sciences. Examples include economists, historians, political scientists, psychologists, sociologists, urban planners, social workers, recreation workers, clergy, attorneys, judges, etc.
       
    • Teachers, Librarians, and Counselors:
      Includes occupations concerned with direct contact with individuals to provide for their education or training in an educational institution, but excluding instructors who provide on-the-job-training. Examples include college, university, and other postsecondary teachers and professors, preschool, elementary school, secondary school teachers, special education and adult education teachers, vocational and educational councilors, librarians, archivists and curators, etc.
       
    • Health Diagnosing and Treating Practitioners:
      Includes occupations concerned with preventing and diagnosing human and animal ailments, and prescribing and giving medical and surgical treatment for diseases and illnesses. Examples include physicians, dentists, veterinarians, optometrists, podiatrists, alternative care practitioners, etc.
       
    • Registered Nurses, Pharmacists, Dietitians, Therapists, and Physicianís Assistants:
      Includes occupations concerned with the maintenance of health, the prevention of illness, and the care of the ill through the provision and supervision of nursing care, compounding drugs, planning food service or nutritional programs, providing assistance to physicians, and the provision of therapy and treatment as directed by a physician. Examples include registered nurses, pharmacists, dietitians, occupational therapist, physical therapist, speech pathologists and audiologists, physicianís assistants, etc.
       
    • Writers, Artists, Entertainers, and Athletes:
      Includes occupations concerned with creating, performing, and conducting literary, artistic, entertaining, and sporting activities. Examples include authors, designers, musicians and composers, actors and directors, painters, sculptors, photographers, dancers, etc.
       
    • Editors, Reporters, Public Relations Specialists, and Announcers:
      Includes occupations concerned with editing and reported news and features, writing publicity articles and press releases, and announcing radio and television news, commercials, and station identification. Examples include editors, reporters, public relation specialists and publicity writers, radio, television and other announcers, etc.
       
    • Athletes and Related Workers:
      Includes occupations involving participating in sports and athletics as competitors or players and administering and directing athletic programs, managing, coaching, scouting, and training and instructing athletes, observing and enforcing rules and regulations governing sporting events, athletic games and competitions. Examples include coaches, athletic managers, athletic trainer, jockey, umpire, professional athlete, etc.

Prophylaxis (Dental): Refers to activities performed by a dentist or dental hygienist to maintain healthy teeth and prevent cavities. Cleaning includes scraping tartar deposits off teeth, both above and below the gumline.

Prostate Exam: A rectal examination to check the prostate gland for inflammation, enlargement, or cancer. The prostate is a gland in the male genitals.

Prostate Specific Antigen: A prostate specific antigen or "P-S-A" is a blood test to detect prostate cancer.

Prostheses: An artificial replacement for a missing body part, such as an hand, arm or leg, eye that is used for functional and/or cosmetic reasons.

Proxy Respondents: In a small number of cases it may not be possible to conduct an interview with an RU member. Examples include:

  • A single-person RU consisting of an elderly respondent with impaired memory or who is unable to focus on the interview.
     
  • An RU where all members have died and/or entered an institution on or after the first day of the reference period.

In cases where a proxy respondent is necessary, try to determine who outside the RU could provide information about the medical care and expenses for the RU member(s). The proxy respondent must be someone 18 years or older who can provide information about the RU member(s) health care use and expenses during the personís reference period. BEFORE YOU COMPLETE THE INTERVIEW WITH A PROXY, YOU MUST OBTAIN APPROVAL FROM YOUR SUPERVISOR. NOTE: If Round 1, and the only RU Member died or entered an institution BEFORE January 1st, DO NOT CONTINUE WITH THE INTERVIEW. Verify the date of death or institutionalization and close out the case.

Prostate Surgery (Prostatectomy): Excision (i.e., cutting away) of part or all of the prostate gland.

Provider Name (Charge Payment): In some instances, a provider may have more than one name. This question is asking if the paperwork (i.e., bill or statement) indicates that the provider is listed under another name. For example, a respondent may report that the hospital's name is the University of Chicago Hospital when the bill indicates that the patient was seen at Wyler Children's Hospital.

Provider Roster: An RU level list of names and abbreviated addresses of providers of health care seen by the family during the reference period.

PSA: See Prostate Specific Antigen.

Psychiatric Institution: A residential facility that provides diagnostic and treatment services to patients with mental or emotional disorders. Psychiatric hospitals or psychiatric units or wards in hospitals should be coded as a type of hospital service, not long-term care.

Psychiatric Social Worker: A psychiatric social worker is a social worker who usually works in a psychiatric hospital, residential treatment center, psychiatric unit of a general hospital, or a mental health center. A psychiatric social worker assists individuals and their families in dealing with social, emotional, and environmental problems resulting from mental illness or disability. A psychiatric social worker serves as a link between the patient, psychiatrist, clinical psychologist, family, and community.

Include visits to other social workers or counselors if the visit would be reimbursed by insurance. That is, if there is a charge for the service that an insurance company would pay for, the service should be included.

A Licensed Clinical Social Worker (LCSW) is another type of psychiatric social worker. An LCSW may practice at any one of the above sites, but may also have his or her own private practice and may bill independently.

Psychiatrist: A physician who specializes in dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of mental, addictive, and emotional disorders, such as psychoses, depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse disorders, developmental disabilities, sexual dysfunctions, and adjustment reactions.

Psychologist: A non-physician who specializes in the counseling and testing of persons with mental, addictive, or emotional disorders.

Psychotherapy (Mental Health Counseling): A treatment technique for certain forms of mental disorders relying principally on verbal communications between the mental health professional and the patient. Can be individual, family, and/or group therapies. Include care provided by any type of health professional so long as treatment is for mental health. Does not include visits with clergy to discuss personal problems. Any other professional mental health therapist such as a psychiatrist, psychologist, counselor, social worker, etc. would be included.

Public Assistance: Refers to the government agencies concerned with providing aid to person suffering from poverty, unemployment, etc. Their health care is provided through Medicaid.

Public Employer (Health Insurance): This category includes insurance obtained through employment with a public employer, such as the federal, state or local government.

Public Health Clinic: Clinics that are run by state and local Public Health Departments to provide services such as prenatal care.

Public Health Insurance Plan: A type of coverage which is regulated and administered by a governmental agency and available based on specified eligibility requirements (e.g., age, income, disability). Examples of public health insurance plans include Medicare, Medicaid, and TRICARE. Public plans are also referred to as Public Insurance.

Public Health Service Act: One of the principal acts of Congress providing legislative authority for federal health activities. Sections 924(c) and 308(a) ensure that the confidentiality of respondents participating in health surveys sponsored by AHCPR will be protected, and that a respondent's participation in the survey is voluntary. Also, the act stipulates the benefits a person receives under Medicare will not be affected by a person's participation in the survey.

Public Street, Road, Highway, Sidewalk: The entire width between property lines which is used by the public as a matter of right or custom. This includes more than just the traveled part of the road; it includes the whole right-of-way. Public sidewalks are part of the street.

This category does not include roads in private land, such as very long driveways or access roads to houses or buildings in the middle of private land. Non-public roads are usually marked as such. Also, private sidewalks and private alleys are not considered part of the street.

Puerto Rican: Refers to anyone of Puerto Rican birth or descent.

Purchasing Alliance - Health Insurance: An organization which allows individuals or employers to band together in order to buy insurance at more favorable premium rates. Its basic functions are to bargain with and purchase health insurance on behalf of consumers and to furnish information to consumers on the services provided, evaluations of the quality of care available, and price of competing health care sources. They may also be referred to as health alliances (HA), health insurance purchasing corporations (HIPC), health plan purchasing cooperative (HPPC), or HICK-PIX.

