Chartbook #24: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Insurance Component 2019 Chartbook
 
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Chartbook #24: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Insurance Component 2019 Chartbook


Acknowledgments

This chartbook was prepared by G. Edward Miller, Patricia Keenan, Philip Cooper, Asako S. Moriya, and Thomas A. Hegland of the Division of Research and Modeling, Center for Financing, Access, and Cost Trends (CFACT) in the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ).

The authors appreciate the efforts of Alon Evron, Jillian Botkin, Christian Evensen and Maryann Deyling of IMPAQ and Karen Turner of the University of Minnesota in preparing the exhibits and compiling and formatting the chartbook, the data production work of Brandon Flanders of the U.S. Census Bureau, and the production assistance of Doreen Bonnett, Nicole Shulman, and Michelle Roberts of AHRQ.

Reviewers of this publication were Joel W. Cohen, Director of CFACT, and Steven C. Hill (Senior Economist), Julie Hudson (Senior Economist), Salam Abdus (Senior Economist), Paul D. Jacobs (Senior Service Fellow), and Samuel H. Zuvekas (Senior Research Adviser) of the Division of Research and Modeling in CFACT .


Table of Contents

Introduction
Background
Data Presentation
References
Executive Summary
Section 1: Health Insurance Offer Rates
Section 2: Employee Eligibility and Enrollment
Section 3: Health Insurance Premiums
Section 4: Employee and Employer Premium Contributions
Section 5: Employee Cost Sharing

The data used in this report are from the Insurance Component of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Information about this survey, including sample design, data collection, sample sizes, and response rates, can be found at https://meps.ahrq.gov/survey_comp/Insurance.jsp.

This product is in the public domain and may be used and reprinted without permission in the United States for noncommercial purposes, unless materials are clearly noted as copyrighted in the document. No one may reproduce copyrighted materials without the permission of the copyright holders. Users outside the United States must get permission from AHRQ to reprint or translate this product. Anyone wanting to reproduce this product for sale must contact AHRQ for permission.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
5600 Fishers Lane
Rockville, MD 20857
www.ahrq.gov


Suggested Citation

Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Insurance Component 2019 Chartbook. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; October 2020. AHRQ Publication No. 20(21)-0052. https://meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/data_files/publications/cb24/cb24.shtml.


Introduction

The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) is an annual survey of private employers and State and local governments. The MEPS-IC produces national and State-level estimates of employer-sponsored insurance, including offered plans, costs, employee eligibility, and number of enrollees. The MEPS-IC is sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and is fielded by the U.S. Census Bureau.

This chartbook provides both single-year and multiyear trend analyses using private-sector MEPS-IC data from 2006 to 2019. To best convey key information from the MEPS-IC, the report is presented in five sections: Health Insurance Offer Rates; Employee Eligibility and Enrollment; Health Insurance Premiums; Employee and Employer Premium Contributions; and Employee Cost Sharing. Each section provides charts and discussion with links to MEPS-IC data tables that contain the estimates and standard errors for each exhibit.

Many of the estimates in this publication are categorized by firm sizes that are relevant to national healthcare policy. The firm-size categories used in the charts and tables are based on actual employment counts rather than full-time equivalent (FTE) counts, because the MEPS-IC does not collect FTE employment figures.

Each section discusses the estimates to highlight trends and differences by employer and workforce characteristics. If a comparison of estimates is presented in the discussion, any differences are statistically significant at the 0.05 level, unless otherwise noted. In some cases, differences noted in the text, in estimates as well as statistical significance of comparisons, may vary slightly from calculations performed using data in the exhibits, MEPS-IC data available on the MEPS website, or MEPS-IC Statistical Briefs due to rounding. All dollar estimates are nominal (not adjusted for inflation).

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Background

The IC is one of three annual component surveys that make up MEPS. The other two components are the Household Component (HC) and the Medical Provider Component (MPC). The HC is a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population that collects data at both the person and household levels. The MPC collects information from a sample of physicians, hospitals, home health agencies, and pharmacies that provided services to HC respondents.

The MEPS-IC uses two independent samples: the private sector and the public sector. The private-sector sample is composed of approximately 42,000 business establishments from more than 7 million establishments found on the Business Register at the U.S. Census Bureau, with 4.6 percent of the sample determined during the data collection process to be out of scope. In 2019, the response rate for the private sector was 59.2 percent of the remaining in-scope sample units.

An establishment is a single business entity or location. Firms (also often referred to as companies) can include one or more establishments. An example of a multi-establishment firm is a chain of grocery stores, where the establishments of the firm are the sites of the individual grocery stores. The charts and tables in this publication report characteristics within firm-based size categories.

The public-sector sample of the MEPS-IC selects almost 3,000 State and local government agencies. However, this report focuses only on the private sector. Additional information on MEPS-IC sampling can be found in Sample Design of the 2017 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Insurance Component (Davis, 2018; PDF).

There was no MEPS-IC survey to collect 2007 data due to the transition from retrospective to current-year data collection. This methodological change improved the accuracy and timeliness of the IC estimates. More information about this design change can be found in Switching From Retrospective to Current-Year Data Collection in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Insurance Component (Kearney & Sommers, 2007). References to changes in all years from 2006 to 2019 in the text refer to 1-year changes except for changes in 2008, which refer to the period from 2006 to 2008.

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Data Presentation

For purposes of the analyses presented in this chartbook, the District of Columbia is treated as a State. In addition, exhibits are organized by category (e.g., premium type, firm size), so references to exhibits in the text may not be in numeric order (e.g., Exhibits 3.1, 3.3, and 3.5 instead of 3.1, 3.2, and 3.3).

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References

Davis K. Sample design of the 2017 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Insurance Component. Methodology Report #31. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; July 2018. https://meps.ahrq.gov/data_files/publications/mr31/mr31.shtml. Accessed August 23, 2019.

Kearney A, Sommers J. Switching from retrospective to current-year data collection in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey - Insurance Component. ICES-III: Third International Conference on Establishment Surveys, Conference Proceedings, Montréal, Québec, Canada; June 2007.

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Executive Summary

Overview

Employer-sponsored insurance (ESI) is the primary source of health insurance coverage for individuals under age 65. This chartbook uses data for private-sector establishments in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component (MEPS-IC) to describe trends in employer coverage, premiums, and benefits from 2006 to 2019.

The MEPS-IC is an annual survey of private employers and State and local governments and is designed to be representative of all 50 States and the District of Columbia. The large sample size (about 42,000 private-sector establishments), combined with a response rate of 59.2 percent in 2019, permits analyses of variations in ESI by firm size and across States that are not readily available from other sources.

Examining trends by firm size and across States is important due to variation in insurance markets along these dimensions. Historically, insurance markets have differed by firm size due to smaller firms' more limited ability to pool risk and their higher administrative costs compared with larger firms. State variation in ESI markets may reflect differences in employment patterns, healthcare prices, and utilization, as well as differences in State approaches to regulating private insurance and administering Medicaid.

This chartbook describes trends and patterns in ESI overall, by firm size, and by State from 2006 to 2019. All differences noted are at the 0.05 significance level unless otherwise specified. All dollar estimates are nominal (not adjusted for inflation).

Summary of Findings

Employee Enrollment in Health Insurance

Between 2018 and 2019, there was no significant change in the overall percentage of private-sector employees (47.6 percent in 2019) enrolled in a health insurance plan offered by their employers ("enrollment rate"). There was also no significant change in the enrollment rate in any firm-size category.

The enrollment rate reflects the combination of employers' decisions about offering health insurance and employee eligibility for such coverage, as well as employees' decisions to take up coverage if eligible. Offer rates, eligibility rates, and take-up rates, as well as coverage rates among employees offered insurance, are described further below.

Availability of Coverage: Offer Rates

The overall percentage of employees working at establishments where insurance was offered ("the offer rate") increased between 2018 (84.6 percent) and 2019 (85.3 percent) (Exhibit ES.1).

In 2019, almost all private-sector employees (99.0 percent) in firms with 100 or more employees worked at establishments that offered health insurance. In comparison, about half (50.7 percent) of employees at firms with fewer than 50 employees worked where health insurance was offered.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.1 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 86.9% 87.7% 87.6% 86.5% 85.3% 84.7% 84.9% 83.2% 83.8% 84.3% 84.5% 84.6% 85.3%
(Standard Error) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%)
<50 61.2% 61.6% 59.6% 57.8% 54.7% 52.9% 53.1% 49.8% 47.6% 47.7% 48.3% 47.3% 50.7%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.7%)
50-99 87.6% 90.7% 89.6% 87.3% 85.6% 84.1% 87.0% 83.0% 85.3% 88.6% 86.3% 88.0% 88.0%
(Standard Error) (1.2%) (0.9%) (1.3%) (0.9%) (1.0%) (1.4%) (1.0%) (1.3%) (1.2%) (1.0%) (1.2%) (1.1%) (1.1%)
100+ 97.7% 98.2% 98.8% 98.5% 98.1% 98.2% 98.0% 97.3% 98.8% 98.9% 98.9% 99.0% 99.0%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.1%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.1%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.1%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

The offer rate at small employers (fewer than 50 employees) increased between 2018 (47.3 percent) and 2019 (50.7 percent) (Exhibit ES.1). There was no year-to-year change at medium employers (50 to 99 employees) or at large firms (100 or more employees).

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Because almost all large firms offer health insurance coverage, offer rates among small firms are an important factor contributing to overall State ESI offer rates, along with the distribution of employers by firm size in the State. Eight States had small-employer offer rates significantly above the national average (50.7 percent), and 10 States had small-employer offer rates significantly below the national average (Exhibit ES.2).

Map with data on the percentage of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by State, firm size fewer than 50 employees in 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.2 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by State, firm size <50 employees, 2019

Alabama 56.3% Kentucky 49.9% North Dakota 59.6%*
(Standard Error) (4.0%) (Standard Error) (4.6%) (Standard Error) (3.5%)
Alaska 36.0%* Louisiana 49.4% Ohio 50.3%
(Standard Error) (4.1%) (Standard Error) (4.1%) (Standard Error) (4.6%)
Arizona 41.4%* Maine 47.9% Oklahoma 52.2%
(Standard Error) (4.6%) (Standard Error) (3.7%) (Standard Error) (3.9%)
Arkansas 40.9%* Maryland 54.2% Oregon 49.1%
(Standard Error) (4.4%) (Standard Error) (4.4%) (Standard Error) (3.6%)
California 48.2% Massachusetts 65.8%* Pennsylvania 56.5%
(Standard Error) (2.7%) (Standard Error) (4.7%) (Standard Error) (3.4%)
Colorado 46.3% Michigan 49.5% Rhode Island 58.3%
(Standard Error) (4.4%) (Standard Error) (4.1%) (Standard Error) (4.2%)
Connecticut 61.0%* Minnesota 52.0% South Carolina 52.6%
(Standard Error) (4.1%) (Standard Error) (4.3%) (Standard Error) (4.3%)
Delaware 55.7% Mississippi 43.9% South Dakota 54.7%
(Standard Error) (4.8%) (Standard Error) (4.8%) (Standard Error) (3.8%)
District of Columbia 68.5%* Missouri 53.2% Tennessee 45.5%
(Standard Error) (4.5%) (Standard Error) (4.1%) (Standard Error) (4.4%)
Florida 44.6% Montana 41.2%* Texas 50.2%
(Standard Error) (3.9%) (Standard Error) (3.6%) (Standard Error) (2.9%)
Georgia 41.2% Nebraska 43.4% Utah 40.6%*
(Standard Error) (4.9%) (Standard Error) (4.1%) (Standard Error) (4.0%)
Hawaii 90.0%* Nevada 53.2% Vermont 41.4%*
(Standard Error) (2.2%) (Standard Error) (5.1%) (Standard Error) (3.4%)
Idaho 44.1% New Hampshire 56.4% Virginia 51.7%
(Standard Error) (4.1%) (Standard Error) (3.8%) (Standard Error) (4.1%)
Illinois 59.9%* New Jersey 62.7%* Washington 46.3%
(Standard Error) (2.9%) (Standard Error) (4.2%) (Standard Error) (3.8%)
Indiana 39.3%* New Mexico 40.4%* West Virginia 47.5%
(Standard Error) (4.3%) (Standard Error) (4.0%) (Standard Error) (4.7%)
Iowa 51.4% New York 57.2%* Wisconsin 46.4%
(Standard Error) (3.7%) (Standard Error) (2.4%) (Standard Error) (4.1%)
Kansas 57.1% North Carolina 42.9%* Wyoming 40.9%*
(Standard Error) (3.9%) (Standard Error) (3.9%) (Standard Error) (3.8%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Note: * Statistically different from the national average of 50.7 percent at p < 0.05. Note that the standard error on the national estimate of 50.7 percent is 0.69 percent.

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Employee Coverage, Eligibility, and Take-Up Rates

Among establishments that offered insurance, 55.8 percent of employees were enrolled in coverage through their employer (the "coverage rate"), and 77.7 percent were eligible for health insurance (the "eligibility rate"). Among eligible employees, 71.9 percent were enrolled in their employer's health insurance (the "take-up rate") (Exhibits ES.3, ES.4, and ES.5).

Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.3: Coverage Rate Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 60.7% 61.4% 61.1% 59.8% 59.4% 58.9% 58.2% 57.8% 57.0% 56.0% 56.5% 56.5% 55.8%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.2%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%)
<50 60.1% 59.7% 59.6% 59.2% 58.6% 57.7% 57.1% 56.8% 57.0% 55.5% 55.4% 56.2% 53.9%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.2%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%)
50-99 55.6% 56.3% 60.1% 55.9% 54.9% 55.4% 54.7% 54.5% 55.8% 51.2% 52.2% 50.3% 53.8%
(Standard Error) (1.6%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (1.2%) (0.8%) (1.3%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%)
100+ 61.4% 62.4% 61.6% 60.4% 60.0% 59.5% 58.8% 58.3% 57.1% 56.6% 57.1% 57.1% 56.4%
(Standard Error) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

There was no significant change in the coverage rate between 2018 and 2019 overall. The coverage rate declined at small firms (from 56.2 percent to 53.9 percent) and increased at medium firms (from 50.3 to 53.8 percent) between 2018 and 2019 (Exhibit ES.3).

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There were no significant changes in the eligibility rate overall or by firm size between 2018 and 2019 (Exhibit ES.4).

Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees eligible for health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.4: Eligibility Rate Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees eligible for health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 77.5% 78.1% 79.5% 78.2% 78.0% 77.8% 77.8% 75.4% 76.0% 76.5% 76.8% 78.0% 77.7%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%)
<50 77.7% 78.5% 79.3% 78.6% 78.7% 77.9% 78.0% 77.7% 79.1% 78.7% 78.3% 79.1% 78.1%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%)
50-99 72.3% 75.3% 79.2% 74.5% 73.6% 76.4% 76.2% 74.1% 77.8% 76.2% 75.5% 75.6% 78.1%
(Standard Error) (1.5%) (1.3%) (0.8%) (0.6%) (1.0%) (1.2%) (0.8%) (1.4%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%)
100+ 77.9% 78.3% 79.6% 78.5% 78.3% 77.9% 77.9% 75.0% 75.2% 76.0% 76.6% 78.0% 77.5%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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There was no significant change in the overall take-up rate between 2018 and 2019 (Exhibit ES.5). Among small firms, the take-up rate declined from 71.0 to 69.0 percent.

Line graph with data on the percentage of eligible private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.5: Take-Up Rate Percentage (standard error) of eligible private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 78.3% 78.7% 76.9% 76.5% 76.1% 75.8% 74.8% 76.7% 75.0% 73.3% 73.5% 72.4% 71.9%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%)
<50 77.4% 76.0% 75.2% 75.3% 74.4% 74.1% 73.1% 73.0% 72.1% 70.4% 70.7% 71.0% 69.0%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%)
50-99 76.9% 74.9% 75.9% 75.1% 74.5% 72.5% 71.8% 73.5% 71.7% 67.2% 69.1% 66.6% 68.9%
(Standard Error) (1.3%) (0.5%) (0.9%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.1%) (1.2%) (1.1%) (1.1%) (1.0%)
100+ 78.7% 79.7% 77.5% 76.9% 76.7% 76.4% 75.5% 77.8% 76.0% 74.4% 74.5% 73.3% 72.7%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Denominator: Within each category, eligible employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Choice of Plans

The overall percentage of employees with a choice of plans did not significantly change between 2018 (75.7 percent) and 2019 (75.8 percent). In all years from 2006 to 2019, the likelihood that a worker at an offering establishment had a choice of plans increased with firm size. In 2019, the percentage of workers with a choice of plans was 41.4 percent in firms with fewer than 50 employees, 58.7 percent in firms with 50 to 99 employees, and 84.5 percent in firms with 100 or more workers (Exhibit ES.6).

Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees working in establishments that offer two or more health insurance plans, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.6 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees working in establishments that offer two or more health insurance plans, overall and by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 61.4% 64.8% 66.5% 65.6% 65.5% 65.3% 66.0% 67.0% 70.2% 71.7% 72.4% 75.7% 75.8%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.5%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%)
<50 21.5% 26.8% 27.3% 26.7% 27.2% 29.3% 28.4% 29.6% 33.6% 34.2% 34.9% 37.8% 41.4%
(Standard Error) (1.1%) (0.7%) (0.9%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (0.9%) (1.1%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.1%)
50-99 36.0% 42.5% 42.8% 44.1% 46.8% 43.7% 46.6% 46.8% 50.2% 56.2% 59.3% 56.4% 58.7%
(Standard Error) (2.4%) (1.7%) (2.0%) (1.9%) (2.2%) (1.7%) (2.2%) (2.1%) (2.2%) (2.0%) (1.9%) (1.9%) (2.0%)
100+ 74.3% 76.9% 78.5% 77.3% 76.3% 75.7% 76.5% 77.0% 79.7% 80.7% 81.0% 84.7% 84.5%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (1.0%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.6%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Self-Insured Plans

Between 2018 and 2019, there was no significant change in the overall percentage of offering establishments that self-insured at least one plan. However, this percentage did significantly increase at establishments in firms with 25 to 99 employees (from 12.9 percent to 17.2 percent). No significant changes were observed at establishments in firms of any other size (Exhibit ES.7).

Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector establishments that offer health insurance that self-insure at least one plan, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.7 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector establishments that offer health insurance that self-insure at least one plan, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 34.4% 34.2% 35.1% 35.8% 36.9% 37.2% 37.6% 37.2% 39.0% 40.7% 39.2% 38.7% 39.4%
(Standard Error) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%)
<10 14.9% 14.0% 14.6% 13.1% 12.6% 14.9% 15.2% 14.4% 15.8% 19.3% 17.7% 13.1% 14.8%
(Standard Error) (0.9%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (0.4%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (1.4%) (1.4%) (1.1%) (1.3%)
10-24 11.6% 11.1% 10.4% 11.6% 9.9% 10.7% 9.0% 12.0% 10.6% 13.6% 13.3% 13.8% 12.2%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.9%) (0.4%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.1%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.1%)
25-99 13.5% 12.6% 13.4% 14.3% 12.2% 13.5% 12.4% 12.2% 13.7% 16.6% 16.0% 12.9% 17.2%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (0.8%) (0.9%)
100-999 30.6% 32.7% 29.9% 30.9% 31.7% 30.1% 30.1% 32.5% 33.7% 34.4% 37.2% 35.1% 33.9%
(Standard Error) (0.9%) (1.3%) (0.7%) (0.9%) (1.1%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.3%) (1.2%) (1.1%)
1,000+ 83.8% 86.5% 85.8% 86.6% 87.5% 87.1% 88.0% 84.2% 83.8% 81.9% 78.6% 81.6% 83.1%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Premiums

In 2019, average annual health insurance premiums per enrolled employee with private-sector employer coverage were $6,972 for single coverage, $13,989 for employee-plus-one coverage, and $20,486 for family coverage (Exhibit ES.8). These amounts represent increases of 3.8 percent for single coverage, 4.2 percent for employee-plus-one coverage, and 4.7 percent for family coverage over 2018 levels (Exhibit ES.9). Between 2006 and 2019, premiums for the three types of coverage grew by between 69.3 percent and 80.0 percent, with average annual growth rates between 4.1 percent and 4.6 percent (data not shown).

Bar chart with data on the average total premiums per enrolled employee for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.8 Average total premiums (standard error) per enrolled employee for single, employee-plus-one and family coverage, 2006-2019

Coverage 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Single $4,118 $4,386 $4,669 $4,940 $5,222 $5,384 $5,571 $5,832 $5,963 $6,101 $6,368 $6,715 $6,972
(Standard Error) ($25) ($15) ($21) ($22) ($26) ($28) ($23) ($25) ($26) ($27) ($28) ($31) ($35)
Plus One $7,988 $8,535 $9,053 $9,664 $10,329 $10,621 $10,990 $11,503 $11,800 $12,124 $12,789 $13,425 $13,989
(Standard Error) ($48) ($43) ($34) ($60) ($105) ($56) ($54) ($60) ($58) ($60) ($70) ($70) ($83)
Family $11,381 $12,298 $13,027 $13,871 $15,022 $15,473 $16,029 $16,655 $17,322 $17,710 $18,687 $19,565 $20,486
(Standard Error) ($32) ($81) ($25) ($75) ($98) ($95) ($61) ($79) ($95) ($84) ($105) ($104) ($125)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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There were no significant differences between the 2018 to 2019 and 2017 to 2018 growth rates for single coverage, employee-plus-one coverage, or family coverage. In the 13 years from 2006 to 2019, annual premium growth rates ranged from 2.2 percent to 8.3 percent for family coverage, from 2.6 percent to 6.9 percent for employee-plus-one coverage, and from 2.2 percent to 6.5 percent for single coverage (Exhibit ES.9).

Line graph with data on the percentage change in total premiums from previous year per enrolled employee for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage in 2006-2018

Exhibit ES.9 Percentage change (standard error) in total premiums from previous year per enrolled employee for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, 2007-2019

Year Single Employee-Plus-One Family
2007 3.2% 3.4% 4.0%
(Standard Error) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
2008 3.2% 3.4% 4.0%
(Standard Error) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
2009 6.5% 6.1% 5.9%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.7%)
2010 5.8% 6.7% 6.5%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.6%)
2011 5.7% 6.9% 8.3%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (1.3%) (0.9%)
2012 3.1% 2.8% 3.0%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (1.2%) (0.9%)
2013 3.5% 3.5% 3.6%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%)
2014 4.7% 4.7% 3.9%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.6%)
2015 2.2% 2.6% 4.0%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.8%)
2016 2.3% 2.7% 2.2%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.7%)
2017 4.4% 5.5% 5.5%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
2018 5.4% 5.0% 4.7%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
2019 3.8% 4.2% 4.7%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007. Therefore, growth rates were annualized over the 2006-2008 period.

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In 2019, average single premiums were lower in medium firms ($6,629) than in small ($6,920) or large firms ($7,019) (Exhibit ES.10).

Line graph with data on the average total single premium per enrolled employee, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.10 Average total single premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. $4,118 $4,386 $4,669 $4,940 $5,222 $5,384 $5,571 $5,832 $5,963 $6,101 $6,368 $6,715 $6,972
(Standard Error) ($25) ($15) ($21) ($22) ($26) ($28) ($23) ($25) ($26) ($27) ($28) ($31) ($35)
<50 $4,260 $4,501 $4,652 $4,956 $5,258 $5,460 $5,628 $5,886 $5,947 $6,070 $6,421 $6,667 $6,920
(Standard Error) ($34) ($31) ($31) ($34) ($39) ($60) ($39) ($55) ($55) ($53) ($61) ($63) ($73)
50-99 $4,045 $4,215 $4,614 $4,713 $4,861 $5,246 $5,314 $5,549 $5,642 $5,743 $6,163 $6,287 $6,629
(Standard Error) ($66) ($37) ($82) ($52) ($75) ($39) ($73) ($82) ($104) ($96) ($121) ($111) ($99)
100+ $4,080 $4,370 $4,681 $4,959 $5,252 $5,378 $5,584 $5,851 $6,006 $6,146 $6,377 $6,770 $7,019
(Standard Error) ($32) ($26) ($38) ($23) ($31) ($28) ($29) ($30) ($31) ($32) ($33) ($37) ($42)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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In 2019, premiums were higher in large firms than in medium firms for employee-plus-one coverage and higher in large versus small firms for family coverage (Exhibits ES.11 and ES.12).

Line graph with data on the average total employee-plus-one premium per enrolled employee, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.11 Average total employee-plus-one premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. $7,988 $8,535 $9,053 $9,664 $10,329 $10,621 $10,990 $11,503 $11,800 $12,124 $12,789 $13,425 $13,989
(Standard Error) ($48) ($43) ($34) ($60) ($105) ($56) ($54) ($60) ($58) ($60) ($70) ($70) ($83)
<50 $8,105 $8,631 $9,124 $9,850 $10,253 $10,524 $11,050 $11,386 $11,666 $11,833 $12,558 $13,044 $13,619
(Standard Error) ($113) ($110) ($119) ($80) ($104) ($121) ($92) ($163) ($158) ($156) ($170) ($176) ($248)
50-99 $7,774 $8,421 $8,852 $9,166 $9,615 $10,178 $10,673 $10,845 $10,885 $11,389 $11,931 $12,593 $13,248
(Standard Error) ($167) ($88) ($148) ($124) ($192) ($185) ($330) ($187) ($198) ($227) ($232) ($236) ($321)
100+ $7,981 $8,527 $9,058 $9,669 $10,394 $10,672 $11,006 $11,571 $11,892 $12,225 $12,878 $13,537 $14,105
(Standard Error) ($61) ($60) ($34) ($62) ($113) ($70) ($59) ($68) ($66) ($68) ($79) ($79) ($92)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the average total family premium per enrolled employee, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.12 Average total family premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. $11,381 $12,298 $13,027 $13,871 $15,022 $15,473 $16,029 $16,655 $17,322 $17,710 $18,687 $19,565 $20,486
(Standard Error) ($32) ($81) ($25) ($75) ($98) ($95) ($61) ($79) ($95) ($84) ($105) ($104) ($125)
<50 $11,095 $11,679 $12,041 $13,170 $14,086 $14,496 $14,787 $15,575 $15,919 $16,471 $17,649 $18,296 $19,417
(Standard Error) ($116) ($182) ($129) ($111) ($145) ($181) ($89) ($177) ($212) ($207) ($192) ($231) ($303)
50-99 $10,954 $11,578 $12,431 $13,019 $14,151 $15,421 $15,376 $15,732 $16,336 $16,214 $17,735 $18,386 $19,893
(Standard Error) ($301) ($128) ($229) ($153) ($168) ($273) ($268) ($274) ($335) ($348) ($327) ($473) ($435)
100+ $11,471 $12,468 $13,271 $14,074 $15,245 $15,641 $16,284 $16,903 $17,612 $18,000 $18,911 $19,824 $20,697
(Standard Error) ($51) ($95) ($33) ($85) ($117) ($114) ($82) ($91) ($110) ($95) ($122) ($118) ($143)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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In 2019, average single premiums ranged from $6,054 in Arkansas to $8,933 in Alaska. Ten States had average single premiums significantly below the national average of $6,972, and 10 States had average single premiums significantly above the national average (Exhibit ES.13).

Map with data on the average total single premium per enrolled employee, by State, 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.13 Average total single premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, by State, 2019

Alabama $6,519* Kentucky $6,678 North Dakota $6,681*
(Standard Error) ($130) (Standard Error) ($156) (Standard Error) ($131)
Alaska $8,933* Louisiana $6,748 Ohio $7,178
(Standard Error) ($544) (Standard Error) ($153) (Standard Error) ($189)
Arizona $6,517* Maine $7,424* Oklahoma $6,711
(Standard Error) ($180) (Standard Error) ($196) (Standard Error) ($222)
Arkansas $6,054* Maryland $7,104 Oregon $6,651
(Standard Error) ($182) (Standard Error) ($244) (Standard Error) ($212)
California $6,939 Massachusetts $7,540* Pennsylvania $7,159
(Standard Error) ($138) (Standard Error) ($158) (Standard Error) ($157)
Colorado $6,550* Michigan $6,705 Rhode Island $7,263*
(Standard Error) ($184) (Standard Error) ($191) (Standard Error) ($136)
Connecticut $7,516* Minnesota $6,904 South Carolina $6,691
(Standard Error) ($199) (Standard Error) ($127) (Standard Error) ($184)
Delaware $8,090* Mississippi $6,199* South Dakota $7,161
(Standard Error) ($310) (Standard Error) ($169) (Standard Error) ($152)
District of Columbia $7,338* Missouri $6,800 Tennessee $6,630*
(Standard Error) ($160) (Standard Error) ($198) (Standard Error) ($159)
Florida $6,763 Montana $6,899 Texas $6,967
(Standard Error) ($235) (Standard Error) ($188) (Standard Error) ($147)
Georgia $6,873 Nebraska $6,628 Utah $6,253*
(Standard Error) ($165) (Standard Error) ($181) (Standard Error) ($122)
Hawaii $6,671 Nevada $6,586 Vermont $7,319*
(Standard Error) ($150) (Standard Error) ($259) (Standard Error) ($138)
Idaho $6,346* New Hampshire $7,255 Virginia $6,776
(Standard Error) ($166) (Standard Error) ($203) (Standard Error) ($174)
Illinois $7,157 New Jersey $7,777* Washington $6,897
(Standard Error) ($104) (Standard Error) ($247) (Standard Error) ($142)
Indiana $6,957 New Mexico $6,696 West Virginia $7,059
(Standard Error) ($137) (Standard Error) ($175) (Standard Error) ($217)
Iowa $6,657 New York $7,890* Wisconsin $7,001
(Standard Error) ($187) (Standard Error) ($151) (Standard Error) ($165)
Kansas $6,338* North Carolina $6,793 Wyoming $7,209
(Standard Error) ($154) (Standard Error) ($122) (Standard Error) ($270)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Note: * Statistically different from national average of $6,972 at p < 0.05. Note that the standard error on the national estimate of $6,972 is $34.68.

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Employee Premium Contributions

In 2019, enrolled employees paid 21.4 percent of total premiums for single coverage, 27.7 percent for employee-plus-one coverage, and 28.0 percent for family coverage. The employee shares of total premiums in 2019 were not significantly different from their 2018 levels for any of the three types of coverage (Exhibit ES.14).

Line graph with data on the average percentage of premium contributed by employees for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.14 Average percentage (standard error) of premium contributed by employees for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, 2006-2019

Coverage 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Single 19.1% 20.1% 20.5% 20.7% 20.9% 20.8% 21.0% 21.2% 21.1% 21.7% 22.2% 21.3% 21.4%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.3%)
Plus One 23.8% 27.0% 26.1% 25.8% 26.5% 26.6% 26.7% 26.9% 27.3% 27.8% 27.6% 27.1% 27.7%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%)
Family 25.4% 27.6% 26.7% 26.8% 26.4% 27.4% 27.6% 27.1% 27.2% 28.0% 27.9% 27.8% 28.0%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

From 2006 to 2019, the percentage of premiums contributed by employees increased by 2.3 percentage points, 3.9 percentage points, and 2.6 percentage points for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, respectively (Exhibit ES.14). These increases occurred because employee contributions increased more rapidly than employer contributions from 2006 to 2019 for each type of coverage (Section 4, Exhibits 4.1, 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5).

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Average employee contributions in 2019 were $1,489 for single coverage, $3,881 for employee-plus-one coverage, and $5,726 for family coverage, representing increases of 4.3 percent, 6.8 percent, and 5.4 percent, respectively, over 2018 levels (Exhibit ES.15).

Bar chart with data on the average annual employee contribution (in dollars) for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.15 Average annual employee contribution (in dollars) (standard error) for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, 2006-2019

Coverage 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Single $788 $882 $957 $1,021 $1,090 $1,118 $1,170 $1,234 $1,255 $1,325 $1,415 $1,427 $1,489
(Standard Error) ($16) ($6) ($13) ($14) ($9) ($14) ($16) ($13) ($14) ($13) ($15) ($14) ($18)
Plus One $1,903 $2,303 $2,363 $2,498 $2,736 $2,824 $2,940 $3,097 $3,220 $3,376 $3,531 $3,634 $3,881
(Standard Error) ($24) ($22) ($27) ($42) ($36) ($46) ($23) ($40) ($35) ($36) ($39) ($39) ($54)
Family $2,890 $3,394 $3,474 $3,721 $3,962 $4,236 $4,421 $4,518 $4,710 $4,956 $5,218 $5,431 $5,726
(Standard Error) ($34) ($54) ($44) ($53) ($42) ($69) ($50) ($48) ($56) ($56) ($64) ($63) ($82)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Plan Benefits: Deductibles

There was no significant change in the percentage of enrolled employees in a health insurance plan with a deductible from 2018 (87.3 percent) to 2019 (86.6 percent) (Exhibit ES.16). From 2006 to 2019, the percentage of enrollees in plans with deductibles increased from 66.4 percent to 86.6 percent.

  • Among single-coverage enrollees with a deductible, average deductible levels increased from $1,846 in 2018 to $1,931 in 2019 (Exhibit ES.17); among family-coverage enrollees, deductibles rose from $3,392 in 2018 to $3,655 in 2019 (Section 5, Exhibit 5.3).
  • Among enrollees with deductibles, average individual deductibles in 2019 were higher in small ($2,386) and medium ($2,441) firms than in large firms ($1,778) (Exhibit ES.17). Family deductibles in 2019 were higher in small firms ($5,067) than in medium firms ($4,353) and both were higher than in large firms ($3,390) (Section 5, Exhibit 5.3).
Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector enrolled employees in a health insurance plan with a deductible, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.16 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector enrolled employees in a health insurance plan with a deductible, overall and by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 66.4% 70.7% 73.8% 77.5% 77.8% 79.6% 81.3% 83.9% 85.4% 84.5% 87.5% 87.3% 86.6%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.3%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%)
<50 66.6% 70.9% 73.5% 75.7% 76.3% 79.5% 79.5% 80.8% 82.1% 81.7% 82.3% 83.0% 84.1%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.4%) (1.0%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.9%)
50-99 67.9% 70.3% 70.6% 78.2% 79.6% 80.3% 78.0% 82.4% 85.3% 82.5% 83.7% 85.1% 87.5%
(Standard Error) (2.6%) (1.4%) (1.9%) (1.5%) (1.7%) (1.4%) (1.1%) (1.5%) (1.5%) (1.5%) (1.6%) (1.4%) (1.5%)
100+ 66.2% 70.7% 74.2% 77.8% 77.9% 79.6% 81.9% 84.6% 86.1% 85.2% 88.8% 88.3% 87.1%
(Standard Error) (0.8%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.3%) (1.0%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.5%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the average individual deductible (in dollars) per employee enrolled with single coverage in a health insurance plan with a deductible, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit ES.17 Average individual deductible (in dollars) (standard error) per employee enrolled with single coverage in a health insurance plan with a deductible, overall and by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. $714 $869 $917 $1,025 $1,123 $1,167 $1,273 $1,353 $1,541 $1,696 $1,808 $1,846 $1,931
(Standard Error) ($9) ($7) ($9) ($18) ($12) ($8) ($20) ($13) ($16) ($16) ($17) ($17) ($18)
<50 $1,007 $1,177 $1,283 $1,447 $1,561 $1,628 $1,695 $1,777 $1,964 $2,105 $2,136 $2,327 $2,386
(Standard Error) ($20) ($13) ($24) ($21) ($26) ($25) ($24) ($28) ($35) ($34) ($35) ($36) ($35)
50-99 $855 $1,149 $1,249 $1,522 $1,543 $1,622 $1,755 $1,744 $2,008 $2,173 $2,361 $2,369 $2,441
(Standard Error) ($71) ($62) ($46) ($57) ($49) ($64) ($49) ($59) ($62) ($64) ($85) ($65) ($67)
100+ $605 $740 $774 $852 $951 $989 $1,106 $1,205 $1,383 $1,558 $1,681 $1,692 $1,778
(Standard Error) ($12) ($8) ($7) ($20) ($14) ($10) ($19) ($14) ($18) ($18) ($20) ($19) ($21)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007. In 2015, the methodology for calibrating the upper edit bound for the individual deductible amount changed, causing the average individual deductible per employee enrolled with single coverage in a heath insurance plan with a deductible to increase by about 5 percent at the national level in 2015 relative to the earlier methodology.

Conclusion

AHRQ produces this chartbook to make MEPS-IC data more readily usable by providing trends nationally and by firm size, by presenting national and State-level estimates in one document, and by providing additional firm-size cuts relevant to recent policy changes. More information is available at meps.ahrq.gov. AHRQ welcomes feedback on additional ways to make the data more usable to the public.

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Section 1: Health Insurance Offer Rates

Availability of Coverage to Active Employees and Retirees

In 2019, almost all private-sector employees (99.0 percent) in firms with 100 or more employees worked at establishments that offered health insurance. In comparison, about half (50.7 percent) of employees at firms with fewer than 50 employees worked where health insurance was offered (Exhibit 1.1).

Historically, smaller employers have been less likely to offer health insurance coverage than larger employers for a number of reasons, including:

  • Smaller risk pools, which result in higher premium costs (holding benefits constant),
  • Higher administrative costs, and
  • Lack of dedicated staff to select and administer health benefits.

This section presents estimates of the percentage of employees who worked where coverage was offered (the "offer rate"). It also provides information on the characteristics of offered coverage, including the availability of dependent coverage, choice of plans, and retiree coverage. In addition, this section presents estimates of the percentage of offering establishments that self-insured at least one plan.

Offer Rates Overall and by Firm Size

  • The overall percentage of employees working at establishments where insurance was offered ("the offer rate") increased between 2018 (84.6 percent) and 2019 (85.3 percent) (Exhibit 1.1).
  • The offer rate at small employers (fewer than 50 employees) increased between 2018 (47.3 percent) and 2019 (50.7 percent) (Exhibit 1.1).
  • There was no year-to-year change at medium employers (50 to 99 employees) or at large firms (100 or more employees), which had offer rates of 88.0 and 99.0 percent, respectively, in 2018 and 2019 (Exhibit 1.1).
  • The only significant change in offer rates by detailed firm-size categories was for firms with 10 to 24 employees. For employees of such firms, the offer rate increased from 53.0 percent in 2018 to 56.7 percent in 2019 (Exhibit 1.2).

Offer Rates by State

  • Nationwide, 85.3 percent of all private-sector employees worked at establishments that offered insurance in 2019. The availability of workplace coverage varied substantially across the country (Exhibit 1.3). This variation was driven in part by differences in the distribution of workers by employer size across States (data not shown) and by differences across States in offer rates at smaller employers (Exhibit 1.4).
  • In five States, offer rates significantly exceeded the 2019 national average (Exhibit 1.3).
  • In nine States, offer rates were significantly below the national average in 2019 (Exhibit 1.3).

Offer Rates at Small Employers, by State

  • Nationwide, just over half (50.7 percent) of employees of small firms (fewer than 50 employees) worked at establishments that offered insurance in 2019. However, the availability of workplace coverage at small firms varied substantially across the country (Exhibit 1.4).
  • In eight States small-employer offer rates were significantly above the national average (Exhibit 1.4).
  • In 10 States, small-employer offer rates were significantly below the national average (Exhibit 1.4).