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Q

Qualifying Widow(er) with Dependent Children: A tax filing status that can be used by anyone whose spouse died in either of the two years previous to the tax year and the person has not remarried in the tax year and who:

  • has a child, adopted child, stepchild, or foster child who he/she can claim as a dependent, and
  • the child lived in the personís home for all of the tax year, and
  • paid over half the cost of keeping up his/her home; and
  • could have filed a joint return with his/her spouse the year the spouse died, even if he/she didnít actually do so.

Reports taxable income of one tax filer.

Quit Because Wanted Time Off: Voluntarily out of the labor force because of a desire for time off.

Quit to Have a Baby: Pregnant RU member voluntarily terminates employment due to the birth of her child. If the RU member quits to care for an adopted child, code as 'Quit to Take Care of Home or Family'.

Quit to Take Care of Home or Family: This answer category includes cases where an RU member ceases employment in order to be in the household to take care of household duties, children, and/or spouse. It also includes cases where an RU member may quit in order to be available to care for another family member who is ill, either in the RU member's home or elsewhere.

Quit to Take Other Job: Voluntary termination of employment resulting from acceptance of other employment opportunities.

Quit to Go to School: RU member is no longer employed in order to attend classes at any kind of public or private school, including trade or vocational schools in which students receive no compensation in money or kind, or only minimal educational stipends (fellowship, scholarship).

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R

Race and Ethnicity: Race and ethnicity are important characteristics that are used in analysis of the data. However, it can sometimes be sensitive data to collect. Therefore, we use show cards to help the respondent self-classify their race and ethnicity. If the respondent provides multiple responses for either of these questions, use the following probes in the order they appear to probe for the main race. Note the probes are exactly the same for ethnicity by replacing the word "race" with "national origin or ancestry".

Radiation Therapy: The treatment of disease through the use of external radiation designed to have a toxic effect upon the disease-producing microorganism, or to selectively destroy cancerous tissue.

Radiograph (Dental): Photographic images of the teeth obtained through the use of small amounts of radiation. These images are used to discover hidden cavities and flaws in teeth.

Railings, Ramps: Railings serve as guards or supports that protects the person from falling over an edge or down stairs. Ramps are sloping surfaces that connect different levels.

Railroad Retirement System: A federally legislated program which provides retirement, disability, and survivor annuities to workers whose employment was connected with the railroad industry for at least 10 years. The system provides for close coordination with the Social Security system. Benefits are financed through a combination of employee, employer, and Federal Government contributions.

Reacher: A long, grasping device for extending the reach for persons in wheelchairs or with limited strength or range of motion in the shoulders. Usually a stick with a grasping mechanism on the bottom that will clasp the item.

Real Estate: Land, including the buildings and improvements on it and its natural assets, such as minerals, water, etc.

Receptionist (Similar to Clerk or Secretary): A person who assists a medical person in performing clerical tasks, such as scheduling appointments, filing and maintaining medical records, billing, and answering the telephone.

Recovered: A person is recovered if he/she has returned to a previous state of health or function that preceded the occurrence of the disease, disability, or accident.

Recreational Place or Facility: Refers to buildings and grounds for watching or participating in entertainment or sports. Examples would be a baseball diamond, a fairground, a basketball arena, and a theater. Also included are health spas or gyms and swimming pools. Sometimes a recreational facility is located on the grounds of one of the categories listed above, like a military base or a school. If so, code the facility based on where it is located.

Recreational Vehicles: Vehicles used for the purposes of relaxation or amusement such as motorcycles, mopeds, camping trailers, motor homes, boats, airplanes, jet skis, snowmobiles, gliders, canoes, kayaks, or hangliders, etc..

Reference Period: The period of time a person is living in the RU and for which data is collected in that RU. Varies depending on personís circumstances. (See QxQs for a more detailed description.)

Reference Person: The person who owns or rents the home, or who is considered head of household. RU membership is determined by a personís relationship to the reference person. Persons not related to the reference person are not included in the RU.

Referral: Some health insurance plans require that individuals get authorization before consulting a specialist. This authorization is a referral.

Referred: A person was referred for a visit if he/she was given a recommendation by a physician or medical person to see this particular physician or medical person. A referral may be the result of either an in-person visit or a telephone call to the original physician or medical person.

Referred by Plan: Special permission from the health insurance plan (or a provider who is part of this plan) to see this "provider" was necessary in order for the costs of the visit to be covered.

Refills (of Prescriptions): A medicine is refilled for the person whose name appears on the prescription label. Usually, prescriptions have specified limits to the number of times they can be refilled.

Even if the medicine ends up being taken by someone else, record only the person the prescription was written for.

Regular Cash Contributions: Include periodic payments from non-household members. Gifts or sporadic assistance from persons outside the household are not included.

Regular School: A school that advances a person toward an elementary or high school diploma, or a college or professional school degree, school diploma, or a college or professional school degree.

Regular school includes graded public, private, and parochial schools, colleges, universities, graduate and professional schools, seminaries where a Bachelor's degree is offered, junior colleges specializing in skill training, colleges of education, and nursing schools where a Bachelor's degree is offered.

If the person attended school outside of the "regular" school system, you will need to probe to determine if the schooling is applicable here. Use the following guidelines to determine if the schooling should be included at this question:

  • Training Programs - Count training received "on the job", in the Armed Forces, or through correspondence school only if it was credited toward a school diploma, high school equivalency (GED), or college degree.
     
  • Vocational, Trade, or Business School - Do not include secretarial school, mechanical or computer training school, nursing school where a Bachelor's degree is not offered, and other vocational trade or business schools outside the regular school system.
     
  • General Educational Development (GED) or High School Equivalency - An exam certified equivalent of a high school diploma. If the person has not actually completed all four years of high school, but has acquired his/her GED (high school equivalency based on passing the GED exam), count this as you would a high school graduate and enter code '12'.
     
  • Adult Education - Adult education classes should not be included as regular school unless such schooling has been counted for credit in a regular school system. If a person has taken adult education classes but not for credit, these classes should not be counted as regular school. Adult education courses given in a public school building are part of regular schooling only if their completion can advance a person toward an elementary school certificate, a high school diploma (or GED), or college degree.
     
  • Other School Systems - If the person attended school in another country, in an ungraded school, in a 'normal school', under a tutor, or under other special circumstances, ask the respondent to give the nearest equivalent of years in regular U.S. school.

Reimbursement: Repayment by a third party (usually an insurance company) for charges a person pays for health care services covered by the person's health insurance plan. For example, the terms of a person's health insurance plan may require that a person pay the pharmacy directly for a prescription and then request a "reimbursement" from his/her insurance company for all or a percentage of the total amount paid.

Related (to Reference Person): All common relationships that occur through blood (e.g., grandfather, daughter), marriage (wife, step-son), or adoption (adopted son or daughter). Also included as related are partnership relations where two people are living together as married (both same sex and different sexes). These include the relationship between the couple and other persons related to them who would be considered related if the couple were legally married. (See QxQs for a more detailed description.)

Relative (Home Health Provider): A medical or non-medical person providing some type of home health services to the RU member. This person must fulfill the following requirements:

  1. Relative is not part of the RU or DU.
     
  2. Relative is related to the RU member receiving the care.
     
  3. Relative is not providing the care because of an affiliation with a volunteer group.
     
  4. Relative can be either paid or not-paid.

Relaxation, Meditation, or Imagery Techniques: Techniques for attaining a state of physical relaxation and psychological calm such as the repetition of a mantra, concentration on mental images, or sitting quietly in a quiet place with eyes closed and body relaxed while paying close attention to breathing.

Relining or Repair of Bridges or Dentures: Includes replacing false teeth and repairing the supporting structure for false teeth, including the portion covering the gums.

Removable Partial Dentures: False teeth that are removable from the mouth.

Removal of Diseased Tissue (Excision of Lesion): Cutting away or taking out a circumscribed area of pathologically altered tissue, an injury or wound, or a single infected patch in a skin disease.

Rental Income (for Tax Filing Purposes): Income or loss less amounts for depreciation, repairs, improvements and other allowable expenses related to the rented property.

Rents/Owns Home: A person rents the home if s/he pays on a continuing basis without gaining any rights to ownership. A person owns the home if even if s/he is still paying on a mortgage.

Repeat Visit: Any visit to the same medical provider for the same condition and services with the same charge as another visit.

Residence Only During School Year: Person lives at this household only during the months s/he is attending school and lives elsewhere when not attending school.

Respiratory Therapist: Respiratory therapists (RT) specialize in the assessment and treatment of breathing disorders resulting from chronic lung problems (e.g. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, COPD), as well as breathing disorders stemming from other conditions such as heart attach, stroke, or trauma. Respiratory therapists are specialists in airway management, mechanical ventilation, acid/base balance, and critical care management.

Respite Care: Care received for only a limited time by severely disabled or impaired persons (e.g., quadriplegics, developmentally disabled children or Alzheimer patients) in a long-term care place (e.g., a nursing home) or another person's home, as a way of providing an interval of rest or relief to family members who are the usual primary caregivers at home. This question is interested in eliciting only care received at long-term care places.

Respondent Rules: See definitions for "best/preferred respondent", "selecting a new RU member as respondent", and "proxy respondents."

Restaurant (including those in malls): Refers to any building as well as areas around or near the restaurant, such as parking facilities.

Retainers: Refers to appliances fitted to some or all teeth to correct irregularly spaced teeth.

Retired: Voluntary termination of employment usually the result of reaching a specified age and tenure. Also include situations in which the person is no longer seeking main employment due to a retirement decision.

Retirement Plan (Pension): Employment benefit which provides income payments to employees upon their retirement. Pension plans provide benefits to employees who have met specified criteria, normally age and/or length of service requirements. The two main types of pension plans are:

  • Defined benefit plans Ė Retirees receive a fixed monthly payment from their former employer, determined by years of service and average earnings.
     
  • Defined contribution Ė Funds available to retirees are based on their won contributions and any employer match made to an account such as a 401(k) or 403(b) plan during working years.
     
  • An Individual Retirement Account, or IRA, is a personal retirement plan whereby a limited amount of annual earnings may be invested, as in mutual funds or a savings account, with the investment money and its earnings being tax-free until retirement. Payments from these accounts must be reported on the tax filerís income tax return. Payments include regular distributions, early distributions, rollovers, and any other money or property the person received from his/her IRA account or annuity. These amounts can be found on form 1099-R.
     
  • A 401(K) is an optional retirement plan supported by many companies. This money is taken out and invested before the employee's paycheck is taxed. The plan is set up by a qualified employer with the primary contributions being deposited by the employee. Often there is a company matching plan where they will also contribute a percentage of the money the employee contributed. While the 401(k) continues to grow, taxes will not be paid on it. When the employee withdraws the money at retirement, he/she will be taxed on the amount in the account. There is a penalty to remove the money prior to retirement age; however, many plans allow the employee to borrow money using the plan as collateral or remove the money without penalty in certain emergencies. These amounts can be found on form 1099-R.

Root Canal: A procedure in which the pulp of an injured or dead tooth is removed and replaced with a filling in order to save the tooth.

Root Planing: Procedures or surgeries that treat diseases in the bone, connective tissue, and gums surrounding and supporting the teeth.

Rotating Shift: A work schedule, or shift, that changes periodically from days to evenings or nights. For example nurses, factory workers, firefighters, police officers, etc. may be scheduled to work
7 a.m. - 4 p.m. one week and then 9 p.m. - 6 a.m. the next week. Rotating shift does not include times where the person is allowed the flexibility to complete work within a certain time period. For example, if the person must work 8 hours in a day, but the person can determine, on their own, how that 8 hours is worked, do not consider this a rotating shift.

Routine Care: Health care that is considered usual and customary; that is, care that is not for an emergency and not received from a specialist that a person was referred to. Routine care usually consists of the initial diagnosis and treatment of medical problems, preventive health care, etc.

Routine Check-Up: A routine check-up is a visit with a doctor or other health professional for assessing overall health, usually not prompted by a specific illness or complaint. It usually includes a blood pressure check, and may include taking a blood sample for analysis and questions about health behaviors such as smoking.

Royalties (for Tax Filing Purposes): Income from oil, gas and other mineral rights, patents, and literary, musical or artistic works.

RU: Reporting Unit. A person or group of related persons, or two or more unrelated persons living together who pool their incomes to make joint expenditures.

RU Members Roster: An RU level list of all persons who were part of the RU during the reference period.

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S

Salaried: Salaried employees are paid to perform a job regardless of the number of hours worked. These employees are not paid on an hourly basis and may not receive compensation for hours worked beyond 40 hours per week. In essence, there is little or no link between compensation and scheduled hours.

Salary: Money paid by an employer for the performance of a job, regardless of how many hours are worked. The workers are not paid on an hourly basis and might not receive compensation for hours worked beyond 40 hours per week. In essence, there is little or no link between compensation and hours worked.

Savings Account: A bank account that bears interest. Generally, deposits and withdrawals of funds are done at the banking institution with withdrawn funds going directly to the holder of the account or another of his or her bank accounts.

SCHIP (The Childrenís Health Insurance Program): A program which gives each state permission to offer health insurance for children, up to age 19, who are not already insured and for uninsured families with limited income and resources who ear too much to qualify for Medicaid. SCHIP is a state administered program and may be known by different names in different states.

School Building, Grounds, Playing Fields: Code this category for accidents that occurred either in a school building or on the grounds of the school, such as a playing or athletic field. Any type of school applies here, whether it was a grade or high school, college, or university, trade or vocational school, public or private, etc.

School Clinic: A facility which is operated principally for students (and sometimes their dependents) who are enrolled at a college or university.

School Insurance: Health insurance purchased through a school that covered someone in the RU during the reference period. Any type of school applies here, whether it is a grade or high school, college, or university, trade or vocational school, public or private, etc.

S Corporation or Partnership (for Tax Filing Purposes): Since partnerships and S corporations are not taxable entities, their net profit or loss is taxed, in general, directly to the members of the partnership or shareholders in the S corporation. This income includes the taxpayer's share of the ordinary gain or loss of the enterprise and certain payments made to the taxpayer for the use of capital or as a salary.

Sealant (Plastic Coatings on Back Teeth): The application of a material to close fissures, grooves, or pits on the chewing surfaces of back teeth.

Second Home: Includes any other homes an RU member owns (i.e., the RU memberís name is on the title) other than his or her primary residence. Examples include vacation homes and housing units that are rented to others.

Second Surgical Opinion: A requirement of some health insurance carriers to have a second physician evaluate the need for non-emergency surgery that was recommended by another surgeon.