Offer Rates at Employers That Are Predominantly Low Wage vs. Higher Wage Establishments, by Firm Size

  • In 2019, workers at predominantly low-wage small employers (fewer than 50 employees) were less than half as likely to be offered insurance as  those at small employers with higher wages (25.4 percent vs. 58.8 percent) (Exhibit 1.5). (Predominantly low-wage establishments are defined as those where 50 percent or more of an establishment’s workforce were low wage. In 2019, low-wage employees were defined as those earning less than $12.50 per hour. In earlier years, the nominal thresholds were lower and reflected the wage distributions in those years.)
  • Among the four subgroups of establishments jointly defined by firm size and wage level, the only significant change in offer rates occurred at small employers with higher wages (establishments that were not predominantly low wage). The offer rate at such employers rose from 55.5 percent in 2018 to 58.8 percent in 2019 (Exhibit 1.5).

Offer Rates by Industry

  • In 2019, workers in mining and manufacturing had an offer rate (94.3 percent) that was significantly higher than workers in all other industry sectors. Meanwhile, the offer rate among workers in the agriculture, fisheries, and forestry sector (72.5 percent) was significantly lower than those in all other industry sectors except construction (77.6 percent) and other services (75.6 percent) (Exhibit 1.6).
  • Among workers at small firms (fewer than 50 employees), those employed in wholesale trade (72.0 percent) had the highest likelihood of working where health insurance was offered except that there was no significant difference in offer rates between wholesale trade and mining and manufacturing (65.1 percent). Those employed at small firms in the agriculture, fisheries, and forestry sector (33.7 percent), the other services sector (36.6 percent), and the retail trade sector (43.6 percent) were less likely to be offered insurance than employees in other sectors (Exhibit 1.7).

Offer Rates by Selected Employer Characteristics

  • Workers at nonprofit employers were more likely to work where health insurance was offered (93.0 percent) than workers at for-profit employers. Among for-profit employers, the offer rate was higher at incorporated employers (86.0 percent) than at unincorporated employers (75.8 percent) (Exhibit 1.8).
  • Offer rates increased with the firm’s age, from 53.2 percent at firms 0 to 4 years old to 63.3 percent, 70.5 percent, and 92.7 percent for firms aged 5 to 9 years, 10 to 19 years, and 20 or more years, respectively (Exhibit 1.8).
  • Workers at establishments that were part of firms with two or more locations had higher offer rates than those with only one location (98.4 percent vs. 66.0 percent) (Exhibit 1.8).
  • Offer rates generally increased with the percentage of workers at the establishment who worked full time. Workers at establishments where 75 percent or more of the employees worked full time had an offer rate of 90.7 percent, compared with 80.4 percent, 81.1 percent, and 57.6 percent for workers at establishments with 50 to 74 percent, 25 to 49 percent, and 0 to 24 percent full-time employees, respectively (Exhibit 1.8).
  • Employees in higher wage establishments were more likely to work where health insurance was offered than those in predominantly low-wage establishments (88.3 percent vs. 75.0 percent) (Exhibit 1.8).

Offer Rates by Selected Employer Characteristics and Firm Size

  • Among large firms (100 or more employees), employees who worked at an employer that had been in business fewer than 20 years were less likely to be offered health insurance than employees at older firms. Offer rates ranged from 93.5 percent to 97.1 percent at employers in business fewer than 20 years versus 99.4 percent for employers in business 20 years or more (Exhibit 1.9).
  • Also among large firms, the offer rate was lower for employers with 0 to 24 percent full-time workers (94.1 percent) compared with those with a higher percentage of full-time workers (ranging from 98.8 percent to 99.4 percent at employers with 25 percent or more full-time workers) (Exhibit 1.10).
  • Overall, 50.7 percent of workers in establishments that were part of firms with fewer than 50 workers were offered coverage in 2019 (Exhibit 1.1). However, there was substantial variation by establishment characteristics. Compared with other categories (e.g., for profit, only one location), offer rates were notably higher for small employers that:
    • Were nonprofit (60.3 percent).
    • Were in business for 20 or more years (60.4 percent).
    • Had more than one location (74.6 percent).
    • Had workforces with 75 percent or more of employees working full time (63.1 percent).
    • Had workforces that were not predominantly low wage (58.8 percent) (Exhibits 1.9 and 1.10).
  • Offer rates were lower for workers in predominantly low-wage establishments than in higher wage establishments, regardless of whether they worked at a firm with fewer than 50 workers (25.4 percent vs. 58.8 percent), 50 to 99 workers (71.4 percent vs. 92.6 percent), or 100 or more workers (97.7 percent vs. 99.3 percent) (Exhibit 1.10).

Availability of Self-Insured Plans

  • Among employers that offered insurance, 83.1 percent of offering establishments in firms with 1,000 or more employees self-insured at least one plan in 2019. By contrast, 33.9 percent of offering establishments in firms with 100 to 999 employees self-insured at least one plan. Furthermore, among the three detailed firm-size categories with fewer than 100 workers, 12.2 percent to 17.2 percent of establishments self-insured at least one plan. There were similar differences by firm size in the percentage of eligible employees who worked for an employer that self-insured at least one plan (Exhibits 1.11 and 1.12).
  • Between 2018 and 2019, there was no significant change in the overall percentage of offering establishments that self-insured at least one plan. However, this percentage did significantly increase at establishments in firms with 25 to 99 employees (from 12.9 percent to 17.2 percent). No significant changes were observed at establishments in firms of any other size (Exhibit 1.11).
  • Among employers that offered insurance, there was no significant change from 2018 to 2019 in the overall percentage of eligible employees who worked for an employer that self-insured at least one plan (58.0 percent in 2019 vs. 56.8 percent in 2018). No significant changes were observed for subgroups of employers by employer size, except for employers with 25 to 99 employees, with a significant increase from 14.0 percent to 18.1 percent (Exhibit 1.12).

Availability of Dependent Coverage

  • In 2019, 98.7 percent of all workers who were eligible for single coverage were also offered coverage for their dependents (Exhibit 1.13).
  • The likelihood of a dependent coverage offer increased with firm size. In 2019, the percentage of eligible employees who were offered coverage for their dependents was:
    • 87.1 percent in firms with fewer than 10 employees,
    • 94.2 percent in firms with 10 to 24 employees,
    • 97.9 percent in firms with 25 to 99 employees,
    • 99.6 percent in firms with 100 to 999 employees, and
    • 100.0 percent in firms with 1,000 or more employees (Exhibit 1.13).
  • In 2019, 93.8 percent of all eligible workers were offered employee-plus-one coverage as an option in addition to an offer of single coverage (Exhibit 1.13).
  • The likelihood of employee-plus-one coverage as an option generally increased with firm size. In 2019, the percentage of eligible workers with an offer of employee-plus-one coverage was:
    • 71.8 percent in firms with fewer than 10 employees,
    • 82.4 percent in firms with 10 to 24 employees,
    • 92.0 percent in firms with 25 to 99 employees,
    • 93.6 percent in firms with 100 to 999 employees, and
    • 97.2 percent in firms with 1,000 or more employees (Exhibit 1.13).

Availability of a Choice of Plans at Employers That Offer Health Insurance, by Firm Size

  • In all years from 2006 to 2019, the likelihood that a worker at an offering establishment had a choice of plans increased with firm size. In 2019, the percentage of workers with a choice of plans was 41.4 percent in firms with fewer than 50 employees, 58.7 percent in firms with 50 to 99 employees, and 84.5 percent in firms with 100 or more workers (Exhibit 1.14).
  • The overall percentage of employees with a choice of plans did not significantly change between 2018 (75.7 percent) and 2019 (75.8 percent). However, the share of employees at small firms (fewer than 50 employees) with a choice of plans did significantly increase between 2018 (37.8 percent) and 2019 (41.4 percent). No significant change between 2018 and 2019 was observed for employees at firms with 50 to 99 employees or with more than 100 employees.
  • The availability of plan choice was significantly higher in 2019 than in 2006 overall (75.8 percent vs. 61.4 percent) and for small employers (41.4 percent vs. 21.5 percent), medium employers (58.7 percent vs. 36.0 percent), and large employers (84.5 percent vs. 74.3 percent) (Exhibit 1.14).

Availability of a Choice of Plans at Employers That Offer Health Insurance, by Industry and Selected Employer Characteristics

  • Workers in the financial services and real estate sector (82.7 percent) were significantly more likely to be offered a choice of plans than workers in any other sector (Exhibit 1.15). Workers in construction (55.9 percent) were significantly less likely to be offered a choice of plans than workers in every other sector except that the difference with agriculture, fisheries, and forestry was not statistically significant. Exhibit 1.16 shows variation by industry and firm size.
  • Workers at for-profit, unincorporated employers (72.1 percent) were less likely to be offered a choice of plans than workers at for-profit incorporated employers (76.3 percent) and nonprofit employers (77.3 percent) (Exhibit 1.17). Exhibit 1.18 shows variation by ownership and firm size.
  • Workers in firms in business for 20 or more years were more likely to be offered a choice of plans (78.5 percent) than employees at younger firms (66.9 percent, 67.8 percent, and 62.5 percent at firms in business for 0 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10 to 19 years, respectively) (Exhibit 1.17).
  • Workers at establishments that were part of firms with two or more locations were more likely to be offered a choice of plans than those at firms with only one location (84.0 percent vs. 58.0 percent) (Exhibit 1.17).
  • Overall, there was no significant difference in the availability of a choice of plans by whether or not employees worked in predominantly low-wage establishments (Exhibit 1.17). However, among firms with 50 to 99 employees, the choice of plans was less likely in predominantly low-wage establishments compared with establishments with higher wages (43.7 percent vs. 62.0 percent), and there was a smaller but significant difference among firms with 100 or more employees (81.5 percent vs. 85.3 percent) (Exhibit 1.19).

Availability of Retiree Coverage at Establishments That Offer Coverage

  • In all years from 2006 through 2019, establishments that offered insurance and were part of the largest firms (1,000 or more workers) were the most likely to offer retiree coverage to retirees under age 65 and retirees age 65 and older. In 2019, 23.7 percent of these establishments offered coverage to retirees under age 65 (Exhibit 1.20), and 20.1 percent offered coverage to retirees age 65 and over (Exhibit 1.21).
  • In contrast to the largest employers, in 2019, between 1.8 percent and 4.7 percent of establishments that offered insurance in all other firm-size categories (fewer than 10, 10 to 24, 25 to 99, and 100 to 999 workers) offered retiree coverage to retirees under age 65 or age 65 and over (Exhibits 1.20 and 1.21).
  • Among establishments that offered insurance to employees under age 65, there were significant decreases in the rate of offers of retiree coverage between 2018 and 2019 overall (11.1 percent vs. 9.7 percent), among firms with 100 to 999 employees (6.8 percent vs. 4.2 percent), and among firms with 1,000 or more employees (27.4 percent vs. 23.7 percent) (Exhibit 1.20).  
  • Between 2006 and 2019, the availability of retiree coverage in the largest firms declined by 16.9 percentage points for retirees under age 65, from 40.6 percent in 2006 to 23.7 percent in 2019. The rate for retirees age 65 and over declined by 15.6 percentage points, from 35.7 percent in 2006 to 20.1 percent in 2019 (Exhibits 1.20 and 1.21).

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The SAS System

Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.1 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 86.9% 87.7% 87.6% 86.5% 85.3% 84.7% 84.9% 83.2% 83.8% 84.3% 84.5% 84.6% 85.3%
(Standard Error) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%)
<50 61.2% 61.6% 59.6% 57.8% 54.7% 52.9% 53.1% 49.8% 47.6% 47.7% 48.3% 47.3% 50.7%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.7%)
50-99 87.6% 90.7% 89.6% 87.3% 85.6% 84.1% 87.0% 83.0% 85.3% 88.6% 86.3% 88.0% 88.0%
(Standard Error) (1.2%) (0.9%) (1.3%) (0.9%) (1.0%) (1.4%) (1.0%) (1.3%) (1.2%) (1.0%) (1.2%) (1.1%) (1.1%)
100+ 97.7% 98.2% 98.8% 98.5% 98.1% 98.2% 98.0% 97.3% 98.8% 98.9% 98.9% 99.0% 99.0%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.1%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.1%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.1%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.2 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by detailed firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 86.9% 87.7% 87.6% 86.5% 85.3% 84.7% 84.9% 83.2% 83.8% 84.3% 84.5% 84.6% 85.3%
(Standard Error) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%)
<10 43.3% 45.0% 42.5% 40.5% 36.0% 35.3% 36.2% 32.9% 30.4% 28.4% 30.8% 30.4% 31.2%
(Standard Error) (0.9%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (1.0%)
10-24 67.4% 69.5% 66.6% 64.7% 62.7% 61.7% 59.3% 55.5% 52.6% 54.0% 52.8% 53.0% 56.7%
(Standard Error) (1.2%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (1.2%) (0.9%) (1.1%) (0.6%) (1.1%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.3%)
25-99 85.0% 85.3% 85.0% 83.3% 80.6% 78.9% 81.2% 77.2% 77.3% 80.1% 78.9% 78.6% 80.1%
(Standard Error) (0.8%) (1.0%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.9%) (0.7%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (1.0%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
100-999 95.1% 95.9% 96.3% 95.4% 94.4% 94.6% 95.2% 92.7% 96.1% 97.3% 97.5% 97.0% 97.5%
(Standard Error) (1.0%) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.4%) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.4%)
1,000+ 98.7% 99.0% 99.7% 99.6% 99.5% 99.6% 99.1% 99.1% 99.8% 99.6% 99.5% 99.8% 99.6%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.1%) (0.1%) (0.1%) (0.1%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.1%) (0.1%) (0.1%) (0.1%) (0.1%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Map with data on the percentage of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by State, 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.3 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer, health insurance, by State, 2019

Alabama 87.9% Kentucky 85.5% North Dakota 86.5%
(Standard Error) (1.4%) (Standard Error) (1.5%) (Standard Error) (1.3%)
Alaska 75.0%* Louisiana 84.1% Ohio 85.7%
(Standard Error) (1.8%) (Standard Error) (1.4%) (Standard Error) (1.3%)
Arizona 85.8% Maine 80.1%* Oklahoma 84.5%
(Standard Error) (1.5%) (Standard Error) (1.6%) (Standard Error) (1.3%)
Arkansas 83.1% Maryland 87.1% Oregon 82.3%*
(Standard Error) (1.3%) (Standard Error) (1.4%) (Standard Error) (1.5%)
California 84.6% Massachusetts 90.1%* Pennsylvania 88.3%*
(Standard Error) (1.0%) (Standard Error) (1.6%) (Standard Error) (1.0%)
Colorado 81.7% Michigan 83.8% Rhode Island 85.1%
(Standard Error) (1.9%) (Standard Error) (1.7%) (Standard Error) (1.5%)
Connecticut 86.7% Minnesota 85.1% South Carolina 85.8%
(Standard Error) (1.4%) (Standard Error) (1.6%) (Standard Error) (1.3%)
Delaware 87.3% Mississippi 83.2% South Dakota 83.7%
(Standard Error) (1.5%) (Standard Error) (1.5%) (Standard Error) (1.5%)
District of Columbia 92.7%* Missouri 86.1% Tennessee 85.9%
(Standard Error) (1.1%) (Standard Error) (1.2%) (Standard Error) (1.3%)
Florida 83.6% Montana 70.6%* Texas 86.1%
(Standard Error) (1.4%) (Standard Error) (2.2%) (Standard Error) (1.0%)
Georgia 85.2% Nebraska 83.7% Utah 81.2%*
(Standard Error) (1.6%) (Standard Error) (1.4%) (Standard Error) (1.9%)
Hawaii 95.4%* Nevada 86.1% Vermont 76.8%*
(Standard Error) (1.6%) (Standard Error) (1.6%) (Standard Error) (1.6%)
Idaho 77.0%* New Hampshire 86.4% Virginia 86.8%
(Standard Error) (1.9%) (Standard Error) (1.2%) (Standard Error) (1.5%)
Illinois 88.0%* New Jersey 87.6% Washington 83.7%
(Standard Error) (1.1%) (Standard Error) (1.4%) (Standard Error) (1.6%)
Indiana 84.3% New Mexico 77.1%* West Virginia 84.1%
(Standard Error) (1.2%) (Standard Error) (2.0%) (Standard Error) (1.6%)
Iowa 85.6% New York 86.7% Wisconsin 83.5%
(Standard Error) (1.4%) (Standard Error) (0.9%) (Standard Error) (1.4%)
Kansas 86.3% North Carolina 82.2% Wyoming 71.6%*
(Standard Error) (1.4%) (Standard Error) (1.6%) (Standard Error) (2.1%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Note: * Statistically different from the national average of 85.3 percent at p < 0.05. Note that the standard error on the national estimate of 85.3 percent is 0.24 percent.

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Map with data on the percentage of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by State, firm size <50 employees, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.4 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by State, firm size <50 employees, 2019

Alabama 56.3% Kentucky 49.9% North Dakota 59.6%*
(Standard Error) (4.0%) (Standard Error) (4.6%) (Standard Error) (3.5%)
Alaska 36.0%* Louisiana 49.4% Ohio 50.3%
(Standard Error) (4.1%) (Standard Error) (4.1%) (Standard Error) (4.6%)
Arizona 41.4%* Maine 47.9% Oklahoma 52.2%
(Standard Error) (4.6%) (Standard Error) (3.7%) (Standard Error) (3.9%)
Arkansas 40.9%* Maryland 54.2% Oregon 49.1%
(Standard Error) (4.4%) (Standard Error) (4.4%) (Standard Error) (3.6%)
California 48.2% Massachusetts 65.8%* Pennsylvania 56.5%
(Standard Error) (2.7%) (Standard Error) (4.7%) (Standard Error) (3.4%)
Colorado 46.3% Michigan 49.5% Rhode Island 58.3%
(Standard Error) (4.4%) (Standard Error) (4.1%) (Standard Error) (4.2%)
Connecticut 61.0%* Minnesota 52.0% South Carolina 52.6%
(Standard Error) (4.1%) (Standard Error) (4.3%) (Standard Error) (4.3%)
Delaware 55.7% Mississippi 43.9% South Dakota 54.7%
(Standard Error) (4.8%) (Standard Error) (4.8%) (Standard Error) (3.8%)
District of Columbia 68.5%* Missouri 53.2% Tennessee 45.5%
(Standard Error) (4.5%) (Standard Error) (4.1%) (Standard Error) (4.4%)
Florida 44.6% Montana 41.2%* Texas 50.2%
(Standard Error) (3.9%) (Standard Error) (3.6%) (Standard Error) (2.9%)
Georgia 41.2% Nebraska 43.4% Utah 40.6%*
(Standard Error) (4.9%) (Standard Error) (4.1%) (Standard Error) (4.0%)
Hawaii 90.0%* Nevada 53.2% Vermont 41.4%*
(Standard Error) (2.2%) (Standard Error) (5.1%) (Standard Error) (3.4%)
Idaho 44.1% New Hampshire 56.4% Virginia 51.7%
(Standard Error) (4.1%) (Standard Error) (3.8%) (Standard Error) (4.1%)
Illinois 59.9%* New Jersey 62.7%* Washington 46.3%
(Standard Error) (2.9%) (Standard Error) (4.2%) (Standard Error) (3.8%)
Indiana 39.3%* New Mexico 40.4%* West Virginia 47.5%
(Standard Error) (4.3%) (Standard Error) (4.0%) (Standard Error) (4.7%)
Iowa 51.4% New York 57.2%* Wisconsin 46.4%
(Standard Error) (3.7%) (Standard Error) (2.4%) (Standard Error) (4.1%)
Kansas 57.1% North Carolina 42.9%* Wyoming 40.9%*
(Standard Error) (3.9%) (Standard Error) (3.9%) (Standard Error) (3.8%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Note: * Statistically different from the national average of 50.7 percent at p < 0.05. Note that the standard error on the national estimate of 50.7 percent is 0.69 percent.