Secretary (Similar to Receptionist or Clerk): A person who assists a medical person in performing clerical tasks, such as scheduling appointments, filing and maintaining medical records, billing, and answering the telephone.

Selecting a New RU Member as Respondent: If you need to select a new respondent for the RU, select an RU member who is 18 years old or older and knowledgeable about the familyís health care use and expenses. Always encourage all adult RU members to assist with the interview, especially if there is a specific RU member for whom the selected respondent cannot provide all health information. Keep in mind that a new respondent may also be a new member of the RU. Verify that the person is a member of the RU before selecting ĎRU memberí for respondent type.

Self-Employed: Individuals working for profit or fee in a business or farm they own. The business or farm may be incorporated or unincorporated.

Self-Insured Company: The company finances its employees' health benefits, rather than purchasing health insurance from an outside source. The company may charge a premium to employees and the plan my be administered by a third party.

Self-Insured Plan: A type of group health coverage in which an employer, union or other sponsor assumes partial or complete financial risk. Rather than paying premiums to an insurer, the sponsoring organization sets aside an estimated amount to pay for incurred claims. Sponsors often contract with third party administrators (TPAs) to process claims and to provide other administrative services.

Senior Center: A center that caters to the needs and interests of senior citizens by providing activities and programs where they can socialize. Activities include congregate meals, recreation, crafts, book clubs, bingo, dances, seminars on special topics, blood pressure checks, etc.

Separated: Legal or informal separation due to marital discord. It is necessary to probe further when a person is reported as "separated" -- if the spouse is absent for reasons other than marital discord, the "married" category applies.

Serious Disease Insurance: These plans are limited to only certain types of illnesses such as cancer, stroke, or heart attacks. This study does not consider this coverage to be health insurance.

Service in the Armed Forces of the United States: Current or past participation in the military branches of the United States Government, including active or reserve duty in the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, or Coast Guard.

Service Occupations: Includes occupations involving providing personal and protective services to individuals and current maintenance and cleaning for buildings and residences. Examples include, private housekeepers, child care workers, firefighters, police officers, crossing guards, restaurant chefs, bartenders, waiters and waitresses, dental assistants, health aides and orderlies, janitors, pest control workers, barbers, cosmetologists, ushers, bellhops, flight attendants, etc.

Set Amount: An amount a provider charges for a visit no matter what the specific services provided during a particular visit were. A possible example of this includes regular visits made to a physical therapist for treatment: The specific treatment may be different from visit to visit yet the charge is always the same.

Shares of Stock: The capital or funds that a corporation raises through the sale of shares entitling the holder to dividends and the other rights of ownership.

Sheltered Workshops/Supported Employment: A sheltered workshop is a training or work place for persons with impairments or physical or mental problems where supervision is provided for simple tasks. Supported employment consists of special programs that enable employers to hire individuals with impairments or physical or mental health problems.

Shopping: Going to the store, selecting the items and getting them home. If the RU member has difficulty doing any of these without help from another person, code "yes". Delivery service is not help in shopping if done as a convenience.

Shots (other than allergy): Drug or medicine that was injected into the body by a shot. For example: antibiotics, steroids, pain killers, or vitamins. This category does not include vaccines or allergy shots.

Sigmoidoscopy: A sigmoidoscopy is when a tube is inserted in the rectum to view the bowel for signs of cancer or other health problems.

Sign Language: Representing words by signs made with the position and movement of the fingers and hands.

Single: A tax filing status that can be used by anyone who was never married, legally separated, or widowed and not remarried as of December 31st of the tax year. Reports taxable income of one tax filer.

Sister (for Caregiver Supplement): A sister includes biological, adoptive, step, and half sisters. A sister is one's female sibling who shares both of the same biological or adoptive parents. A step-sister is one's stepparent's daughter by a previous relationship. A half-sister is one's female relative who shares one of the same biological or adoptive parents.

Sister-In-Law: The sister of one's spouse.

Sister/Step-/Half- (for Reeenumeration): A sister is one's female sibling who shares both of the same biological or adoptive parents. A step-sister is one's stepparent's daughter by a previous relationship. A half-sister is one's female relative who shares one of the same biological or adoptive parents.

Skilled Medical Care: Home care from a nurse, any type of therapist, a doctor, a social worker, or anyone else providing nursing or medical care.

Small Business Group: A group of small businesses that band together to negotiate better deals on health insurance for their employees than they could each negotiate on their own.

Social Security: Also known as the Old Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance (OASDI) in reference to its three parts: Retirement Benefits, Disability Benefits, and Survivorsí Benefits.

Retirement Benefits Ė The amount of the monthly benefit depends upon previous earnings and upon the age at which the person chooses to begin receiving benefits. The earliest age at which benefits are payable is 62.

Disability Ė A person who has worked long enough and recently enough to be covered can receive benefits upon becoming totally disabled, regardless of his or her age. The person must be unable to continue in his or her previous job and unable to adjust to other work; furthermore, the disability must be long-term (lasting or expected to last for at least one year or to result in death). The amount of the disability benefit payable depends on the personís age and previous earnings.

Survivorsí Benefits Ė If a worker covered by Social Security dies, a surviving spouse or children can receive survivorsí benefits. Sometimes, survivorsí benefits are available to a divorced spouse. Children cannot receive survivorsí benefits after age 19 unless the child was disabled before age 22.

Social Security (for Tax Filling Purposes): Social Security benefits include any monthly benefits the tax filer receives under title II of the Social Security Act or the part of tier 1 railroad retirement benefits treated as a social security benefit. It also includes monthly survivor and disability benefits the tax filer received through Social Security. Social Security amounts can be found on form SSA-1099. Railroad retirement amounts can be found on form RRB-1099-R.

Social Worker: A person who assists patients and their families in handling social, environmental, and emotional problems associated with illness or injury. Can include social work specialists, such as a medical or psychiatric social worker.

Sole Proprietorship: An unincorporated business owned by a single individual, needing only a business license to operate.

Some College: The person has spent some time at a junior college, community college, four-year college or university, nursing school or seminary where a college degree is offered. However, the person did NOT obtain any kind of college degree. If the person has a college degree, code "College Graduate" or "Graduate Degree", as appropriate. (See definitions elsewhere in Glossary.)

Some Follow-up Care Received: This is the situation where the person is seeking some of the follow-up care, but has chosen not to receive all the care recommended by the provider. An example of this situation would be a provider recommending ten physical therapy sessions and the person stops going after six sessions. Another example would be a pregnant woman who goes in for all her prenatal visits, but does not have the recommended tests for genetic defects in the baby.

Some High School, Grades 9-12 (for Caregiver Supplement): For this study, we have classified grades 1 through 8 as elementary school, and grades 9 through 12 as high school. Use this code for someone who had some high school, but did not graduate with a high school diploma or did not obtain a GED. If the highest education level for the person was high school and he or she received a high school diploma or received a GED, use the code for "Completed High School, No College."

Some Medication for a Specific Health Problem: Actual pills, shots, or other drugs that a patient receives during the visit for a specific medical problem.

Some Other Arrangement (for Place of Residence): This category covers living situations other than "usual year-round place of residence" or "residence only during school year" (see definitions elsewhere in Glossary). For example, a child's divorced parents have joint custody of the child and the child lives 50% of the time with his/her mother at one residence and the other 50% of the time with his/her father at a different residence.

Some Other Employer (Health Insurance): Health insurance purchased or obtained from any other employer, not already asked about that covered someone in the RU during the reference period. This includes all employer types not already described above and not talked about in the Employment Section.

Something Hot That Would Cause a Burn: Include any heated surface or material which causes a burn specifically because it is hot. Examples would be scalding water, a stove top, and a radiator. Also include chemicals which cause burns.

Something That Can Poison: A substance that when inhaled, ingested, or absorbed impairs health or causes death. Can include items like gasoline or a cleaning fluid or chemical. Do not include drugs of any type: prescription, non-prescription, or illicit (illegal).

Son/Adoptive Son: One's male child through birth or adoption.

Son-In-Law: The husband of one's daughter.

Sonogram: A photographic image of an internal region of the body obtained from the reflection patterns of high frequency sound waves.

Source: Any individual, company, or organization, besides the person or family, that made any payments to the provider/pharmacy/place for the care or services received. This includes health insurance companies, HMOs, employers, car or home owner's insurance, worker's compensations polices, Medicare, Medicaid, SCHIP, (State Health Insurance Program) or other types of public programs, etc.

Source of Coverage: See Health Insurance or Another Source of Coverage.

Source of Payment (SOP) Roster: An RU level list of sources that paid for the family's health care during the reference period.

Speaking Aids: Devices used to enable persons with tracheotomies, cerebral palsy, or other conditions which impair or restrict speech to speak. Items include anything that a person would not normally require to perform everyday communication activities such as talking, using the telephone, etc. Examples of such items are communication boards, synthesized speech, etc.

Special Diet: Adjusting a personís food and nutritional intake to restrict various dietary components such as such as calories, fat, cholesterol, or protein. This includes special meals to manage conditions such as diabetes and food or chemical sensitivities.

Special Education: Specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of a child with a disability, including instruction in the classroom, in the home, in hospitals and institutions and other settings. Most commonly special education takes place in separate schools set aside for this purpose, or in special classrooms set aside for this purpose in regular schools. However, the trend is to keep students with disabilities in regular schools if possible and to provide support services such as the special school programs (see question HE51).

Special Equipment or Modified Vehicle: Special equipment would include special lifts for a wheelchair. Modifications to a vehicle include special hand or foot controls and other changes to help individuals get in and out of and drive a car.

Special Equipment or Technology: In the phrase "special equipment or technology", the key word is "special". Special equipment and technology includes any device that is not used by the general population to perform a specific activity. Examples include canes, orthopedic braces, railings, telephone amplifiers, shower seats, etc.

Specialist: A medical doctor (M.D.) who specializes in a particular medical field. For example, dermatologists specialize in skin disorders, cardiologists specialize in problems of the heart, etc.

Special Pens, Pencils, or Other Office Supplies: Pens, pencils, or other office supplies modified to accommodate a physical impairment.

Special School Program: Services that are offered to students to help improve reading skills, mathematical skills, social skills or other individual deficits that are offered in addition to the regular curriculum. These are not enrichment programs such as art appreciation or drama, but rather they supplement the student's regular classwork by focusing on an area that may need improvement. Students with learning disabilities, for example, may participate in a special program to help the student cope with their difficulties reading or doing math.

Special Transportation Services: Special transportation services are transportation services that are not commonly used by the general public, such as a taxi service that accommodates wheelchairs, special bus programs, etc.

Speech Therapists: A medical person trained in the application and use of techniques aimed at improving language and speech disorders.

Speech Therapy: The examination and treatment of defects and diseases of the voice, of speech and of spoken language, as well as the use of appropriate substitutional devices and treatment.

Spinal (Epidural): Injection of a local anesthesia into the spinal column in order to anesthetize the abdominal and pelvic area during childbirth. The purpose of an epidural or spinal is to decrease the amount of pain the mother feels during childbirth.

Spiritual Healing or Prayer: The restoration or maintenance of physical, mental, emotional, or spiritual health through prayer, meditation, or drawing on the help of powers or beings from another realm.

Spiritualist, Clergy, or Channeler: A person who treats and maintains physical, mental, emotional, or spiritual health through prayer, mediation, or drawing on the help of powers or beings from another realm.

Split RU: Also referred to as New RU. It consists of one or more key RU members who have moved out of an RU (either the Base RU or another Split RU) to another location and are still eligible for the survey (that is, part of the civilian, non-institutionalized population living within the U.S.). A Split RU has a letter other than "A" as the RU identifier in the RU ID.

Sports Injury: Can occur during a sports activity or can be the result of participating in a sport over time. The injury must be related to the physical activity associated with the sport. Hitting your head on low door frame while leaving a basketball court does not count as a sports injury. What qualifies as a sport injury may be best left up to the respondent; however, include injuries received at a health spa or gym.

Spouse (Husband/Wife): One's partner by a legal marriage.

Spouse's/Deceased Spouse's Previous Employer (Health Insurance): Health insurance purchased or obtained that covered an RU member during the reference period through a spouse's or deceased spouse's former employer. This spouse or deceased spouse must have worked for this employer at some point in the past.

S.S.I. (Supplemental Security Income): This Federal program provides monthly cash payments in accordance with uniform, nationwide eligibility requirements to persons of all ages who are blind, disabled, or both needy and 65 years or older.

Standard Deduction: When the deduction that is used in the process of determining the tax filerís taxable income is a single dollar amount, determined by the government. This amount is found on a chart in the tax booklet and is based on the tax filing status.

Standard RU: Also referred to as Base RU or "A" RU. It most often consists of the key RU members who lived together at the time of the NHIS interview when the MEPS sample was selected. New (split) RUs and Student RUs are identified from the Standard RU at Round 1. (See QxQs for a more detailed description.)

State Childrenís Health Insurance Program (SCHIP): A program which gives each state permission to offer health insurance for children, up to age 19, who are not already insured and for uninsured families with limited income and resources who ear too much to qualify for Medicaid. SCHIP is a state administered program and may be known by different names in different states.

State Government: State employees include individuals working for agencies of state governments, as well as paid state officials, the state police, and employees of state universities and colleges.

Statement: A summary document that lists the charges for services provided by a medical provider.

Stay in Bed: For this question "bed" means anything used for sleep, including a sofa, cot, or mattress. If a person was on the sofa watching TV because he/she was too ill to get around, he/she would be considered as "in bed". The number of half days or more in bed should always be equal or less than the number of days missed from work or school.

Staying in Room in Case Help is Needed: Providing supervision in case the person should need help. This could include staying in the room where the person is performing the activity or being present in another room nearby.

Step-Daughter: One's daughter through marriage rather than birth or adoption.

Step-Father: One's father through marriage rather than birth or adoption.

Step-Mother: One's mother through marriage rather than birth or adoption.

Step-Son: One's son through marriage rather than birth or adoption.

Still Being Treated: This means that the person continues to consult a medical provider, take medication, receive some sort of treatment, physical therapy, etc.

Stillbirth: The death of a newborn or fetus before complete expulsion or extraction from its mother.

Still Owed (For Real Estate and Vehicles): Include only the principal balance that has not yet been paid. The respondent should not include items such as interest, property tax, insurance, escrow, etc. that might be included in the mortgage or vehicle payments.

Stitches (Wound Suture): Operation or uniting parts by stitching them together. Suture is the thread for sewing up wounds or surgical incisions. Stitches fashioned from the thread are also called sutures. The stitching process is known as suturing.

Stock Mutual Funds: A company without fixed capitalization freely buys and sells its own shares and uses the capital to invest in other companies.

Stopped/Left Business Because Wanted Time Off: Voluntarily terminated, sold or left business because of a desire for time off.