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Line graph with data on percentage of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by the percentage of the establishment's workforce that is low wage and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. 
Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.5 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by the percentage of the establishment's workforce that is low wage and by firm size, 2006-2019

Low Wage 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
<50% Low-Wage Employees, Small Employers 72.2% 73.2% 71.6% 70.2% 68.0% 66.8% 65.6% 61.0% 58.4% 56.9% 57.6% 55.5% 58.8%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.8%)
50%+ Low-Wage Employees, Small Employers 35.8% 36.8% 34.3% 34.1% 30.6% 28.0% 28.0% 26.6% 23.1% 24.4% 24.2% 23.6% 25.4%
(Standard Error) (1.2%) (1.2%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.9%) (1.0%) (1.2%) (1.1%) (1.1%) (1.3%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.4%)
<50% Low-Wage Employees, Large Employers 98.4% 98.4% 99.1% 98.9% 98.9% 98.6% 98.7% 98.2% 98.9% 98.9% 98.7% 98.9% 98.7%
(Standard Error) (0.2%) (0.4%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.1%) (0.1%) (0.2%) (0.1%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.1%) (0.2%)
50%+ Low-Wage Employees, Large Employers 92.1% 94.8% 94.7% 93.5% 91.4% 92.2% 92.4% 89.6% 92.7% 94.5% 94.0% 94.0% 95.2%
(Standard Error) (1.2%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.8%) (0.5%)
Key: Small employers = fewer than 50 employees. Large employers = 50 or more employees.
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007. Wage levels in the MEPS-IC questionnaires have been adjusted to account for changing wages over time. In 2019, low-wage employees were defined as those earning less than $12.50 per hour.

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Bar

Exhibit 1.6 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance,overall and by industry, 2019

Industry Percentage
United States 85.3%
(Standard Error) (0.2%)
Agriculture, fisheries, forestry 72.5%
(Standard Error) (4.4%)
Mining and manufacturing 94.3%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
Construction 77.6%
(Standard Error) (1.4%)
Utilities and transportation 91.3%
(Standard Error) (1.1%)
Wholesale trade 91.4%
(Standard Error) (0.8%)
Financial services and real estate 92.6%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
Retail trade 83.7%
(Standard Error) (0.9%)
Professional services 89.6%
(Standard Error) (0.4%)
Other services 75.6%
(Standard Error) (0.8%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.

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Bar chart with data on the percentage of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by firm size and industry, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.7 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by firm size and industry, 2019

Industry <50 employees 50-99 employees 100 or more employees
Agriculture, fisheries, forestry 33.7% * 99.0%
(Standard Error) (4.8%) (*) (0.7%)
Mining and manufacturing 65.1% 97.5% 99.6%
(Standard Error) (2.5%) (1.3%) (0.2%)
Construction 58.2% 95.3% 99.3%
(Standard Error) (2.2%) (2.6%) (0.7%)
Utilities and transportation 60.1% 94.4% 99.0%
(Standard Error) (3.9%) (3.9%) (0.8%)
Wholesale trade 72.0% 99.3% 100.0%
(Standard Error) (2.6%) (0.7%) (0.0%)
Financial services and real estate 59.8% 99.3% 99.8%
(Standard Error) (2.5%) (0.6%) (0.1%)
Retail trade 43.6% 95.1% 99.6%
(Standard Error) (2.0%) (2.8%) (0.2%)
Professional services 60.1% 91.9% 98.9%
(Standard Error) (1.3%) (1.6%) (0.2%)
Other services 36.6% 71.8% 97.8%
(Standard Error) (1.3%) (3.0%) (0.4%)
* Estimate was suppressed due to insufficient sample size.
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.

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Bar chart with data on the percentage of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by selected characteristics, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.8 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by selected characteristics, 2019

Employer Characteristics Percentage
United States 85.3%
(Standard Error) (0.2%)
Ownership: For Profit Inc. 86.0%
(Standard Error) (0.3%)
Ownership: For Profit Uninc. 75.8%
(Standard Error) (0.9%)
Ownership: Nonprofit 93.0%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
Firm Age: 0-4 Years 53.2%
(Standard Error) (2.2%)
Firm Age: 5-9 Years 63.3%
(Standard Error) (1.7%)
Firm Age: 10-19 Years 70.5%
(Standard Error) (1.1%)
Firm Age: 20+ Years 92.7%
(Standard Error) (0.2%)
# of Locations: 2+ Locations 98.4%
(Standard Error) (0.1%)
# of Locations: 1 Location 66.0%
(Standard Error) (0.6%)
% Full Time: 0-24% 57.6%
(Standard Error) (1.5%)
% Full Time: 25-49% 81.1%
(Standard Error) (1.0%)
% Full Time: 50-74% 80.4%
(Standard Error) (0.9%)
% Full Time: 75%+ 90.7%
(Standard Error) (0.2%)
% Low Wage: 50%+ 75.0%
(Standard Error) (0.8%)
% Low Wage: <50% 88.3%
(Standard Error) (0.3%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Note: "% Full Time" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that worked full time in 2019. "% Low Wage" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that earned less than $12.50 per hour in 2019.

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Bar chart with data on the percentage of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by firm size and selected characteristics (ownership type, age of firm, number of locations), 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.9 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by firm size and selected characteristics (ownership type, age of firm, number of locations), 2019

Employer Characteristics <50 employees 50-99 employees 100 or more employees
Ownership: For Profit Inc. 52.2% 87.6% 98.9%
(Standard Error) (0.8%) (1.4%) (0.2%)
Ownership: For Profit Uninc. 42.8% 86.0% 98.4%
(Standard Error) (1.6%) (2.6%) (0.4%)
Ownership: Nonprofit 60.3% 94.4% 99.7%
(Standard Error) (2.2%) (1.9%) (0.2%)
Firm Age: 0-4 Years 37.2% 79.8% 96.1%
(Standard Error) (2.1%) (5.9%) (1.6%)
Firm Age: 5-9 Years 41.3% 83.5% 93.5%
(Standard Error) (1.9%) (3.6%) (2.0%)
Firm Age: 10-19 Years 47.9% 81.8% 97.1%
(Standard Error) (1.4%) (3.2%) (0.8%)
Firm Age: 20+ Years 60.4% 92.1% 99.4%
(Standard Error) (1.0%) (1.1%) (0.1%)
# of Locations: 2+ Locations 74.6% 91.8% 99.4%
(Standard Error) (2.1%) (1.3%) (0.1%)
# of Locations: 1 Location 48.9% 86.7% 96.5%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (1.4%) (0.7%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.

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Bar chart with data on the percentage of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by firm size and selected characteristics (% full time, % low wage), 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.10 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer health insurance, by firm size and selected characteristics (% full time, % low wage), 2019

Employer Characteristics <50 employees 50-99 employees 100 or more employees
% Full Time: 0-24% 19.0% 56.4% 94.1%
(Standard Error) (1.9%) (5.9%) (1.2%)
% Full Time: 25-49% 38.5% 77.7% 99.4%
(Standard Error) (2.0%) (3.7%) (0.4%)
% Full Time: 50-74% 44.9% 85.7% 98.8%
(Standard Error) (1.8%) (3.1%) (0.4%)
% Full Time: 75%+ 63.1% 94.7% 99.4%
(Standard Error) (0.8%) (1.2%) (0.1%)
% Low Wage: 50%+ 25.4% 71.4% 97.7%
(Standard Error) (1.4%) (3.3%) (0.4%)
% Low Wage: <50% 58.8% 92.6% 99.3%
(Standard Error) (0.8%) (1.1%) (0.1%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Note: "% Full Time" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that worked full time in 2019. "% Low Wage" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that earned less than $12.50 per hour in 2019.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector establishments that offer health insurance that self-insure at least one plan, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.11 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector establishments that offer health insurance that self-insure at least one plan, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 34.4% 34.2% 35.1% 35.8% 36.9% 37.2% 37.6% 37.2% 39.0% 40.7% 39.2% 38.7% 39.4%
(Standard Error) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%)
<10 14.9% 14.0% 14.6% 13.1% 12.6% 14.9% 15.2% 14.4% 15.8% 19.3% 17.7% 13.1% 14.8%
(Standard Error) (0.9%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (0.4%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (1.4%) (1.4%) (1.1%) (1.3%)
10-24 11.6% 11.1% 10.4% 11.6% 9.9% 10.7% 9.0% 12.0% 10.6% 13.6% 13.3% 13.8% 12.2%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.9%) (0.4%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.1%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.1%)
25-99 13.5% 12.6% 13.4% 14.3% 12.2% 13.5% 12.4% 12.2% 13.7% 16.6% 16.0% 12.9% 17.2%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (0.8%) (0.9%)
100-999 30.6% 32.7% 29.9% 30.9% 31.7% 30.1% 30.1% 32.5% 33.7% 34.4% 37.2% 35.1% 33.9%
(Standard Error) (0.9%) (1.3%) (0.7%) (0.9%) (1.1%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.3%) (1.2%) (1.1%)
1,000+ 83.8% 86.5% 85.8% 86.6% 87.5% 87.1% 88.0% 84.2% 83.8% 81.9% 78.6% 81.6% 83.1%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of eligible employees in establishments that self-insure at least one plan among establishments that offer insurance, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.12 Among establishments that offer insurance, percentage (standard error) of eligible employees in establishments that self-insure at least one plan, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 54.9% 56.8% 57.2% 58.4% 59.6% 60.1% 58.1% 59.2% 59.1% 57.3% 58.2% 56.8% 58.0%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.7%)
<10 13.1% 12.9% 12.3% 12.5% 11.5% 12.0% 13.2% 12.9% 13.5% 15.7% 15.6% 12.4% 12.5%
(Standard Error) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (1.1%) (1.2%) (1.3%) (1.1%) (1.3%)
10-24 12.0% 11.5% 9.8% 11.5% 10.1% 11.1% 9.1% 11.4% 10.5% 14.9% 12.8% 12.9% 12.1%
(Standard Error) (0.9%) (1.3%) (0.5%) (1.0%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (0.9%) (1.2%) (1.1%) (1.3%) (1.2%) (1.1%) (1.3%)
25-99 14.4% 12.8% 16.0% 17.3% 13.5% 15.5% 13.4% 14.0% 14.5% 17.1% 15.3% 14.0% 18.1%
(Standard Error) (1.0%) (1.1%) (1.0%) (1.1%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (0.8%) (1.1%) (1.1%) (1.1%) (1.0%) (0.9%) (1.2%)
100-999 32.4% 36.1% 31.7% 35.7% 35.0% 35.7% 32.6% 39.5% 39.5% 37.4% 42.0% 34.7% 37.8%
(Standard Error) (1.4%) (1.0%) (1.8%) (1.4%) (1.2%) (1.4%) (1.0%) (1.4%) (1.5%) (1.3%) (1.4%) (1.3%) (1.4%)
1,000+ 83.4% 85.9% 85.8% 86.6% 89.0% 89.0% 86.9% 86.6% 86.4% 82.8% 82.2% 82.2% 84.1%
(Standard Error) (1.0%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.9%) (0.8%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Percentage of eligible private-sector employees in establishments that offer family and employee-plus-one coverage among establishments that offer coverage, overall and by detailed firm size, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.13 Percentage (standard error) of eligible employees in establishments that offer family coverage and employee-plus-one coverage among establishments that offer coverage, overall and by detailed firm size, 2019

Coverage U.S. <10 10-24 25-99 100-999 1,000+
Any Dependent Coverage 98.7% 87.1% 94.2% 97.9% 99.6% 100.0%
(Standard Error) (0.1%) (1.3%) (0.8%) (0.4%) (0.2%) (0.0%)
Any Family Coverage 97.9% 78.9% 90.1% 97.1% 99.0% 99.9%
(Standard Error) (0.1%) (1.6%) (1.1%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.1%)
Any Employee-Plus-One 93.8% 71.8% 82.4% 92.0% 93.6% 97.2%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (1.8%) (1.4%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.3%)
Family and Employee-Plus-One 93.0% 63.6% 78.3% 91.2% 93.1% 97.1%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (2.0%) (1.5%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.3%)
Family Coverage Only 4.9% 15.3% 11.8% 5.8% 5.9% 2.8%
(Standard Error) (0.2%) (1.3%) (1.2%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.3%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Note: This table does not include a row with estimates for "Employee-plus-one only." These estimates can be calculated by subtracting the estimates for "Family and Employee-Plus-One" from the estimates for "Any Employee-Plus-One."

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Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees working in establishments that offer two or more health insurance plans, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.14 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees working in establishments that offer two or more health insurance plans, overall and by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 61.4% 64.8% 66.5% 65.6% 65.5% 65.3% 66.0% 67.0% 70.2% 71.7% 72.4% 75.7% 75.8%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.5%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%)
<50 21.5% 26.8% 27.3% 26.7% 27.2% 29.3% 28.4% 29.6% 33.6% 34.2% 34.9% 37.8% 41.4%
(Standard Error) (1.1%) (0.7%) (0.9%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (0.9%) (1.1%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.1%)
50-99 36.0% 42.5% 42.8% 44.1% 46.8% 43.7% 46.6% 46.8% 50.2% 56.2% 59.3% 56.4% 58.7%
(Standard Error) (2.4%) (1.7%) (2.0%) (1.9%) (2.2%) (1.7%) (2.2%) (2.1%) (2.2%) (2.0%) (1.9%) (1.9%) (2.0%)
100+ 74.3% 76.9% 78.5% 77.3% 76.3% 75.7% 76.5% 77.0% 79.7% 80.7% 81.0% 84.7% 84.5%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (1.0%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.6%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Bar chart with data on the percentage of private-sector employees working in establishments that offer two or more health insurance plans, overall and by industry, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.15 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer two or more health insurance plans,overall and by industry, 2019

Industry Percentage
United States 75.8%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
Agriculture, fisheries, forestry 66.7%
(Standard Error) (8.0%)
Mining and manufacturing 71.4%
(Standard Error) (1.6%)
Construction 55.9%
(Standard Error) (2.7%)
Utilities and transportation 75.5%
(Standard Error) (2.6%)
Wholesale trade 72.4%
(Standard Error) (1.9%)
Financial services and real estate 82.7%
(Standard Error) (1.3%)
Retail trade 75.9%
(Standard Error) (1.7%)
Professional services 78.7%
(Standard Error) (0.9%)
Other services 76.6%
(Standard Error) (1.2%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.

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Bar chart with data on the percentage of private-sector employees working in establishments that offer two or more health insurance plans, by firm size and industry, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.16 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer two or more health insurance plans, by firm size and industry, 2019

Industry <50 employees 50-99 employees 100 or more employees
Agriculture, fisheries, forestry 28.7% * 76.9%
(Standard Error) (8.6%) (*) (8.9%)
Mining and manufacturing 34.6% 47.4% 78.4%
(Standard Error) (3.4%) (5.2%) (1.8%)
Construction 44.5% 49.5% 66.7%
(Standard Error) (3.5%) (7.2%) (4.3%)
Utilities and transportation 31.8% 63.5% 83.1%
(Standard Error) (5.4%) (10.8%) (2.6%)
Wholesale trade 45.1% 61.0% 83.8%
(Standard Error) (4.7%) (6.5%) (2.0%)
Financial services and real estate 39.9% 64.9% 89.3%
(Standard Error) (3.8%) (6.3%) (1.2%)
Retail trade 40.4% 63.1% 83.9%
(Standard Error) (3.4%) (5.8%) (1.9%)
Professional services 43.7% 69.9% 86.2%
(Standard Error) (1.9%) (3.4%) (1.0%)
Other services 41.1% 51.0% 86.4%
(Standard Error) (2.5%) (4.4%) (1.2%)
* Estimate was suppressed due to insufficient sample size.
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.

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Bar chart with data on the percentage of private-sector employees working in establishments that offer two or more health insurance plans, overall and by selected characteristics, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.17 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer two or more health insurance plans, by selected characteristics, 2019

Employer Characteristics Percentage
United States 75.8%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
Ownership: For Profit Inc. 76.3%
(Standard Error) (0.6%)
Ownership: For Profit Uninc. 72.1%
(Standard Error) (1.4%)
Ownership: Nonprofit 77.3%
(Standard Error) (1.4%)
Firm Age: 0-4 Years 66.9%
(Standard Error) (3.1%)
Firm Age: 5-9 Years 67.8%
(Standard Error) (2.4%)
Firm Age: 10-19 Years 62.5%
(Standard Error) (1.9%)
Firm Age: 20+ Years 78.5%
(Standard Error) (0.6%)
# of Locations: 2+ Locations 84.0%
(Standard Error) (0.6%)
# of Locations: 1 Location 58.0%
(Standard Error) (1.1%)
% Full Time: 0-24% 71.5%
(Standard Error) (2.3%)
% Full Time: 25-49% 74.1%
(Standard Error) (1.9%)
% Full Time: 50-74% 73.3%
(Standard Error) (1.5%)
% Full Time: 75%+ 76.9%
(Standard Error) (0.6%)
% Low Wage: 50%+ 74.7%
(Standard Error) (1.3%)
% Low Wage: <50% 76.1%
(Standard Error) (0.6%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: "% Full Time" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that worked full time in 2019. "% Low Wage" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that earned less than $12.50 per hour in 2019.

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Percentage of private-sector employees working in establishments that offer two or more health insurance plans, by firm size and selected characteristics (ownership type, age of firm, number of locations), 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.18 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer two or more health insurance plans, by firm size and selected characteristics (ownership type, age of firm, number of locations), 2019

Employer Characteristics <50 employees 50-99 employees 100 or more employees
Ownership: For Profit Inc. 41.1% 58.2% 85.0%
(Standard Error) (1.3%) (2.5%) (0.7%)
Ownership: For Profit Uninc. 46.0% 61.7% 82.2%
(Standard Error) (2.8%) (4.4%) (1.6%)
Ownership: Nonprofit 34.8% 56.3% 84.1%
(Standard Error) (3.3%) (5.3%) (1.4%)
Firm Age: 0-4 Years 48.4% 67.2% 91.3%
(Standard Error) (4.1%) (7.6%) (2.7%)
Firm Age: 5-9 Years 46.4% 76.8% 81.0%
(Standard Error) (3.2%) (4.6%) (3.7%)
Firm Age: 10-19 Years 42.1% 57.7% 76.6%
(Standard Error) (2.2%) (4.8%) (2.7%)
Firm Age: 20+ Years 38.4% 54.1% 85.1%
(Standard Error) (1.4%) (2.4%) (0.6%)
# of Locations: 2+ Locations 46.2% 56.3% 85.7%
(Standard Error) (3.4%) (3.1%) (0.6%)
# of Locations: 1 Location 40.9% 59.6% 77.8%
(Standard Error) (1.2%) (2.5%) (1.9%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.

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Bar chart with data on percentage of private-sector employees working in establishments that offer two or more health insurance plans, by firm size and selected characteristics (% full time, % low wage), 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.19 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees in establishments that offer two or more health insurance plans, by firm size and selected characteristics (% full time, % low wage), 2019

Employer Characteristics <50 employees 50-99 employees 100 or more employees
% Full Time: 0-24% 28.3% 48.1% 81.6%
(Standard Error) (4.7%) (8.5%) (2.3%)
% Full Time: 25-49% 37.5% 49.4% 82.6%
(Standard Error) (3.4%) (6.3%) (2.2%)
% Full Time: 50-74% 32.8% 55.3% 85.4%
(Standard Error) (2.7%) (5.7%) (1.5%)
% Full Time: 75%+ 44.5% 61.8% 84.9%
(Standard Error) (1.3%) (2.3%) (0.6%)
% Low Wage: 50%+ 37.0% 43.7% 81.5%
(Standard Error) (3.2%) (4.9%) (1.4%)
% Low Wage: <50% 42.0% 62.0% 85.3%
(Standard Error) (1.2%) (2.1%) (0.6%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: "% Full Time" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that worked full time in 2019. "% Low Wage" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that earned less than $12.50 per hour in 2019.