Stopped/Left Business to Go to School: RU member terminates, sells, or leaves a business in order to attend classes at any kind of public or private school, including trade or vocational schools in which students receive no compensation in money or kind, or only minimal educational stipends (fellowship, scholarship).

Stopped/Left Business to Have a Baby: Pregnant RU member voluntarily terminates, sells, or leaves business due to the birth of her child. If the RU member leaves to take care of an adopted child, code as 'Stopped/Left Business to Take Care of Home or Family'.

Stopped/Left Business to Take Care of Home or Family: This answer category includes cases where an RU member terminates, sells, or leaves a business in order to be in the household to take care of household duties, children, and/or spouse. It also includes cases where an RU member terminates, sells, or leaves a business in order to be available to care for another family member who is ill, either in the RU member's home or elsewhere.

Stopped/Left Business to Take Other Job: Business was voluntarily terminated, sold, or left in order to accept an alternative position of employment.

Store (including malls): Refers to any building as well as areas around or near stores or restaurants, such as parking facilities.

Straight Time: Method of compensation for any work in excess of the normal work schedule. Straight time payment reimburses overtime work at the same hourly rate as non-overtime work.

Stress: Bodily or mental tension, anxiety, or emotional distress that can contribute to disease and fatigue.

Student RU: Consists of a student identified at the standard RU as living away at post-secondary school. The student must be 17-23 years old, has never married, and is not serving on full-time active duty in the military. A student RU is always a single-person RU and is linked to the standard RU where it was identified because never married students under 24 are frequently financially dependent on that household. (See QxQs for a more detailed description.)

Student Under 24 Living Away at School in Grades 1-12: A person who was under 24 years old who usually lived in the household, but was living at a boarding school or academy in grades 1-12. Grades 1-12 include elementary school, middle school, high school (both junior and senior high school). The school can be public, private, military, or parochial.

Student Under 24 Living Away at Post-Secondary School: A person who was under 24 years old who usually lived in the household, but was living at post-secondary school. If the person returns to the RU on weekends, school holidays or vacations, we still consider him/her as "living away at school". Post-secondary school includes colleges and universities as well as other training school after high school. (See definitions of types of post-secondary schools elsewhere in Glossary.)

Supervision (Similar to Help): Help or supervision from another person includes a range of behaviors. The concept includes physically assisting an activity, instruction, and being present or nearby. (See QxQs for additional discussion and examples.)

Surgical Procedure (Operation): Any procedure which involves cutting into the skin, including stitching of cuts and wounds. For this question, surgery also includes the following:

  • Cutting of tissue or scraping of internal parts as in curettage of the uterus (e.g., abortions);
     
  • Insertion of instruments in body openings for internal examination and treatment such as bronchoscopy, proctoscopy, cystoscopy, cardiac catheterization (also called angiography), laparoscopy, and introduction of tubes for drainage;
     
  • Diagnostic biopsy including aspiration or needle biopsy; and
     
  • Dental surgery performed.

    Injections, transfusions and routine blood tests are not considered surgery here, nor are pumping or washing out of the stomach or bowels.

Symbol System or Pictures/Communications Board/Computer: A symbol system or pictures includes photographs, drawings, or other symbols of relevant objects to which people can point to make their needs known. A communications board includes any variety of devices with letters or words that permit communication by persons with impaired physical or verbal abilities. Computer examples include using a keyboard, monitor, or other computer component with special software to communicate with others.

Symptoms: A sign or indication of a particular disease.

Syringes (Diabetic Equipment): An instrument used to inject insulin into the body for treatment of diabetes.

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T

Taking Care of Home or Family: This answer category includes cases where an RU member ceases employment in order to be in the household to take care of household duties, children, and/or spouse. It also includes cases where an RU member may quit in order to be available to care for another family member who is ill, either in the RU member's home or elsewhere.

Talking: Expressing thoughts, feelings, and ideas through spoken words.

TANF: Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) is a cash assistance program designed to replace AFDC when AFDC was eliminated by Congress in 1996. TANF is known by different names in different states.

Tax Return: A form on which taxable income is reported and tax is computed. The form is then sent to the appropriate level of the government (e.g., state, federal, etc.). Tax returns can be submitted to the government on paper or electronically by computer or telephone.

Technical or Trade School: A school where skills for a specific trade are learned including secretarial school, mechanical or computer training school, nursing school where a Bachelor's degree is not offered, and other vocational trade or business schools outside the regular school system.

Technician: A person with the knowledge and skill to carry out a specific technical medical procedure, such as an x-ray technician.

Technicians and Related Support Occupations: Includes occupations concerned with providing technical assistance in engineering and scientific research, development, testing, and related activities, as well as independently operating and programming technical equipment and systems. Examples include engineers, drafting, surveying, programmers, technical writers, air traffic controllers, radio operators, legal technicians, etc.

Telephone Advice: Advice, information, or treatment given over the telephone by a doctor, nurse, or any other employee of a medical doctor.

Temporary Layoff: Persons are on temporary layoff if they are waiting to be recalled to a job from which they were temporarily separated for business-related reasons, such as temporary drops in demand, business downturns, plant remodeling, material shortages, and inventory taking. They must have either been given a date to report back to work or, if not given a date, must expect to be recalled to their job within six months.

Tests: Any type of radiological or laboratory test ordered by a physician to diagnose a potential medical problem or to pin-point an existing condition.

Test Paper: Pre-treated paper, prescribed by a physician, used to gauge the level of sugar or other substance present in the body at a given time.

TexCare Partnership: TexCare offers two separate childrenís health insurance programs. Both programs provide health insurance for children at a price that fits the budgets of Texas families.

Therapy: Refers to any organized physical program used to help a patient overcome any type of problem relating to how their body functions. Do not include therapy for psychological or emotional problems. However, the category does include drug and alcohol problems because these are physical addictions.

Therapist: A person who specializes in the practice of a particular therapy (e.g. mental health therapist, occupational therapist, speech therapist, physical therapist, etc.).

Third Party Administrator (TPA): A company hired to provide administrative services (primarily claims processing and utilization management) for employers and other organizations which are self-insured. The TPA does not assume any financial risk for covered services.

Throat Swab: A doctor or other health professional wipes the back of the patientís throat with a long cotton swab. The swab is then tested in the office or sent to an outside laboratory. This may also be known as a throat culture or strep screen.

TIA: A TIA is a transient ischemic attack which is sometimes referred to as a mini-stroke.

Time and a Half: Method of compensation for any work in excess of the normal work schedule. Time and a half payment reimburses overtime work at a 1 and 1/2 the same hourly rate as non-overtime work.

Tips: Customer payment above the amount owed, rendered as supplemental compensation for an employee.

To Be Born (Baby): This category is for the newborn baby's hospital stay.

Toileting Aids, e.g. Raised Toilet Seat, Hand Rails, Bed Pans: Items used to assist in the process of using the toilet, such as portable commodes, raised toilet seats, handrails, bed pans, etc.

Tooth Pulled: Total removal by a dentist of a tooth and/or its roots.

Total Charge: The total dollar amount asked ("charged") for a service by a health care provider. This includes any amounts that are paid by health insurance or other sources, and may include charges for procedures such as x-rays, lab tests, or diagnostic procedures if performed during the visit to the provider.

Toxemia: An illness resulting from the release of self-produced toxins into the bloodstream.

Trade (Vocational/Business) School: When determining the highest grade or year of regular school person ever completed, do not include secretarial school, mechanical or computer training school, nursing school where a Bachelor's degree is not offered, and other vocational trade or business schools outside the regular school system.