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Line graph with data on the percentage offering coverage to retirees under age 65 among establishments offering health insurance, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.20 Among establishments offering health insurance, percentage (standard error) offering coverage to retirees under age 65, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 13.0% 11.2% 11.2% 11.6% 13.1% 12.3% 11.9% 11.6% 11.6% 12.5% 10.8% 11.1% 9.7%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%)
<10 1.8% 1.4% 1.2% 2.0% 1.6% 1.8% 1.4% 1.4% 1.2% 2.3% 1.6% 2.3% 3.3%
(Standard Error) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.7%)
10-24 1.8% 1.6% 1.6% 1.4% 1.0% 1.2% 1.0%✝ 1.5% 1.3% 1.7% 2.1% 1.6% 1.8%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.4%✝) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.5%)
25-99 2.9% 2.4% 2.4% 3.0% 3.1% 2.4% 2.2% 2.4% 1.7% 2.3% 1.9% 2.3% 2.7%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%)
100-999 8.3% 8.0% 7.5% 6.9% 6.8% 7.4% 6.3% 6.6% 6.0% 6.2% 7.0% 6.8% 4.2%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.2%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.5%)
1,000+ 40.6% 36.1% 34.5% 34.2% 37.7% 35.3% 34.3% 32.5% 31.6% 32.4% 27.6% 27.4% 23.7%
(Standard Error) (1.5%) (0.9%) (1.2%) (1.3%) (0.9%) (1.1%) (0.9%) (1.2%) (1.1%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.0%)
✝ Estimate does not meet standard of reliability or precision.
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the percentage offering coverage to retirees age 65 and over among establishments offering health insurance, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 1.21 Among establishments offering health insurance, percentage (standard error) offering coverage to retirees age 65 and over, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 12.4% 10.5% 11.3% 10.8% 11.9% 11.6% 10.5% 10.3% 10.4% 10.5% 8.6% 8.7% 8.6%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%)
<10 2.5% 2.3% 2.6% 2.2% 2.5% 2.6% 2.1% 2.0% 2.2% 3.4% 2.3% 3.1% 2.6%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.7%)
10-24 3.6% 3.4% 2.7% 2.3% 2.3% 2.8% 2.2% 2.4% 2.4% 2.7% 2.7% 1.5% 3.3%
(Standard Error) (0.5%) (0.7%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.6%)
25-99 4.3% 2.9% 3.4% 3.3% 3.7% 3.4% 3.4% 2.9% 3.1% 2.6% 2.9% 2.4% 2.0%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.3%)
100-999 8.3% 7.7% 8.6% 7.8% 6.5% 7.5% 6.3% 7.1% 5.5% 5.9% 5.7% 6.0% 4.7%
(Standard Error) (0.9%) (0.7%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.5%)
1,000+ 35.7% 31.1% 31.8% 29.9% 31.9% 31.1% 27.8% 26.8% 26.1% 24.8% 20.3% 19.7% 20.1%
(Standard Error) (1.1%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.1%) (0.9%) (1.4%) (0.7%) (1.2%) (1.1%) (1.0%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (1.0%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Section 2: Employee Eligibility and Enrollment

In 2019, 47.6 percent of private-sector employees were enrolled in a health plan through their employer (“enrollment rate”). Among establishments that offered insurance, 55.8 percent of employees were enrolled in coverage through their employer (“coverage rate”) and 77.7 percent were eligible for health insurance (“eligibility rate”). Among eligible employees, 71.9 percent were enrolled in their employer’s health insurance (“take-up rate”).

This section presents estimates for 2006 to 2019 for private-sector employees for the:

  • Enrollment rate (percentage of all employees enrolled in their employer’s health insurance plan regardless of whether the establishment offered health insurance). (Note that in this calculation the number of enrollees is equal to zero at employers that do not offer coverage),
  • Coverage rate (percentage of all employees enrolled in their employer’s health insurance plan at establishments that offered health insurance),
  • Eligibility rate (percentage of employees eligible for health insurance through their employer at establishments offering health insurance), and
  • Take-up rate (percentage of eligible employees who enrolled in their employer’s health insurance).

The coverage rate is equal to the eligibility rate multiplied by the take-up rate, and the enrollment rate is equal to the coverage rate multiplied by the offer rate (the percentage of employees who work at employers that offer insurance). The overall offer rate in 2019 was 85.3 percent. Detailed information on offer rates can be found in Section 1.

This section also presents estimates for 2006 to 2019 for the percentage of enrollees in single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage and examines variation in coverage, eligibility, and take-up rates by firm size, industry, and other employer characteristics. It also presents coverage rates by the State in which the establishment was located.

Changes From 2018 to 2019

Overall

  • Between 2018 and 2019, there was no significant change in the overall percentage of private-sector employees enrolled in a health insurance plan offered by their employers (enrollment rate) or the total number of enrollees (Exhibits 2.1 and 2.2).
  • Among employees in establishments that offered health insurance, there was no significant change in the coverage, eligibility, or take-up rates from 2018 to 2019 (Exhibits 2.3, 2.5, and 2.7).

By Firm Size

  • Between 2018 and 2019, there was no significant change in the enrollment rate in any firm-size category and no significant change in the number of enrollees in either medium firms (50 to 99 employees) or large firms (100 or more employees). However, the number of enrollees in small firms (fewer than 50 employees) increased from 9.1 million to 9.6 million (Exhibits 2.1 and 2.2).
  • The coverage rate declined at small firms (from 56.2 percent to 53.9 percent) and increased at medium firms (from 50.3 to 53.8 percent) between 2018 and 2019 (Exhibit 2.3).
  • Underlying the lack of significant change in the coverage rate at large firms was a lack of change in eligibility and take-up rates. The decline in the coverage rate among small firms primarily reflects a decline in the take-up rate from 71.0 to 69.0 percent (Exhibits 2.5 and 2.7).
  • Eligibility rates did not differ significantly from their 2018 levels for firms with fewer than 50, 50 to 99, or 100 or more employees or in any of the more detailed firm-size categories (Exhibits 2.5 and 2.6). Take-up rates declined from 72.1 to 70.1 percent among firms with 100 to 999 employees, and, as noted above, declined among firms with fewer than 50 employees (Exhibits 2.7 and 2.8).

By Firm Size and Percentage of Establishment's Workforce That Is Low Wage

  • Between 2018 and 2019, the coverage rate at small higher wage employers (fewer than 50 employees and less than 50 percent of the establishment’s workforce earning less than $12.50 per hour) decreased from 59.6 percent to 57.4 percent, and the take-up rate for this group declined from 71.9 percent to 70.1 percent. There were no other significant changes in coverage, eligibility, or take-up rates for employers classified by wage category and firm size (Exhibits 2.9, 2.10, and 2.11).
  • Throughout the 2006 to 2019 period, coverage and take-up rates were higher at large higher wage employers than at small higher wage employers. In most years, there was no significant difference in eligibility rates by firm size among higher wage employers, although in 2019 eligibility rates were higher among large versus small higher wage employers. Patterns are less consistent in this period for comparisons of coverage, eligibility, and take-up rates between small and large low-wage employers (Exhibits 2.9, 2.10, and 2.11).

Estimates by Selected Characteristics, 2019

Differences by Firm Size, 2019

  • In 2019, enrollment rates varied significantly across all firm sizes. Workers in firms with fewer than 50 employees had the lowest enrollment rate (27.3 percent), workers in medium firms (50 to 99 employees) had an enrollment rate of 47.4 percent, and workers in large firms (100 or more employees) had the highest enrollment rate (55.8 percent) (Exhibit 2.1).
  • In 2019, the coverage rate was lower in small firms (53.9 percent) than in large firms (56.4 percent) (Exhibit 2.3).
  • In 2019, the higher enrollment rates at medium and large firms than at small firms primarily reflect higher offer rates at medium and large employers compared with small employers as well as a higher coverage rate in large versus small firms (Exhibits 2.1 and 2.3, and Exhibit 1.1 on offer rates in Chapter 1).
  • The higher enrollment rate for large firms compared with medium firms reflects a higher offer rate at large firms compared with medium firms (Exhibit 2.1 and Exhibit 1.1 on offer rates in Chapter 1).
  • From 2006 to 2019, eligibility rates were similar between small and large firms, except for the period from 2014 to 2017, when eligibility rates for small firms were higher than in large firms. In most years from 2006 to 2018, eligibility rates were significantly lower in medium firms than in small and large firms. However, in 2019, there were no significant differences in eligibility rates across the three firm-size groups (Exhibit 2.5).
  • Workers in small firms had significantly lower take-up rates than workers in large firms in all years from 2008 to 2019, and workers in medium firms had significantly lower take-up rates than workers in large firms in 2008 and in all years from 2010 to 2019 (Exhibit 2.7).
  • The lower coverage rate in 2019 for workers in small firms compared with large firms was driven by the higher take-up rate in large firms (Exhibits 2.3 and 2.7).
  • The coverage rate in 2019 for workers in the smallest firms (fewer than 10 employees) was higher than coverage rates for workers in the four other detailed firm sizes (10 to 24, 25 to 99, 100 to 999, and 1,000 or more employees). This higher coverage rate reflects the higher eligibility rate for workers in the smallest firms compared with workers in all other firm-size categories and the higher take-up rate compared with workers in all but the very largest firms (Exhibits 2.4, 2.6, and 2.8).
  • Workers in the largest firms (1,000 or more employees) had a higher coverage rate than workers in firms in all other firm sizes except the smallest firms primarily due to a higher take-up rate (Exhibits 2.4 and 2.8).

Differences by State, 2019

  • The coverage rate varied by State in 2019, from 48.7 percent in New York to 63.7 percent in Washington. Three States were significantly above the national average of 55.8 percent, and one State was significantly below the national average (Exhibit 2.12).

Differences by Industry, 2019

  • Employees in mining and manufacturing had a coverage rate (74.1 percent) that was significantly higher than all sectors except utilities and transportation and financial services and real estate. The high coverage rate in mining and manufacturing was due to an eligibility rate (94.7 percent) that was significantly higher than all other sectors and a take-up rate (78.2 percent) that was significantly higher than all other sectors except utilities and transportation, wholesale trade, and financial services and real estate (Exhibits 2.13, 2.14, and 2.15).
  • Conversely, employees in other services had a coverage rate (34.5 percent) that was significantly lower than all other sectors except agriculture, fisheries, and forestry. This lower rate resulted from eligibility (58.4 percent) and take-up (59.0 percent) rates that were significantly lower than all other sectors except agriculture, fisheries, and forestry (Exhibits 2.13, 2.14, and 2.15).

Differences by Selected Firm Characteristics, 2019

  • Employees in establishments that were for-profit unincorporated had a lower coverage rate than employees in establishments that were either nonprofit or for-profit incorporated. The eligibility rate was higher at for-profit incorporated establishments than at for-profit unincorporated establishments and nonprofit establishments. Employees in nonprofit establishments had a higher take-up rate than those in for-profit unincorporated establishments or for-profit incorporated establishments (Exhibits 2.16, 2.17, and 2.18).
  • Employees in firms that were 20 years old or older had a higher coverage rate than employees in firms that were fewer than 5 years old, 5 to 9 years old, and 10 to 19 years old. The eligibility rate was significantly higher in the oldest firms than in firms 5 to 9 years old, and the take-up rate was higher than in all younger firms (Exhibits 2.16, 2.17, and 2.18).
  • Employees in firms with multiple locations had a higher coverage rate than those with a single location. The difference in coverage rates was due to both a higher eligibility rate and a higher take-up rate in firms with multiple locations (Exhibits 2.16, 2.17, and 2.18).
  • The coverage, eligibility, and take-up rates increased directly with the percentage of full-time employees at an establishment, with the coverage rate increasing from 14.4 percent for employees in establishments with 0 to 24 percent full-time employees to 66.4 percent in establishments with 75 percent or more full-time employees. The eligibility rate followed the same pattern, increasing from 31.7 percent to 88.5 percent. Take-up rates also followed a similar pattern, increasing from 45.5 percent in establishments with 0 to 24 percent full-time employees to 75.0 percent in firms with 75 percent or more full-time employees (Exhibits 2.16, 2.17, and 2.18).
  • Employees in higher wage establishments (less than 50 percent of the employees earned less than $12.50 an hour) had more than double the coverage rate of employees in predominantly low-wage establishments (in which 50 percent or more of the employees earned less than $12.50 an hour). This difference was due to both a higher eligibility rate and a higher take-up rate among employees in higher wage establishments (Exhibits 2.16, 2.17, and 2.18).

Enrollment in Single, Employee-Plus-One, and Family Coverage

Overall

  • In 2019, 55.6 percent of enrollees had single coverage, 18.6 percent had employee-plus-one coverage, and 25.8 percent had family coverage (Exhibits 2.19, 2.20, and 2.21).
  • Between 2018 and 2019, there was no significant change in the percentage of enrollees with single, employee-plus-one, or family coverage (Exhibits 2.19, 2.20, and 2.21).
  • Between 2006 and 2019, the percentage of enrollees with single coverage increased from 48.9 percent to 55.6 percent, and the percentage with employee-plus-one coverage increased from 18.0 percent to 18.6 percent. The percentage with family coverage decreased from 33.2 percent to 25.8 percent (Exhibits 2.19, 2.20, and 2.21).

By Firm Size

  • In 2019, a lower percentage of enrollees in large firms than in small and medium firms chose single coverage. A higher percentage of large-firm enrollees chose employee-plus-one coverage and family coverage (Exhibits 2.19, 2.20, and 2.21).
  • Between 2018 and 2019, the percentage of employees in medium firms enrolled in single coverage decreased, while there was no significant change in the percentage of enrollees with employee-plus-one or family coverage in any firm-size category (Exhibits 2.19, 2.20, and 2.21).
  • In the detailed firm-size categories, the percentage of employees enrolled in single coverage decreased among firms with 10 to 24 employees and increased in firms with 1,000 or more employees between 2018 and 2019. The percentage of employees who chose employee-plus-one coverage increased in firms with 10 to 24 employees and 100 to 999 employees and decreased in firms with 1,000 or more employees. There were no significant changes in the percentages of employees who enrolled in family coverage in any of the detailed firm-size categories (Exhibits 2.22, 2.23, and 2.24).

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The SAS System

Line graph with data on the percentage of all private-sector employees enrolled in health insurance offered by their employers, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.1: Enrollment Rate Percentage (standard error) of all private-sector employees enrolled in health insurance offered by their employers, overall and by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 52.8% 53.9% 53.5% 51.8% 50.6% 49.9% 49.4% 48.1% 47.8% 47.2% 47.7% 47.8% 47.6%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%)
<50 36.8% 36.8% 35.5% 34.2% 32.0% 30.5% 30.3% 28.3% 27.1% 26.5% 26.7% 26.6% 27.3%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%)
50-99 48.7% 51.1% 53.8% 48.8% 46.9% 46.6% 47.6% 45.2% 47.0% 45.4% 45.0% 44.3% 47.4%
(Standard Error) (1.5%) (1.0%) (1.1%) (1.0%) (1.2%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (1.3%) (1.3%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%)
100+ 59.9% 61.3% 60.9% 59.5% 58.9% 58.5% 57.7% 56.7% 56.4% 56.0% 56.5% 56.5% 55.8%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in all establishments.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the total number (in millions) of private-sector employees enrolled in health insurance offered by their employers, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.2: Number Enrolled Total number (in millions) (standard error) of private-sector employees enrolled in health insurance offered by their employers, overall and by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 60.5 62.6 59.2 56.1 54.8 55.4 56.3 55.8 57.3 58.2 59.9 62.1 62.5
(Standard Error) (0.7) (0.6) (0.7) (0.8) (0.6) (0.6) (0.7) (0.6) (0.6) (0.6) (0.7) (0.7) (0.9)
<50 11.6 11.5 10.6 10.2 9.5 9.3 9.5 8.9 8.9 8.9 8.9 9.1 9.6
(Standard Error) (0.2) (0.1) (0.2) (0.2) (0.1) (0.1) (0.2) (0.1) (0.1) (0.1) (0.1) (0.1) (0.2)
50-99 3.8 4.4 4.3 3.8 3.7 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.0 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.2
(Standard Error) (0.2) (0.2) (0.1) (0.2) (0.1) (0.2) (0.2) (0.1) (0.2) (0.1) (0.2) (0.2) (0.2)
100+ 45.1 46.7 44.3 42.1 41.6 42.3 42.9 42.8 44.4 45.3 46.9 48.9 48.7
(Standard Error) (0.9) (0.6) (0.6) (0.8) (0.5) (0.6) (0.7) (0.6) (0.6) (0.6) (0.7) (0.7) (0.8)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007. The sum of estimates by firm size may differ from the U.S. total due to rounding.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.3: Coverage Rate Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 60.7% 61.4% 61.1% 59.8% 59.4% 58.9% 58.2% 57.8% 57.0% 56.0% 56.5% 56.5% 55.8%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.2%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%)
<50 60.1% 59.7% 59.6% 59.2% 58.6% 57.7% 57.1% 56.8% 57.0% 55.5% 55.4% 56.2% 53.9%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.2%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%)
50-99 55.6% 56.3% 60.1% 55.9% 54.9% 55.4% 54.7% 54.5% 55.8% 51.2% 52.2% 50.3% 53.8%
(Standard Error) (1.6%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (1.2%) (0.8%) (1.3%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%)
100+ 61.4% 62.4% 61.6% 60.4% 60.0% 59.5% 58.8% 58.3% 57.1% 56.6% 57.1% 57.1% 56.4%
(Standard Error) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.4: Coverage Rate Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 60.7% 61.4% 61.1% 59.8% 59.4% 58.9% 58.2% 57.8% 57.0% 56.0% 56.5% 56.5% 55.8%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.2%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%)
<10 66.6% 65.0% 62.9% 64.4% 63.9% 62.2% 61.8% 61.7% 61.9% 60.0% 60.6% 61.1% 60.5%
(Standard Error) (0.8%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.4%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (1.1%) (1.0%) (1.1%) (1.2%)
10-24 58.4% 58.2% 58.8% 57.3% 56.5% 56.5% 56.3% 56.8% 57.1% 55.5% 54.1% 55.1% 52.7%
(Standard Error) (0.9%) (0.7%) (1.0%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.9%) (1.0%) (1.1%) (1.1%) (1.1%) (1.0%)
25-99 55.9% 56.3% 58.9% 56.2% 55.7% 55.2% 54.4% 53.8% 54.5% 51.8% 52.5% 51.7% 52.4%
(Standard Error) (1.0%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.9%) (0.7%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
100-999 59.5% 59.1% 59.2% 57.7% 57.2% 56.6% 55.3% 56.9% 55.8% 54.5% 54.4% 56.3% 53.6%
(Standard Error) (1.1%) (0.6%) (1.2%) (1.1%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.6%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.9%)
1,000+ 62.1% 63.7% 62.5% 61.4% 61.1% 60.6% 60.1% 58.8% 57.7% 57.5% 58.1% 57.4% 57.5%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.8%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees eligible for health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.5: Eligibility Rate Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees eligible for health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 77.5% 78.1% 79.5% 78.2% 78.0% 77.8% 77.8% 75.4% 76.0% 76.5% 76.8% 78.0% 77.7%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%)
<50 77.7% 78.5% 79.3% 78.6% 78.7% 77.9% 78.0% 77.7% 79.1% 78.7% 78.3% 79.1% 78.1%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%)
50-99 72.3% 75.3% 79.2% 74.5% 73.6% 76.4% 76.2% 74.1% 77.8% 76.2% 75.5% 75.6% 78.1%
(Standard Error) (1.5%) (1.3%) (0.8%) (0.6%) (1.0%) (1.2%) (0.8%) (1.4%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.2%)
100+ 77.9% 78.3% 79.6% 78.5% 78.3% 77.9% 77.9% 75.0% 75.2% 76.0% 76.6% 78.0% 77.5%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees eligible for health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.6: Eligibility Rate Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees eligible for health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 77.5% 78.1% 79.5% 78.2% 78.0% 77.8% 77.8% 75.4% 76.0% 76.5% 76.8% 78.0% 77.7%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%)
<10 81.9% 82.2% 80.7% 82.1% 82.2% 79.9% 81.2% 79.9% 80.3% 80.6% 81.8% 81.4% 81.4%
(Standard Error) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.3%) (0.6%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (1.1%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (1.0%)
10-24 76.3% 78.3% 79.1% 78.5% 77.6% 77.5% 77.8% 79.8% 79.9% 79.2% 77.3% 78.9% 77.7%
(Standard Error) (1.2%) (1.0%) (0.9%) (0.7%) (1.0%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.9%) (1.0%) (1.1%) (1.1%) (1.0%) (1.0%)
25-99 73.8% 75.2% 78.8% 75.0% 75.2% 76.4% 76.0% 74.0% 76.9% 76.6% 76.1% 76.4% 77.3%
(Standard Error) (0.9%) (0.8%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.9%) (0.6%) (1.0%) (0.9%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
100-999 77.2% 75.4% 76.8% 76.0% 75.1% 75.0% 75.3% 74.5% 76.8% 75.8% 76.7% 78.0% 76.5%
(Standard Error) (1.0%) (0.7%) (1.4%) (1.3%) (0.4%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
1,000+ 78.2% 79.4% 80.5% 79.4% 79.5% 79.0% 78.9% 75.2% 74.8% 76.2% 76.6% 77.9% 78.0%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.7%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of eligible private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.7: Take-Up Rate Percentage (standard error) of eligible private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 78.3% 78.7% 76.9% 76.5% 76.1% 75.8% 74.8% 76.7% 75.0% 73.3% 73.5% 72.4% 71.9%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%)
<50 77.4% 76.0% 75.2% 75.3% 74.4% 74.1% 73.1% 73.0% 72.1% 70.4% 70.7% 71.0% 69.0%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%)
50-99 76.9% 74.9% 75.9% 75.1% 74.5% 72.5% 71.8% 73.5% 71.7% 67.2% 69.1% 66.6% 68.9%
(Standard Error) (1.3%) (0.5%) (0.9%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.1%) (1.2%) (1.1%) (1.1%) (1.0%)
100+ 78.7% 79.7% 77.5% 76.9% 76.7% 76.4% 75.5% 77.8% 76.0% 74.4% 74.5% 73.3% 72.7%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Denominator: Within each category, eligible employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of eligible private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.8: Take-Up Rate Percentage (standard error) of eligible private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 78.3% 78.7% 76.9% 76.5% 76.1% 75.8% 74.8% 76.7% 75.0% 73.3% 73.5% 72.4% 71.9%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%)
<10 81.3% 79.2% 78.0% 78.5% 77.7% 77.9% 76.1% 77.2% 77.1% 74.4% 74.0% 75.0% 74.4%
(Standard Error) (0.8%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.2%)
10-24 76.5% 74.3% 74.4% 73.0% 72.8% 73.0% 72.4% 71.2% 71.5% 70.1% 69.9% 69.8% 67.9%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (1.0%) (0.7%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (1.0%) (0.9%) (1.0%)
25-99 75.8% 74.8% 74.8% 74.9% 74.1% 72.2% 71.6% 72.7% 70.8% 67.6% 69.0% 67.6% 67.7%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (1.0%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%)
100-999 77.1% 78.4% 77.0% 76.0% 76.2% 75.5% 73.4% 76.4% 72.7% 71.9% 71.0% 72.1% 70.1%
(Standard Error) (1.1%) (0.2%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.8%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.7%)
1,000+ 79.3% 80.2% 77.6% 77.3% 76.8% 76.8% 76.2% 78.3% 77.2% 75.4% 75.9% 73.7% 73.8%
(Standard Error) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.6%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Denominator: Within each category, eligible employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance, by the percentage of the establishment's workforce that is low wage and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.9: Coverage Rate Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance, by the percentage of the establishment's workforce that is low wage and by firm size, 2006-2019

Low Wage 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
<50% Low-Wage Employees, Small Employers 64.9% 65.1% 65.1% 64.7% 64.3% 62.9% 62.1% 61.6% 61.7% 60.1% 59.7% 59.6% 57.4%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%)
50%+ Low-Wage Employees, Small Employers 37.6% 36.4% 35.5% 37.2% 35.8% 35.5% 33.3% 33.5% 29.8% 28.2% 28.9% 32.6% 29.0%
(Standard Error) (1.0%) (1.0%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (1.2%) (1.5%) (1.4%) (1.3%) (1.3%) (1.5%) (1.6%)
<50% Low-Wage Employees, Large Employers 68.6% 70.0% 70.0% 69.3% 68.8% 69.0% 67.5% 67.8% 66.3% 64.1% 63.8% 63.0% 63.3%
(Standard Error) (0.5%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%)
50%+ Low-Wage Employees, Large Employers 39.1% 38.7% 38.3% 34.8% 33.3% 32.9% 33.2% 30.6% 26.7% 27.4% 29.5% 30.3% 29.7%
(Standard Error) (1.0%) (0.6%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.9%) (0.9%)
Key: Small employer = fewer than 50 employees. Large employer = 50 or more employees.
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007. Wage levels in the MEPS-IC questionnaires have been adjusted to account for changing wages over time. In 2019, low-wage employees were defined as those earning less than $12.50 per hour.

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Percentage of private-sector employees eligible for health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, by percentage of the establishment's workforce that is low wage and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.10: Eligibility Rate Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees eligible for health insurance, by the percentage of the establishment's workforce that is low wage and by firm size, 2006-2019

Low Wage 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
<50% Low-Wage Employees, Small Employers 82.5% 84.1% 84.3% 84.0% 84.3% 83.2% 83.3% 83.0% 83.8% 83.8% 83.0% 83.0% 81.8%
(Standard Error) (0.5%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%)
50%+ Low-Wage Employees, Small Employers 55.4% 54.3% 57.1% 57.4% 56.4% 55.2% 52.9% 52.5% 51.9% 49.1% 49.6% 53.2% 51.5%
(Standard Error) (1.3%) (0.9%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.3%) (1.0%) (1.5%) (1.8%) (1.9%) (2.0%) (1.8%) (1.9%) (2.3%)
<50% Low-Wage Employees, Large Employers 83.3% 84.6% 85.4% 85.0% 85.3% 85.4% 84.3% 84.0% 83.8% 83.4% 83.0% 83.7% 83.5%
(Standard Error) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%)
50%+ Low-Wage Employees, Large Employers 61.1% 59.4% 63.3% 59.6% 56.9% 57.4% 59.4% 49.5% 48.0% 49.7% 51.9% 53.7% 55.8%
(Standard Error) (1.5%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (1.1%) (1.1%)
Key: Small employer = fewer than 50 employees. Large employer = 50 or more employees.
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007. Wage levels in the MEPS-IC questionnaires have been adjusted to account for changing wages over time. In 2019, low-wage employees were defined as those earning less than $12.50 per hour.

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Line graph with data on percentage of eligible private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance, by the percentage of the establishment's workforce that is low wage and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.11: Take-Up Rate Percentage (standard error) of eligible private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance, by the percentage of the establishment's workforce that is low wage and by firm size, 2006-2019

Low Wage 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
<50% Low-Wage Employees, Small Employers 78.7% 77.4% 77.2% 77.0% 76.3% 75.6% 74.5% 74.2% 73.6% 71.7% 71.9% 71.9% 70.1%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.2%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%)
50%+ Low-Wage Employees, Small Employers 67.9% 67.0% 62.1% 64.9% 63.5% 64.3% 63.0% 63.9% 57.4% 57.5% 58.3% 61.3% 56.4%
(Standard Error) (1.4%) (1.7%) (1.3%) (1.2%) (1.1%) (1.7%) (1.9%) (2.1%) (2.2%) (2.1%) (2.3%) (2.2%) (2.2%)
<50% Low-Wage Employees, Large Employers 82.4% 82.8% 81.9% 81.5% 80.7% 80.8% 80.0% 80.7% 79.1% 76.9% 76.9% 75.2% 75.8%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.2%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%)
50%+ Low-Wage Employees, Large Employers 64.0% 65.1% 60.5% 58.4% 58.5% 57.3% 55.9% 61.9% 55.6% 55.2% 57.0% 56.5% 53.2%
(Standard Error) (0.9%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (1.0%) (0.8%) (1.1%) (0.5%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.2%) (1.2%)
Key: Small employer = fewer than 50 employees. Large employer = 50 or more employees.
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Denominator: Within each category, eligible employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007. Wage levels in the MEPS-IC questionnaires have been adjusted to account for changing wages over time. In 2019, low-wage employees were defined as those earning less than $12.50 per hour.

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Map with data on the percentage of private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, by State, 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.12: Coverage Rate Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, by State, 2019

Alabama 56.5% Kentucky 59.5% North Dakota 55.9%
(Standard Error) (2.3%) (Standard Error) (1.9%) (Standard Error) (1.9%)
Alaska 58.2% Louisiana 52.9% Ohio 56.1%
(Standard Error) (2.4%) (Standard Error) (2.3%) (Standard Error) (2.6%)
Arizona 51.5% Maine 55.6% Oklahoma 57.3%
(Standard Error) (3.6%) (Standard Error) (1.8%) (Standard Error) (2.5%)
Arkansas 55.5% Maryland 52.4% Oregon 61.6%*
(Standard Error) (2.3%) (Standard Error) (2.2%) (Standard Error) (2.2%)
California 56.0% Massachusetts 51.5% Pennsylvania 58.5%
(Standard Error) (2.0%) (Standard Error) (2.4%) (Standard Error) (1.6%)
Colorado 59.7% Michigan 54.4% Rhode Island 54.1%
(Standard Error) (2.5%) (Standard Error) (2.7%) (Standard Error) (2.0%)
Connecticut 52.8% Minnesota 59.0% South Carolina 56.6%
(Standard Error) (2.3%) (Standard Error) (2.1%) (Standard Error) (2.2%)
Delaware 56.4% Mississippi 55.8% South Dakota 59.2%
(Standard Error) (2.3%) (Standard Error) (2.1%) (Standard Error) (1.9%)
District of Columbia 60.7% Missouri 58.6% Tennessee 57.1%
(Standard Error) (2.7%) (Standard Error) (2.1%) (Standard Error) (2.4%)
Florida 55.2% Montana 57.9% Texas 58.1%
(Standard Error) (3.1%) (Standard Error) (2.2%) (Standard Error) (2.3%)
Georgia 53.5% Nebraska 56.7% Utah 56.7%
(Standard Error) (3.1%) (Standard Error) (2.3%) (Standard Error) (2.7%)
Hawaii 59.9% Nevada 54.7% Vermont 52.4%
(Standard Error) (2.6%) (Standard Error) (2.5%) (Standard Error) (2.1%)
Idaho 60.4% New Hampshire 53.2% Virginia 50.9%
(Standard Error) (2.6%) (Standard Error) (2.4%) (Standard Error) (2.9%)
Illinois 55.5% New Jersey 55.3% Washington 63.7%*
(Standard Error) (1.9%) (Standard Error) (2.3%) (Standard Error) (3.0%)
Indiana 55.4% New Mexico 52.4% West Virginia 53.8%
(Standard Error) (2.3%) (Standard Error) (2.3%) (Standard Error) (2.6%)
Iowa 57.0% New York 48.7%* Wisconsin 55.9%
(Standard Error) (2.0%) (Standard Error) (1.5%) (Standard Error) (2.1%)
Kansas 60.2% North Carolina 61.0%* Wyoming 53.6%
(Standard Error) (2.5%) (Standard Error) (2.0%) (Standard Error) (3.4%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Denominator: Within each state, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: * Statistically different from national average of 55.8 percent at p < 0.05. Note that the standard error on the national estimate of 55.8 percent is 0.48.

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Bar chart with data on the percentage of private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by industry, 2018. Data are provided in the table below

Exhibit 2.13: Coverage Rate Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by industry, 2019

Industry Percentage
United States 55.8%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
Agriculture, fisheries, forestry 36.3%
(Standard Error) (6.4%)
Mining and manufacturing 74.1%
(Standard Error) (0.9%)
Construction 60.6%
(Standard Error) (1.5%)
Utilities and transportation 70.9%
(Standard Error) (1.6%)
Wholesale trade 68.6%
(Standard Error) (1.6%)
Financial services and real estate 73.6%
(Standard Error) (0.8%)
Retail trade 45.2%
(Standard Error) (1.1%)
Professional services 59.6%
(Standard Error) (0.7%)
Other services 34.5%
(Standard Error) (1.3%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.

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Bar chart with data on the percentage of private-sector employees eligible for health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by industry, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.14: Eligibility Rate Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees eligible for health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by industry, 2019

Industry Percentage
United States 77.7%
(Standard Error) (0.4%)
Agriculture, fisheries, forestry 59.8%
(Standard Error) (9.0%)
Mining and manufacturing 94.7%
(Standard Error) (0.7%)
Construction 84.7%
(Standard Error) (1.4%)
Utilities and transportation 91.3%
(Standard Error) (1.1%)
Wholesale trade 91.4%
(Standard Error) (1.0%)
Financial services and real estate 92.7%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
Retail trade 67.5%
(Standard Error) (1.0%)
Professional services 80.7%
(Standard Error) (0.6%)
Other services 58.4%
(Standard Error) (1.3%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.

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Bar chart with data on the percentage of eligible private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by industry, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.15: Take-Up Rate Percentage (standard error) of eligible private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by industry, 2019

Industry Percentage
United States 71.9%
(Standard Error) (0.4%)
Agriculture, fisheries, forestry 60.6%
(Standard Error) (5.0%)
Mining and manufacturing 78.2%
(Standard Error) (0.8%)
Construction 71.6%
(Standard Error) (1.2%)
Utilities and transportation 77.7%
(Standard Error) (1.4%)
Wholesale trade 75.0%
(Standard Error) (1.6%)
Financial services and real estate 79.4%
(Standard Error) (0.7%)
Retail trade 66.9%
(Standard Error) (1.0%)
Professional services 73.8%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
Other services 59.0%
(Standard Error) (1.5%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Denominator: Within each category, eligible employees in establishments that offer health insurance.

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Bar chart with data on the percentage of private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by selected characteristics, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.16: Coverage Rate Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by selected characteristics, 2019

Employer Characteristics Percentage
United States 55.8%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
Ownership: For Profit Inc. 56.3%
(Standard Error) (0.6%)
Ownership: For Profit Uninc. 52.1%
(Standard Error) (1.1%)
Ownership: Nonprofit 57.2%
(Standard Error) (0.8%)
Firm Age: 0-4 Years 50.7%
(Standard Error) (2.5%)
Firm Age: 5-9 Years 45.3%
(Standard Error) (1.9%)
Firm Age: 10-19 Years 52.5%
(Standard Error) (1.6%)
Firm Age: 20+ Years 57.2%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
# of Locations: 2+ Locations 57.7%
(Standard Error) (0.6%)
# of Locations: 1 Location 51.6%
(Standard Error) (0.7%)
% Full Time: 0-24% 14.4%
(Standard Error) (0.9%)
% Full Time: 25-49% 23.4%
(Standard Error) (0.9%)
% Full Time: 50-74% 40.9%
(Standard Error) (0.8%)
% Full Time: 75%+ 66.4%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
% Low Wage: 50%+ 29.6%
(Standard Error) (0.8%)
% Low Wage: <50% 62.3%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: "% Full Time" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that worked full time in 2019. "% Low Wage" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that earned less than $12.50 per hour in 2019.

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Bar chart with data on the percentage of private-sector employees eligible for health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by selected characteristics, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.17: Eligibility Rate Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees eligible for health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by selected characteristics, 2019

Employer Characteristics Percentage
United States 77.7%
(Standard Error) (0.4%)
Ownership: For Profit Inc. 78.8%
(Standard Error) (0.6%)
Ownership: For Profit Uninc. 74.3%
(Standard Error) (1.0%)
Ownership: Nonprofit 75.9%
(Standard Error) (0.8%)
Firm Age: 0-4 Years 76.2%
(Standard Error) (2.1%)
Firm Age: 5-9 Years 70.1%
(Standard Error) (2.4%)
Firm Age: 10-19 Years 76.1%
(Standard Error) (1.4%)
Firm Age: 20+ Years 78.4%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
# of Locations: 2+ Locations 78.8%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
# of Locations: 1 Location 75.2%
(Standard Error) (0.7%)
% Full Time: 0-24% 31.7%
(Standard Error) (1.8%)
% Full Time: 25-49% 42.7%
(Standard Error) (1.1%)
% Full Time: 50-74% 66.1%
(Standard Error) (0.7%)
% Full Time: 75%+ 88.5%
(Standard Error) (0.4%)
% Low Wage: 50%+ 55.4%
(Standard Error) (1.0%)
% Low Wage: <50% 83.2%
(Standard Error) (0.4%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: "% Full Time" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that worked full time in 2019. "% Low Wage" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that earned less than $12.50 per hour in 2019.