Traditional Medicine, such as Chinese, Ayurvedic, American Indian, etc.: Ancient medical treatments based on specific cultural traditions, involving theories of energy and elements. They use herbs, food, exercise, breathing, and massage in an overall approach to health.

Training Programs: Count training received "on the job", in the Armed Forces, or through correspondence school only if it was credited toward a school diploma, high school equivalency (GED), or college degree.

Transportation and Material Moving Occupations: Includes occupations concerned with operating and controlling equipment used to facilitate the movement or people or materials and the supervision of those workers. Examples include truck drivers, bus drivers, taxicab drivers, chauffeurs, rail transportation occupations, water transportation occupations, airplane pilots and navigators, transportation inspectors, hoist, winch, and crane operators, etc.

Treatment: Any procedure to counteract the effects of a disease or health care problem.

Treatment or Therapy for a Medical Condition, Not Including Surgery: The application of non-surgical remedies to counteract the effects of a disease or health care problem. Some examples are therapeutic radiation and chemotherapy. Therapy for mental health problems should not be included.

Treatment for a Drug or Alcohol Problem: Any program of drug therapy or isolation used to help a patient withdraw from drug or alcohol dependency. An example of this kind of treatment is the prescription of a drug such as methadone to wean the patient from a harder drug.

Treatment for TMD (Temporomandibular Disorders)/TMJ (Temporomandibular Joint): TMD refers to various problems associated with the TMJ, which connects the lower jaw to the skull. The major symptom is pain in the jaws, face, head or neck, which may be associated with dislocations, difficulty opening the mouth and decreased jaw function. Numerous therapies may be performed. Most are conservative (moist heat, massage, mouthguards, medication, bite adjustments). Some persons receive extensive reconstruction of teeth with crowns, or surgery on the jaw and jaw joint.

TRICARE: A health care program for active duty and retired members of the uniformed services, their families, and survivors. TRICARE offers eligible beneficiaries three choices for their health care: TRICARE PrimeĖ in which military treatment facilities are the principal source of health care; TRICARE ExtraĖ a preferred provider option; and TRICARE StandardĖ a fee-for-service option. TRICARE for life covers uniformed service beneficiaries who have attained the age of 65, are Medicare-eligible, and have purchased Medicare Part B.

Trust or Estate (for Tax Filing Purposes): Include income that was the beneficiaries' share of fiduciary income from any estate or trust, for example, income required to be distributed, amounts credited to beneficiaries' accounts from fiduciary income, and any "accumulation distribution" made by the fiduciary of a "complex trust" for income accumulated in prior tax years.

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U

Ultrasound: A photographic image of an internal region of the body obtained from the reflections of high frequency sound waves.

Unable to Work (Ill/Disabled): Inability to work due to impairments, or physical or mental health problems. The impairments or problems should be of such severity that it incapacitates the individual and prevents him/her from doing any kind of gainful employment.

Uncle: The brother of one's father or mother or the husband of one's aunt.

Under Plan of Someone Not Living Here (Health Insurance): This includes any type of health insurance provided to an RU member during the reference period by someone who is not part of the RU. For example, if a child is covered under his mother's insurance, with whom he does not live, code this category.

Unemployment Compensation: Payments made by a State government to a person who is unemployed. Payments are usually at regular intervals and over a fixed period of time. These amounts can be found on form 1099-G.

Union: An organization of wage or salary earners formed for the purpose of serving their collective interests with respect to wages, working conditions, and benefits. Participation in a labor union normally requires that the employee pays dues that may be directly deducted from their gross wages or salary.

University (or College): Junior college, community college, four-year college or university, nursing school or seminary where a college degree is offered, and graduate school or professional school that is attended after obtaining a degree from a 4-year institution.

Unpaid Leave: An uncompensated leave of absence from a job. The absence must be at least one work week or longer.

Urgent Care Center: Historically, these were free standing facilities, typically used for routine medical care during "off hours" (i.e.: evenings and weekends). Since they functioned as a type of doctorís office, a visit to an Urgent Care Center was coded as a medical visit (MV). However, if the Urgent Care Center appears in a hospital, a visit to the center may be coded as either an ER visit, or Outpatient visit depending on the situation. Typically, an Urgent Care Center within a hospital is used to triage patients with less serious medical problems than those treated in the ER.

Urine Tests: A laboratory test that involves collection, followed by chemical analysis, of a small amount of urine.

Using The Telephone:  This includes the overall complex behavior of obtaining a phone number, dialing the number, talking and listening on the telephone, and answering the phone. Help from another person in using the telephone includes personal assistance in obtaining or dialing numbers (if because of impairment or physical or mental health problem). For instance, operator assistance for local calls, in an area where these calls are usually made directly by the caller is considered help from another person.

Usual Place of Residence Somewhere Else: Person is not living with the family at the time of the current round interview, but has usual place of residence somewhere else. This could include living in another household or living in a military facility.

Usual Source of Health Care: The particular medical person, doctorís office, clinic, health center, or other place a person would usually go to if he or she was sick or needed advice about his or her health.

Usual Year-Round Place of Residence: The place where person lives during the majority of a calendar year.

Utilization Management: The process used in managed care to review and authorize services for medical necessity and appropriateness. Utilization management can consist of review at various phases of care -- before services are provided (prospective), at the same time as services are provided (concurrent) and after services are completed (retroactive). Utilization management may also include arrangements for alternative methods of receiving care (home health, skilled nursing facility, etc.) and for discharge planning.

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V

VA Health Care: The Department of Veterans Affairs makes health care available to veterans through VA facilities (or other facilities with which VA has a sharing or contractual relationship). VA is not considered health insurance for the purposes of this survey since comprehensive coverage does not apply equally to all types of veterans. For example, veterans who are poor and those with service-connected disabilities are eligible to receive inpatient and outpatient care free of charge at VA facilities, but other veterans are not eligible for outpatient care free of charge at those same facilities. TRICARE provides health coverage to dependents and survivors of retired veterans and the retired veteran him / herself. Care under TRICARE is not provided at VA facilities. See TRICARE.

Vaccination: A shot or oral medication given to the patient to prevent him/her from contracting a communicable disease.

Vaginal Bleeding: Bleeding such as a woman would experience during her monthly menstrual period.

Vaginal Delivery: Delivery of an infant through the normal openings of the uterus and vagina.

Value (For IRA/Keogh Accounts): The amount of money you would receive today if you withdrew all the money in these types of accounts.

Value (For Real Estate): When determining the present value of real estate (the primary residence, second homes, and other real estate), we want to know the market value for the land and structures on that land. This would be the amount the property would bring if sold in the current real estate market. The respondent should not report the profit he or she would make if the property was sold, but the actual sale price that could be achieved.

If the respondent has no idea what the property would bring in the current market, the tax appraisal value may be entered instead.

Value (For Vehicles): When determining the present value of transportation and recreational vehicles, we know the market value for the vehicles. This would be the amount the vehicles would bring if sold in the current market. The respondent should not report the profit he or she would make if the vehicle(s) were sold, but the actual sale price(s) that could be achieved.

Veterans' Administration (VA) Health Care: This program provides health care to veterans of the Armed Forces.

Veteranís Payments: Veterans' payments include payments made periodically by the Department of Veterans Affairs to disabled members of the Armed Forces or to survivors of deceased veterans for education and on-the-job training, and means-tested assistance to veterans.

Vision Exam: A test of the patient's eyesight, either to determine whether any correction by glasses/contact lenses is needed, or to determine if a different degree of correction is needed.

Vision Insurance: Insurance that provides coverage for ophthalmologist, optometrist and/or optician appointments, glasses, contact lenses or other vision corrections.

Vocational Rehabilitation: Training to increase the skill level of people with impairments or physical or mental health problems in order to return to work or increase the level of their functioning.

Vocational (Trade or Business) School: When determining the highest grade or year of regular school the person ever completed, do not include secretarial school, mechanical or computer training school, nursing school where a Bachelor's degree is not offered, and other vocational trade or business schools outside the regular school system.

Voice Synthesizer, Telecommunications Device for the Deaf (TDD): A voice synthesizer is a communications device that allows people to speak via mechanical means. A telecommunications device for the deaf, or TDD, is a portable typewriter that can be coupled to a telephone receiver. The telephone conversation appears as a visual readout above the keyboard.

Volunteer (Home Health Provider): A medical or non-medical person providing some type of home health services to the RU member. This person must fulfill the following requirements:

  1. Volunteer was not paid.
     
  2. Volunteer is not part of the RU or DU.
     
  3. Volunteer is not related to the RU member receiving the care.
     
  4. Volunteer has an affiliation with a volunteer group that provides home care services to the RU member.

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W

Wages: Money paid by an employer for each hour the person works. Hours worked beyond 40 hours a week might be compensated at a higher rate than regular hours. There is a direct link between compensation and hours worked.

Walkers, Canes, Crutches: These are items that assist the person with getting around by serving as a support. Walkers are tubular frames used to support the body while walking, sometimes they include small wheels. Canes are any variety of stick-type supports used while walking. Crutches are usually a stick with a hand grip and a padded cross piece on top that fits under the armpit or a staff with a handgrip and one or more braces to support the arm.

Walk-In Surgi-Clinic/Center: A facility performing minor surgical procedures on an outpatient basis, and not located at a hospital (i.e., not an outpatient department at a hospital).

Walk-In Urgent Care Center (Urgi-Care Center): A facility not located at a hospital that offers services for acute (e.g., flu, virus, sprain) conditions without an appointment (i.e., not an outpatient department at a hospital).

Walking: Using one's legs for locomotion, without the help of another person or special equipment or aids such as a cane, walker or crutches. Leaning on another person, having someone stand nearby in case help is needed, and using walls or furniture for support all count as help.

Waiting to Start New Job: Unemployment based on the timing of the interview. The RU member has left one job, but has yet to begin work for a new employer, although the RU member has been officially hired by the second employer.

Wanted Some Time Off: Voluntarily out of the labor force because of a desire for time off.

Weapon Other Than Gun: A weapon, other than a gun, that can cause bodily injury, such as a knife or a baseball bat.

Weeks Worked: If a person worked at least two and one-half days out of the week, count it as a full week.

Well Child Exam: One of a series of routine examinations of an infant given to monitor the infant's growth and development. If an infant goes only for an immunization, code as 'immunization or shots'. If the immunization is part of a well child visit, code as 'well child exam.í This term applies not just to infants, but toddlers, pres-schoolers, and often older children.

What Makes Up Total Charge: The total dollar amount asked ('charged') for a service by a health care provider. This includes:

  • any amounts that are paid by health insurance or other sources,
     
  • any charges for procedures such as x-rays, lab tests, or diagnostic procedures if performed during the visit to the provider. (cont.)

If the bill or statement lists charges for procedures separate from other charges for the visit and are not included in the total charge, add those charges to the others to obtain one 'total charge' that includes all charges that are associated with the visit. However, if the person has a separate bill or statement for procedures such as x-rays or lab work, do not include those charges in the total charge for the visit. These charges will be recorded at a different screen.

Wheelchair or Scooter: Wheelchairs are mobile chairs usually equipped with two large and two small wheels used by persons who cannot walk or have difficulty walking. Some are motorized. Scooters are motorized vehicles that are used as alternatives to wheelchairs.

White: Includes persons having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, North Africa, or the Middle East.

Whitening (Dental): A process used to improve the appearance of teeth by using chemical to whiten them.

Who to Include (for Receiving Child Support): Any/all members of RU are eligible to receive child support. Child support includes payments that the court orders a parent to pay to cover the cost of the care of a child who is not living with the parent making the payment.

WIC: This program provides food assistance and nutritional screening to low-income pregnant and postpartum women and their infants, as well as to low-income children up to age 5. WIC is short for the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

Widowed: Spouse is deceased.

Wife/Spouse: One's female partner by a legal marriage.

Without a Job: The person has not had any type of job for pay for at least one consecutive year or more.

Workers' Compensation: A system, required by law, of compensating workers injured or disabled in connection with work. This system establishes the liability of an employer for injuries or sickness that arise over and in the course of employment. The liability is created without regard to the fault or negligence of the employer. The benefits under this system generally include hospital and other medical payments and compensation for loss of income. This study does not consider this coverage to be health insurance.

Work for Pay: Paid work for wages, salary, commission, or pay 'in kind'. Examples of 'pay in kind' include meals, living quarters, or supplies provided in place of wages. This definition of employment includes work in the person's own business, professional practice, or farm, paid leaves of absence (including vacations and illnesses), and work without pay in a family business or farm run by a relative. This definition excludes unpaid volunteer work (such as for a church or charity), unpaid leaves of absences, temporary layoffs (such as a strike), and work around the house.

Working: Employed at a job where the person receives wages, salary, commission, or pay 'in kind'. Examples of 'pay in kind' include meals, living quarters, or supplies provided in place of wages. This definition of employment includes work in the person's own business, professional practice, or farm, paid leaves of absence (including vacations and illnesses), and work without pay in a family business or farm run by a relative. This definition excludes unpaid volunteer work (such as for a church or charity), unpaid leaves of absences, temporary layoffs (such as a strike), and work around the house.

Work Station Adaptation Such as Raised Desk: Modifications to the space where the person works to accommodate the personís special needs, such as a raised desk, special chair, widened doorway, etc.

Worth (For Farm or Business): When determining the present value of a farm or business, we want to know the market value for the land, structures, equipment, and other capital on that land. This would be the amount the farm or business would bring if sold in the current market.

The respondent should not report the profit he or she would make if the farm or business was sold, but the actual sale price that could be achieved. Also, income from the farm or business should not be included at this question.

Worth (For Other Savings, Assets, Jewelry, Trusts, Etc.): The total amount that would be received if all of the Ďotherí assets were sold or otherwise converted to cash.

Worth (For CDs, Stocks, Government or Corporate Bonds, or Mutual Funds): The amount of money you would receive if these assets were sold today.

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X

X-ray: A photographic image of a person's skeleton and internal organs obtained by exposing the patient to a limited amount of radiation. "X-ray" here means simple x-rays which do not involve ingestion of any substance or any more complicated imaging equipment. This process is used to diagnose broken bones, lung disease, etc. This category includes barium x-rays.

X-ray (Dental): Photographic images of the teeth obtained through the use of small amounts of radiation. These images are used to discover hidden cavities and flaws in teeth.

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Y

Year or Grade (of School): For this study, we have classified grades 1 through 8 as elementary school, and grades 9 through 12 as high school. However, you should note that the final grade of elementary school may be anywhere from grade 5 to grade 8, depending on the school system. So, if the respondent says the person you are asking about completed elementary school, probe to determine what grade that represents.

You Pay for Health Care (Amount You Pay): Includes deductibles, copayments, and coinsurance as well as other amounts not reimbursed by the insurance company. Does not include amounts the family has been or will be reimbursed for by the insurance company.

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