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Bar chart with data on the percentage of eligible private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by selected characteristics, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.18: Take-Up Rate Percentage (standard error) of eligible private-sector employees who are enrolled in health insurance at establishments that offer health insurance, overall and by selected characteristics, 2019

Employer Characteristics Percentage
United States 71.9%
(Standard Error) (0.4%)
Ownership: For Profit Inc. 71.4%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
Ownership: For Profit Uninc. 70.1%
(Standard Error) (0.9%)
Ownership: Nonprofit 75.4%
(Standard Error) (0.6%)
Firm Age: 0-4 Years 66.6%
(Standard Error) (2.6%)
Firm Age: 5-9 Years 64.5%
(Standard Error) (1.6%)
Firm Age: 10-19 Years 69.0%
(Standard Error) (1.3%)
Firm Age: 20+ Years 72.9%
(Standard Error) (0.4%)
# of Locations: 2+ Locations 73.3%
(Standard Error) (0.5%)
# of Locations: 1 Location 68.5%
(Standard Error) (0.6%)
% Full Time: 0-24% 45.5%
(Standard Error) (2.8%)
% Full Time: 25-49% 54.9%
(Standard Error) (1.4%)
% Full Time: 50-74% 61.9%
(Standard Error) (0.9%)
% Full Time: 75%+ 75.0%
(Standard Error) (0.4%)
% Low Wage: 50%+ 53.5%
(Standard Error) (1.1%)
% Low Wage: <50% 74.9%
(Standard Error) (0.4%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Denominator: Within each category, all employees in establishments that offer health insurance.
Note: "% Full Time" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that worked full time in 2019. "% Low Wage" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that earned less than $12.50 per hour in 2019.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees enrolled in a health insurance plan who take single coverage, overall and by firm size, for 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.19 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees enrolled in a health insurance plan who take single coverage, overall and by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 48.9% 50.2% 50.0% 51.3% 50.2% 51.3% 51.3% 52.4% 53.5% 55.3% 54.6% 55.2% 55.6%
(Standard Error) (0.2%) (0.4%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%)
<50 57.7% 60.7% 58.8% 60.3% 60.8% 61.4% 62.5% 61.5% 63.5% 62.8% 63.5% 63.2% 62.5%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.7%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.7%)
50-99 57.9% 58.5% 56.7% 57.6% 58.6% 58.1% 59.4% 60.8% 61.7% 63.3% 63.3% 64.6% 61.4%
(Standard Error) (0.8%) (0.6%) (1.1%) (1.2%) (0.9%) (0.6%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (0.9%) (1.2%)
100+ 45.8% 46.9% 47.2% 48.6% 47.1% 48.5% 48.1% 49.7% 50.8% 53.1% 52.1% 52.9% 53.7%
(Standard Error) (0.2%) (0.4%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees enrolled in a health insurance plan who take employee-plus-one coverage, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.20 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees enrolled in a health insurance plan who take employee-plus-one coverage, overall and by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 18.0% 18.0% 19.5% 18.3% 18.9% 18.1% 18.9% 18.3% 18.4% 17.8% 19.0% 18.6% 18.6%
(Standard Error) (0.1%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.1%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%)
<50 13.7% 13.3% 14.6% 13.8% 14.3% 14.0% 13.4% 13.8% 13.7% 14.5% 13.9% 14.8% 15.7%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.4%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%)
50-99 14.2% 15.4% 17.7% 15.9% 16.4% 16.7% 16.6% 15.8% 16.2% 16.3% 15.8% 16.1% 17.1%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.8%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.6%)
100+ 19.4% 19.4% 20.9% 19.6% 20.1% 19.2% 20.3% 19.5% 19.5% 18.6% 20.2% 19.6% 19.3%
(Standard Error) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.1%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees enrolled in a health insurance plan who take family coverage, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.21 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees enrolled in a health insurance plan who take family coverage, overall and by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 33.2% 31.8% 30.5% 30.3% 30.9% 30.6% 29.8% 29.3% 28.1% 26.8% 26.5% 26.2% 25.8%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%)
<50 28.7% 26.0% 26.6% 25.8% 24.9% 24.6% 24.0% 24.7% 22.8% 22.7% 22.6% 22.0% 21.8%
(Standard Error) (0.5%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.6%)
50-99 28.0% 26.1% 25.5% 26.5% 25.1% 25.2% 24.0% 23.4% 22.1% 20.4% 20.9% 19.3% 21.5%
(Standard Error) (0.9%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.9%) (1.0%) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (0.8%) (0.9%)
100+ 34.8% 33.7% 31.9% 31.8% 32.8% 32.4% 31.6% 30.8% 29.7% 28.2% 27.7% 27.5% 27.0%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees enrolled in a health insurance plan who take single coverage, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.22 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees enrolled in a health insurance plan who take single coverage, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 48.9% 50.2% 50.0% 51.3% 50.2% 51.3% 51.3% 52.4% 53.5% 55.3% 54.6% 55.2% 55.6%
(Standard Error) (0.2%) (0.4%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%)
<10 59.5% 61.7% 59.2% 60.9% 61.2% 63.3% 63.7% 63.4% 62.8% 63.7% 62.2% 61.9% 61.8%
(Standard Error) (1.1%) (0.5%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (1.2%) (0.6%) (0.9%) (1.1%) (1.1%) (1.2%) (1.2%) (1.4%)
10-24 57.4% 62.1% 59.2% 60.2% 61.9% 61.2% 62.8% 61.4% 63.9% 61.3% 63.6% 65.2% 61.7%
(Standard Error) (1.0%) (0.9%) (0.5%) (0.9%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (0.9%) (1.0%) (1.1%) (1.1%) (1.0%) (1.2%)
25-99 56.9% 58.2% 57.3% 58.6% 58.8% 58.9% 60.1% 60.4% 62.5% 63.4% 63.8% 63.5% 62.5%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.8%)
100-999 51.7% 52.8% 53.5% 53.5% 53.5% 54.5% 55.0% 55.0% 57.1% 59.2% 57.7% 58.2% 58.0%
(Standard Error) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.7%)
1,000+ 43.7% 44.8% 45.1% 46.9% 44.9% 46.4% 45.8% 47.8% 48.5% 50.8% 50.1% 50.9% 52.0%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees enrolled in a health insurance plan who take employee-plus-one coverage, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.23 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees enrolled in a health insurance plan who take employee-plus-one coverage, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 18.0% 18.0% 19.5% 18.3% 18.9% 18.1% 18.9% 18.3% 18.4% 17.8% 19.0% 18.6% 18.6%
(Standard Error) (0.1%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.1%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%)
<10 12.0% 12.7% 13.4% 13.0% 13.5% 13.3% 12.3% 12.5% 12.6% 13.0% 13.7% 15.2% 16.7%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (1.1%)
10-24 14.3% 12.5% 14.6% 14.0% 13.8% 13.6% 13.2% 13.8% 13.2% 14.2% 13.5% 13.1% 15.3%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.7%)
25-99 14.4% 15.3% 16.8% 15.3% 16.1% 16.0% 15.9% 15.4% 15.8% 16.1% 15.2% 16.2% 16.3%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%)
100-999 15.7% 16.7% 17.7% 17.1% 18.2% 17.0% 16.9% 18.1% 17.9% 17.3% 18.4% 16.6% 17.8%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.5%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.3%)
1,000+ 20.8% 20.4% 22.0% 20.5% 20.8% 19.9% 21.4% 20.0% 20.1% 19.2% 20.8% 20.7% 19.9%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.2%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the percentage of private-sector employees enrolled in a health insurance plan who take family coverage, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 2.24 Percentage (standard error) of private-sector employees enrolled in a health insurance plan who take family coverage, overall and by detailed firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. 33.2% 31.8% 30.5% 30.3% 30.9% 30.6% 29.8% 29.3% 28.1% 26.8% 26.5% 26.2% 25.8%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.3%)
<10 28.4% 25.6% 27.3% 26.1% 25.3% 23.4% 24.0% 24.1% 24.6% 23.3% 24.0% 22.9% 21.5%
(Standard Error) (0.9%) (0.3%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.9%) (0.5%) (0.8%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (1.1%) (1.1%) (1.2%)
10-24 28.2% 25.4% 26.2% 25.7% 24.3% 25.3% 24.0% 24.8% 22.9% 24.5% 23.0% 21.7% 23.0%
(Standard Error) (1.0%) (0.8%) (0.5%) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.9%) (0.9%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (0.9%) (1.1%)
25-99 28.7% 26.5% 25.9% 26.1% 25.1% 25.1% 24.0% 24.2% 21.7% 20.5% 21.0% 20.3% 21.2%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%)
100-999 32.6% 30.5% 28.8% 29.5% 28.3% 28.5% 28.1% 26.8% 25.0% 23.5% 23.9% 25.2% 24.2%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.7%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.6%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.5%) (0.6%) (0.7%)
1,000+ 35.5% 34.9% 32.9% 32.6% 34.3% 33.7% 32.7% 32.2% 31.5% 30.0% 29.1% 28.4% 28.1%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.5%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Section 3: Health Insurance Premiums

In 2019, average annual health insurance premiums per enrolled employee with private-sector employer coverage were $6,972 for single coverage, $13,989 for employee-plus-one coverage, and $20,486 for family coverage. These amounts represent increases of 3.8 percent for single coverage, 4.2 percent for employee-plus-one coverage, and 4.7 percent for family coverage over 2018 levels.

Between 2006 and 2019, premiums for the three types of coverage grew by between 69.3 percent and 80.0 percent, with average annual growth rates between 4.1 percent and 4.6 percent. In 2019, six States had average annual premiums that were lower than the national average, and four States had average annual premiums that were higher than the national average for all three types of coverage.

This section presents information on recent growth rates in total premiums for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage and trends in growth rates from 2006 to 2019, overall and by firm size. This section also examines variation in premiums in 2019 by firm size, State where the employer is located, industry, and other employer characteristics. Finally, this section presents information on the distribution of premiums, overall and by firm size.

Premium Growth Rates: Comparison of 2018-2019 With Recent Years

  • Average health insurance premiums in 2019 were $6,972 (single coverage), $13,989 (employee-plus-one coverage), and $20,486 (family coverage), representing increases from 2018 levels of 3.8 percent for single coverage, 4.2 percent for employee-plus-one coverage, and 4.7 percent for family coverage (Exhibits 3.1 and 3.2).
  • There were no significant differences between the 2018 to 2019 and 2017 to 2018 growth rates for single coverage, employee-plus-one coverage, or family coverage (Exhibit 3.2).

Premium Growth Rates From 2006 to 2019

  • Between 2006 and 2019, premiums for all types of coverage increased substantially, but growth was fastest for family coverage (80.0 percent), and premiums grew faster for employee-plus-one coverage (75.1 percent) than for single coverage (69.3 percent) (Exhibit 3.1; growth rates not shown).
  • In the 13 years from 2006 to 2019, average annual premium growth rates ranged from 2.2 percent to 8.3 percent for family coverage, from 2.6 percent to 6.9 percent for employee-plus-one coverage, and from 2.2 percent to 6.5 percent for single coverage (Exhibit 3.2).
  • There was no significant difference between the 2018 to 2019 growth rate and the average annual growth rate from 2006 to 2019 for single coverage (3.8 percent vs. 4.1 percent), employee-plus-one coverage (4.2 percent vs. 4.4 percent), or family coverage (4.7 percent vs. 4.6 percent) (Exhibit 3.2; data on average annual growth rates not shown).

Premiums by Firm Size, 2006 to 2019

  • From 2006 to 2019, premiums for single coverage grew more rapidly in large firms (100 or more employees) than in medium (50 to 99 employees) and small firms (fewer than 50 employees) (72.0 percent vs. 63.9 percent and 62.5 percent, respectively). Premiums for employee-plus-one coverage also grew more rapidly in large firms than in small firms (76.7 percent vs. 68.0 percent) (Exhibits 3.3 and 3.4; data on growth rates not shown).
  • In 2019, average single premiums were lower in medium firms ($6,629) than in small ($6,920) or large firms ($7,019) (Exhibit 3.3).
  • In 2019, premiums were higher in large firms than in medium firms for employee-plus-one coverage and higher in large firms for family coverage (Exhibits 3.4 and 3.5).
  • In 2019, the largest firms (1,000 or more employees) had higher average family premiums ($20,976) than firms with 100 to 999 employees ($19,862), 25 to 99 employees ($19,446), 10 to 24 employees ($19,672), and fewer than 10 employees ($19,744) (Exhibit 3.6).
  • The smallest firms (fewer than 10 employees) had the highest average single premiums ($7,528), and firms with 25 to 99 employees had the lowest single premiums ($6,569) of any of the detailed firm size groups in 2019 (Exhibit 3.6).

Premiums by State, 2019

  • In 2019, average single premiums ranged from $6,054 in Arkansas to $8,933 in Alaska. Ten States had average single premiums significantly below the national average of $6,972, and 10 States had average single premiums significantly above the national average (Exhibit 3.7).
  • Employee-plus-one premiums varied from $11,779 in Idaho to $16,665 in Alaska. Thirteen States had average employee-plus-one premiums significantly below the national average of $13,989, and seven States had employee-plus-one premiums significantly above the national average (Exhibit 3.8).
  • Average family premiums ranged from $17,734 in Alabama to $22,969 in Alaska. Twelve States had average family premiums significantly below the national average of $20,486, and four States had family premiums significantly above the national average (Exhibit 3.9).
  • In 2019, six States (Arkansas, Kansas, Mississippi, North Dakota, Tennessee, and Utah) had average annual premiums that were significantly lower than the national average for all three types of coverage. Four States (Alaska, the District of Columbia, New York, and Vermont) had average annual premiums that were significantly higher than the national average for all three types of coverage (Exhibits 3.7, 3.8, and 3.9).

Premiums by Industry Category, 2019

  • In 2019, professional services had higher average single premiums ($7,420) than all other industry sectors, but differences with agriculture, fisheries, and forestry and utilities and transportation were not statistically significant (Exhibit 3.10).
  • Utilities and transportation had higher employee-plus-one premiums ($14,799) than all other industry sectors, but differences with professional services and agriculture, fisheries, and forestry were not statistically significant (Exhibit 3.11).
  • Construction had lower average family premiums ($17,690) than all other industry sectors, but differences with retail trade and agriculture, fisheries, and forestry were not statistically significant (Exhibit 3.12).

Premiums by Selected Employer Characteristics, 2019

  • Premiums for all three types of coverage – single, employee-plus-one, and family – were higher for nonprofit employers than for unincorporated and incorporated for-profit employers (Exhibits 3.13, 3.14, and 3.15).
  • In 2019, enrolled employees in the oldest firms (20 years old or more) had higher single premiums ($7,101) than all age categories of younger firms. Enrolled employees in the oldest firms also had employee-plus-one premiums ($14,196) and family premiums ($20,799) that were higher than enrolled employees in firms that were 10 to 19 years old or 5 to 9 years old (Exhibits 3.13, 3.14, and 3.15).
  • Enrolled employees in firms with multiple locations had higher premiums than those in single-location firms for single coverage, employee-plus-one coverage, and family coverage (Exhibits 3.13, 3.14, and 3.15).
  • In 2019, enrolled employees in predominantly low-wage establishments (50 percent or more of employees earned less than $12.50 per hour) had lower average premiums than those in higher wage establishments for all three types of coverage (Exhibits 3.13, 3.14, and 3.15).

Premium Distributions, 2019

  • In 2019, premium distributions for all three types of coverage showed substantial variation as the 90th percentile value was more than twice as large as the 10th percentile value for single premiums ($10,000 vs. $4,400), employee-plus-one premiums ($19,000 vs. $8,800), and family premiums ($28,000 vs. $13,000) (Exhibit 3.16).
  • Single, employee-plus-one, and family premiums for establishments in small (fewer than 50 employees) and medium (50 to 99 employees) firms were lower than premiums for large firms (100 or more employees) at the 10th, 25th, and 50th percentiles (Exhibit 3.16).
  • Differences by firm size were less consistent at the upper end of the premium distributions. Single premiums at the 75th percentile were highest at small firms ($8,400) and were higher at large firms ($8,100) than at medium firms ($7,800). Single premiums at the 90th percentile were higher at small firms ($10,000) than at medium firms ($9,400) (Exhibit 3.16).
  • There were no significant differences across the three firm-size categories in employee-plus-one premiums at the 75th or 90th percentile (Exhibit 3.16).
  • Family premiums at the 90th percentile were higher at small firms ($30,000) than at large firms ($28,000) (Exhibit 3.16).

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Bar chart with data on the average total premiums per enrolled employee for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 3.1 Average total premiums (standard error) per enrolled employee for single, employee-plus-one and family coverage, 2006-2019

Coverage 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Single $4,118 $4,386 $4,669 $4,940 $5,222 $5,384 $5,571 $5,832 $5,963 $6,101 $6,368 $6,715 $6,972
(Standard Error) ($25) ($15) ($21) ($22) ($26) ($28) ($23) ($25) ($26) ($27) ($28) ($31) ($35)
Plus One $7,988 $8,535 $9,053 $9,664 $10,329 $10,621 $10,990 $11,503 $11,800 $12,124 $12,789 $13,425 $13,989
(Standard Error) ($48) ($43) ($34) ($60) ($105) ($56) ($54) ($60) ($58) ($60) ($70) ($70) ($83)
Family $11,381 $12,298 $13,027 $13,871 $15,022 $15,473 $16,029 $16,655 $17,322 $17,710 $18,687 $19,565 $20,486
(Standard Error) ($32) ($81) ($25) ($75) ($98) ($95) ($61) ($79) ($95) ($84) ($105) ($104) ($125)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the percentage change in total premiums from previous year per enrolled employee for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, 2006 to 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 3.2 Percentage change (standard error) in total premiums from previous year per enrolled employee for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, 2007-2019

Year Single Employee-plus-one Family
2007 3.2% 3.4% 4.0%
(Standard Error) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
2008 3.2% 3.4% 4.0%
(Standard Error) (0.8%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
2009 6.5% 6.1% 5.9%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.7%)
2010 5.8% 6.7% 6.5%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.6%)
2011 5.7% 6.9% 8.3%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (1.3%) (0.9%)
2012 3.1% 2.8% 3.0%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (1.2%) (0.9%)
2013 3.5% 3.5% 3.6%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.7%) (0.7%)
2014 4.7% 4.7% 3.9%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.6%)
2015 2.2% 2.6% 4.0%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.8%)
2016 2.3% 2.7% 2.2%
(Standard Error) (0.6%) (0.7%) (0.7%)
2017 4.4% 5.5% 5.5%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
2018 5.4% 5.0% 4.7%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
2019 3.8% 4.2% 4.7%
(Standard Error) (0.7%) (0.8%) (0.8%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007. Therefore, growth rates were annualized over the 2006-2008 period.

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Line graph with data on the average total single premium per enrolled employee, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 3.3 Average total single premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. $4,118 $4,386 $4,669 $4,940 $5,222 $5,384 $5,571 $5,832 $5,963 $6,101 $6,368 $6,715 $6,972
(Standard Error) ($25) ($15) ($21) ($22) ($26) ($28) ($23) ($25) ($26) ($27) ($28) ($31) ($35)
<50 $4,260 $4,501 $4,652 $4,956 $5,258 $5,460 $5,628 $5,886 $5,947 $6,070 $6,421 $6,667 $6,920
(Standard Error) ($34) ($31) ($31) ($34) ($39) ($60) ($39) ($55) ($55) ($53) ($61) ($63) ($73)
50-99 $4,045 $4,215 $4,614 $4,713 $4,861 $5,246 $5,314 $5,549 $5,642 $5,743 $6,163 $6,287 $6,629
(Standard Error) ($66) ($37) ($82) ($52) ($75) ($39) ($73) ($82) ($104) ($96) ($121) ($111) ($99)
100+ $4,080 $4,370 $4,681 $4,959 $5,252 $5,378 $5,584 $5,851 $6,006 $6,146 $6,377 $6,770 $7,019
(Standard Error) ($32) ($26) ($38) ($23) ($31) ($28) ($29) ($30) ($31) ($32) ($33) ($37) ($42)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the average total employee-plus-one premium per enrolled employee, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 3.4 Average total employee-plus-one premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. $7,988 $8,535 $9,053 $9,664 $10,329 $10,621 $10,990 $11,503 $11,800 $12,124 $12,789 $13,425 $13,989
(Standard Error) ($48) ($43) ($34) ($60) ($105) ($56) ($54) ($60) ($58) ($60) ($70) ($70) ($83)
<50 $8,105 $8,631 $9,124 $9,850 $10,253 $10,524 $11,050 $11,386 $11,666 $11,833 $12,558 $13,044 $13,619
(Standard Error) ($113) ($110) ($119) ($80) ($104) ($121) ($92) ($163) ($158) ($156) ($170) ($176) ($248)
50-99 $7,774 $8,421 $8,852 $9,166 $9,615 $10,178 $10,673 $10,845 $10,885 $11,389 $11,931 $12,593 $13,248
(Standard Error) ($167) ($88) ($148) ($124) ($192) ($185) ($330) ($187) ($198) ($227) ($232) ($236) ($321)
100+ $7,981 $8,527 $9,058 $9,669 $10,394 $10,672 $11,006 $11,571 $11,892 $12,225 $12,878 $13,537 $14,105
(Standard Error) ($61) ($60) ($34) ($62) ($113) ($70) ($59) ($68) ($66) ($68) ($79) ($79) ($92)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Line graph with data on the average total family premium per enrolled employee, overall and by firm size, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 3.5 Average total family premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, by firm size, 2006-2019

Number of Employees 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
U.S. $11,381 $12,298 $13,027 $13,871 $15,022 $15,473 $16,029 $16,655 $17,322 $17,710 $18,687 $19,565 $20,486
(Standard Error) ($32) ($81) ($25) ($75) ($98) ($95) ($61) ($79) ($95) ($84) ($105) ($104) ($125)
<50 $11,095 $11,679 $12,041 $13,170 $14,086 $14,496 $14,787 $15,575 $15,919 $16,471 $17,649 $18,296 $19,417
(Standard Error) ($116) ($182) ($129) ($111) ($145) ($181) ($89) ($177) ($212) ($207) ($192) ($231) ($303)
50-99 $10,954 $11,578 $12,431 $13,019 $14,151 $15,421 $15,376 $15,732 $16,336 $16,214 $17,735 $18,386 $19,893
(Standard Error) ($301) ($128) ($229) ($153) ($168) ($273) ($268) ($274) ($335) ($348) ($327) ($473) ($435)
100+ $11,471 $12,468 $13,271 $14,074 $15,245 $15,641 $16,284 $16,903 $17,612 $18,000 $18,911 $19,824 $20,697
(Standard Error) ($51) ($95) ($33) ($85) ($117) ($114) ($82) ($91) ($110) ($95) ($122) ($118) ($143)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Exhibit 3.6 Average total premiums (standard error) per enrolled employee for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, overall and by firm size, 2019

Number of Employees Single Employee-plus-one Family
United States $6,972 $13,989 $20,486
(Standard Error) ($35) ($83) ($125)
Firm size in 3 categories      
<50 $6,920 $13,619 $19,417
(Standard Error) ($73) ($248) ($303)
50-99 $6,629 $13,248 $19,893
(Standard Error) ($99) ($321) ($435)
100+ $7,019 $14,105 $20,697
(Standard Error) ($42) ($92) ($143)
Firm size in 5 categories      
<10 $7,528 $14,525 $19,744
(Standard Error) ($155) ($627) ($474)
10-24 $6,892 $13,582 $19,672
(Standard Error) ($124) ($383) ($627)
25-99 $6,569 $13,100 $19,446
(Standard Error) ($71) ($213) ($301)
100-999 $6,985 $13,857 $19,862
(Standard Error) ($78) ($169) ($306)
1,000+ $7,033 $14,192 $20,976
(Standard Error) ($50) ($108) ($156)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.

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Map with data on the average total single premium per enrolled employee, by State, 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 3.7 Average total single premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, by State, 2019

Alabama $6,519* Kentucky $6,678 North Dakota $6,681*
(Standard Error) ($130) (Standard Error) ($156) (Standard Error) ($131)
Alaska $8,933* Louisiana $6,748 Ohio $7,178
(Standard Error) ($544) (Standard Error) ($153) (Standard Error) ($189)
Arizona $6,517* Maine $7,424* Oklahoma $6,711
(Standard Error) ($180) (Standard Error) ($196) (Standard Error) ($222)
Arkansas $6,054* Maryland $7,104 Oregon $6,651
(Standard Error) ($182) (Standard Error) ($244) (Standard Error) ($212)
California $6,939 Massachusetts $7,540* Pennsylvania $7,159
(Standard Error) ($138) (Standard Error) ($158) (Standard Error) ($157)
Colorado $6,550* Michigan $6,705 Rhode Island $7,263*
(Standard Error) ($184) (Standard Error) ($191) (Standard Error) ($136)
Connecticut $7,516* Minnesota $6,904 South Carolina $6,691
(Standard Error) ($199) (Standard Error) ($127) (Standard Error) ($184)
Delaware $8,090* Mississippi $6,199* South Dakota $7,161
(Standard Error) ($310) (Standard Error) ($169) (Standard Error) ($152)
District of Columbia $7,338* Missouri $6,800 Tennessee $6,630*
(Standard Error) ($160) (Standard Error) ($198) (Standard Error) ($159)
Florida $6,763 Montana $6,899 Texas $6,967
(Standard Error) ($235) (Standard Error) ($188) (Standard Error) ($147)
Georgia $6,873 Nebraska $6,628 Utah $6,253*
(Standard Error) ($165) (Standard Error) ($181) (Standard Error) ($122)
Hawaii $6,671 Nevada $6,586 Vermont $7,319*
(Standard Error) ($150) (Standard Error) ($259) (Standard Error) ($138)
Idaho $6,346* New Hampshire $7,255 Virginia $6,776
(Standard Error) ($166) (Standard Error) ($203) (Standard Error) ($174)
Illinois $7,157 New Jersey $7,777* Washington $6,897
(Standard Error) ($104) (Standard Error) ($247) (Standard Error) ($142)
Indiana $6,957 New Mexico $6,696 West Virginia $7,059
(Standard Error) ($137) (Standard Error) ($175) (Standard Error) ($217)
Iowa $6,657 New York $7,890* Wisconsin $7,001
(Standard Error) ($187) (Standard Error) ($151) (Standard Error) ($165)
Kansas $6,338* North Carolina $6,793 Wyoming $7,209
(Standard Error) ($154) (Standard Error) ($122) (Standard Error) ($270)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Note: * Statistically different from national average of $6,972 at p < 0.05. Note that the standard error on the national estimate of $6,972 is $34.68.

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Map with data on the average total employee-plus-one premium per enrolled employee, by State, 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 3.8 Average total employee-plus-one premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, by State, 2019

Alabama $13,253 Kentucky $13,712 North Dakota $12,989*
(Standard Error) ($372) (Standard Error) ($333) (Standard Error) ($291)
Alaska $16,655* Louisiana $13,137* Ohio $13,606
(Standard Error) ($581) (Standard Error) ($343) (Standard Error) ($328)
Arizona $13,483 Maine $14,778* Oklahoma $13,228*
(Standard Error) ($576) (Standard Error) ($367) (Standard Error) ($371)
Arkansas $12,435* Maryland $14,199 Oregon $13,487
(Standard Error) ($375) (Standard Error) ($442) (Standard Error) ($518)
California $13,966 Massachusetts $14,843 Pennsylvania $14,530
(Standard Error) ($350) (Standard Error) ($434) (Standard Error) ($330)
Colorado $13,834 Michigan $14,844 Rhode Island $14,285
(Standard Error) ($428) (Standard Error) ($850) (Standard Error) ($364)
Connecticut $14,659 Minnesota $14,362 South Carolina $13,829
(Standard Error) ($549) (Standard Error) ($310) (Standard Error) ($416)
Delaware $14,484 Mississippi $12,819* South Dakota $13,761
(Standard Error) ($506) (Standard Error) ($385) (Standard Error) ($323)
District of Columbia $15,461* Missouri $13,495 Tennessee $12,939*
(Standard Error) ($361) (Standard Error) ($388) (Standard Error) ($285)
Florida $13,213 Montana $13,296 Texas $14,153
(Standard Error) ($443) (Standard Error) ($369) (Standard Error) ($296)
Georgia $13,881 Nebraska $13,691 Utah $12,389*
(Standard Error) ($477) (Standard Error) ($457) (Standard Error) ($306)
Hawaii $13,170 Nevada $12,857* Vermont $14,876*
(Standard Error) ($414) (Standard Error) ($556) (Standard Error) ($322)
Idaho $11,779* New Hampshire $14,350 Virginia $12,667*
(Standard Error) ($425) (Standard Error) ($563) (Standard Error) ($353)
Illinois $13,960 New Jersey $15,358* Washington $13,773
(Standard Error) ($227) (Standard Error) ($515) (Standard Error) ($347)
Indiana $14,502 New Mexico $13,963 West Virginia $14,761
(Standard Error) ($327) (Standard Error) ($507) (Standard Error) ($570)
Iowa $13,062* New York $16,079* Wisconsin $14,654*
(Standard Error) ($318) (Standard Error) ($448) (Standard Error) ($305)
Kansas $12,921* North Carolina $13,035* Wyoming $13,845
(Standard Error) ($332) (Standard Error) ($363) (Standard Error) ($493)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Note: * Statistically different from national average of $13,989 at p < 0.05. Note that the standard error on the national estimate of $13,989 is $83.08.

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Map with data on the average total family premium per enrolled employee, by State, 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 3.9 Average total family premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, by State, 2019

Alabama $17,734* Kentucky $20,612 North Dakota $18,400*
(Standard Error) ($460) (Standard Error) ($560) (Standard Error) ($360)
Alaska $22,969* Louisiana $19,032* Ohio $19,621
(Standard Error) ($774) (Standard Error) ($637) (Standard Error) ($739)
Arizona $19,966 Maine $20,731 Oklahoma $19,819
(Standard Error) ($711) (Standard Error) ($448) (Standard Error) ($615)
Arkansas $17,773* Maryland $20,285 Oregon $19,405
(Standard Error) ($504) (Standard Error) ($704) (Standard Error) ($567)
California $20,788 Massachusetts $21,424 Pennsylvania $20,673
(Standard Error) ($566) (Standard Error) ($469) (Standard Error) ($557)
Colorado $20,171 Michigan $20,425 Rhode Island $20,481
(Standard Error) ($490) (Standard Error) ($1,058) (Standard Error) ($359)
Connecticut $21,363 Minnesota $20,751 South Carolina $20,973
(Standard Error) ($570) (Standard Error) ($457) (Standard Error) ($1,056)
Delaware $20,628 Mississippi $17,860* South Dakota $20,265
(Standard Error) ($760) (Standard Error) ($645) (Standard Error) ($558)
District of Columbia $22,311* Missouri $19,900 Tennessee $18,748*
(Standard Error) ($435) (Standard Error) ($760) (Standard Error) ($421)
Florida $20,714 Montana $20,193 Texas $20,966
(Standard Error) ($882) (Standard Error) ($820) (Standard Error) ($520)
Georgia $19,720 Nebraska $19,398 Utah $18,674*
(Standard Error) ($426) (Standard Error) ($611) (Standard Error) ($301)
Hawaii $19,243* Nevada $18,720* Vermont $21,419*
(Standard Error) ($423) (Standard Error) ($772) (Standard Error) ($344)
Idaho $19,258 New Hampshire $20,078 Virginia $19,865
(Standard Error) ($686) (Standard Error) ($597) (Standard Error) ($651)
Illinois $20,659 New Jersey $22,060 Washington $20,033
(Standard Error) ($317) (Standard Error) ($901) (Standard Error) ($533)
Indiana $21,169 New Mexico $19,185* West Virginia $20,403
(Standard Error) ($656) (Standard Error) ($609) (Standard Error) ($719)
Iowa $18,752* New York $22,874* Wisconsin $20,345
(Standard Error) ($541) (Standard Error) ($457) (Standard Error) ($456)
Kansas $18,867* North Carolina $19,996 Wyoming $19,925
(Standard Error) ($426) (Standard Error) ($373) (Standard Error) ($494)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Note: * Statistically different from national average of $20,486 at p < 0.05. Note that the standard error on the national estimate of $20,486 is 125.26.

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Bar chart with data on the average total single premium per enrolled employee, overall and by industry, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 3.10 Average total single premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, overall and by industry, 2019

Industry Amount
United States $6,972
(Standard Error) ($35)
Agriculture, fisheries, forestry $6,994
(Standard Error) ($467)
Mining and manufacturing $6,701
(Standard Error) ($91)
Construction $6,378
(Standard Error) ($119)
Utilities and transportation $7,271
(Standard Error) ($150)
Wholesale trade $6,637
(Standard Error) ($130)
Financial services and real estate $7,155
(Standard Error) ($97)
Retail trade $6,545
(Standard Error) ($100)
Professional services $7,420
(Standard Error) ($62)
Other services $6,692
(Standard Error) ($94)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.

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Bar chart with data on the average total employee-plus-one premium per enrolled employee, overall and by industry, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 3.11 Average total employee-plus-one premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, overall and by industry, 2019

Industry Amount
United States $13,989
(Standard Error) ($83)
Agriculture, fisheries, forestry $12,818
(Standard Error) ($1,108)
Mining and manufacturing $13,715
(Standard Error) ($235)
Construction $12,930
(Standard Error) ($300)
Utilities and transportation $14,799
(Standard Error) ($285)
Wholesale trade $13,317
(Standard Error) ($265)
Financial services and real estate $14,107
(Standard Error) ($269)
Retail trade $13,357
(Standard Error) ($227)
Professional services $14,520
(Standard Error) ($132)
Other services $13,696
(Standard Error) ($267)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.

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Bar chart with data on the average total family premium per enrolled employee, overall and by industry, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 3.12 Average total family premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, overall and by industry, 2019

Industry Amount
United States $20,486
(Standard Error) ($125)
Agriculture, fisheries, forestry $19,610
(Standard Error) ($1,446)
Mining and manufacturing $20,206
(Standard Error) ($361)
Construction $17,690
(Standard Error) ($618)
Utilities and transportation $21,377
(Standard Error) ($472)
Wholesale trade $19,498
(Standard Error) ($486)
Financial services and real estate $20,861
(Standard Error) ($336)
Retail trade $18,680
(Standard Error) ($344)
Professional services $21,517
(Standard Error) ($196)
Other services $20,150
(Standard Error) ($347)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.

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Bar chart with data on the average total single premium per enrolled employee, overall and by selected characteristics, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 3.13 Average total single premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, overall and by selected characteristics, 2019

Employer Characteristics Amount
United States $6,972
(Standard Error) ($35)
Ownership: For Profit Inc. $6,811
(Standard Error) ($41)
Ownership: For Profit Uninc. $6,722
(Standard Error) ($87)
Ownership: Nonprofit $7,884
(Standard Error) ($82)
Firm Age: 0-4 Years $6,429
(Standard Error) ($211)
Firm Age: 5-9 Years $6,475
(Standard Error) ($149)
Firm Age: 10-19 Years $6,392
(Standard Error) ($105)
Firm Age: 20+ Years $7,101
(Standard Error) ($37)
# of Locations: 2+ Locations $7,054
(Standard Error) ($41)
# of Locations: 1 Location $6,793
(Standard Error) ($65)
% Full Time: 0-24% $6,854
(Standard Error) ($284)
% Full Time: 25-49% $6,666
(Standard Error) ($86)
% Full Time: 50-74% $7,165
(Standard Error) ($97)
% Full Time: 75%+ $6,971
(Standard Error) ($39)
% Low Wage: 50%+ $6,684
(Standard Error) ($82)
% Low Wage: <50% $7,014
(Standard Error) ($38)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Note: "% Full Time" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that worked full time in 2019. "% Low Wage" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that earned less than $12.50 per hour in 2019.

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Bar chart with data on the average total employee-plus-one premium per enrolled employee, overall and by selected characteristics, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 3.14 Average total employee-plus-one premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, overall and by selected characteristics, 2019

Employer Characteristics Amount
United States $13,989
(Standard Error) ($83)
Ownership: For Profit Inc. $13,706
(Standard Error) ($91)
Ownership: For Profit Uninc. $13,792
(Standard Error) ($330)
Ownership: Nonprofit $15,412
(Standard Error) ($180)
Firm Age: 0-4 Years $13,170
(Standard Error) ($740)
Firm Age: 5-9 Years $12,755
(Standard Error) ($339)
Firm Age: 10-19 Years $12,781
(Standard Error) ($348)
Firm Age: 20+ Years $14,196
(Standard Error) ($84)
# of Locations: 2+ Locations $14,204
(Standard Error) ($92)
# of Locations: 1 Location $13,362
(Standard Error) ($182)
% Full Time: 0-24% $13,203
(Standard Error) ($506)
% Full Time: 25-49% $13,329
(Standard Error) ($248)
% Full Time: 50-74% $13,909
(Standard Error) ($297)
% Full Time: 75%+ $14,035
(Standard Error) ($90)
% Low Wage: 50%+ $13,524
(Standard Error) ($197)
% Low Wage: <50% $14,032
(Standard Error) ($89)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Note: "% Full Time" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that worked full time in 2019. "% Low Wage" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that earned less than $12.50 per hour in 2019.

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Bar chart with data on the average total family premium per enrolled employee, overall and by selected characteristics, 2018. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 3.15 Average total family premium (standard error) per enrolled employee, overall and by selected characteristics, 2019

Employer Characteristics Amount
United States $20,486
(Standard Error) ($125)
Ownership: For Profit Inc. $20,157
(Standard Error) ($151)
Ownership: For Profit Uninc. $19,878
(Standard Error) ($402)
Ownership: Nonprofit $22,331
(Standard Error) ($221)
Firm Age: 0-4 Years $19,293
(Standard Error) ($1,051)
Firm Age: 5-9 Years $18,493
(Standard Error) ($714)
Firm Age: 10-19 Years $18,917
(Standard Error) ($480)
Firm Age: 20+ Years $20,799
(Standard Error) ($124)
# of Locations: 2+ Locations $20,891
(Standard Error) ($133)
# of Locations: 1 Location $19,331
(Standard Error) ($280)
% Full Time: 0-24% $19,153
(Standard Error) ($604)
% Full Time: 25-49% $19,324
(Standard Error) ($498)
% Full Time: 50-74% $20,719
(Standard Error) ($361)
% Full Time: 75%+ $20,531
(Standard Error) ($137)
% Low Wage: 50%+ $18,844
(Standard Error) ($265)
% Low Wage: <50% $20,619
(Standard Error) ($133)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.
Note: "% Full Time" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that worked full time in 2019. "% Low Wage" refers to the percentage of the establishment's workforce that earned less than $12.50 per hour in 2019.

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Exhibit 3.16 Premium distributions (standard error) for employees enrolled in single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, overall and by firm size, 2019

Coverage Estimate Total <50 employees 50-99
employees
100 or
more employees
Single Average (mean) $6,972 $6,920 $6,629 $7,019
Single (Standard Error) ($35) ($73) ($99) ($42)
Single 10 percentile $4,400 $3,900 $4,000 $4,600
Single (Standard Error) ($61) ($87) ($128) ($72)
Single 25 percentile $5,500 $5,000 $5,000 $5,700
Single (Standard Error) ($35) ($79) ($102) ($39)
Single 50 percentile (median) $6,600 $6,400 $6,300 $6,700
Single (Standard Error) ($33) ($89) ($111) ($46)
Single 75 percentile $8,100 $8,400 $7,800 $8,100
Single (Standard Error) ($52) ($116) ($131) ($59)
Single 90 percentile $10,000 $10,000 $9,400 $9,800
Single (Standard Error) ($108) ($131) ($218) ($134)
Employee-plus-one Average (mean) $13,989 $13,619 $13,248 $14,105
Employee-plus-one (Standard Error) ($83) ($248) ($321) ($92)
Employee-plus-one 10 percentile $8,800 $7,200 $7,600 $9,000
Employee-plus-one (Standard Error) ($126) ($244) ($382) ($138)
Employee-plus-one 25 percentile $11,000 $9,600 $9,800 $11,000
Employee-plus-one (Standard Error) ($102) ($168) ($245) ($70)
Employee-plus-one 50 percentile (median) $14,000 $13,000 $12,000 $14,000
Employee-plus-one (Standard Error) ($105) ($243) ($357) ($92)
Employee-plus-one 75 percentile $16,000 $16,000 $16,000 $16,000
Employee-plus-one (Standard Error) ($80) ($404) ($560) ($81)
Employee-plus-one 90 percentile $19,000 $20,000 $19,000 $19,000
Employee-plus-one (Standard Error) ($158) ($642) ($964) ($180)
Family Average (mean) $20,486 $19,417 $19,893 $20,697
Family (Standard Error) ($125) ($303) ($435) ($143)
Family 10 percentile $13,000 $11,000 $12,000 $14,000
Family (Standard Error) ($301) ($392) ($296) ($317)
Family 25 percentile $17,000 $14,000 $15,000 $17,000
Family (Standard Error) ($142) ($233) ($429) ($161)
Family 50 percentile (median) $20,000 $18,000 $19,000 $21,000
Family (Standard Error) ($139) ($396) ($511) ($144)
Family 75 percentile $24,000 $24,000 $24,000 $24,000
Family (Standard Error) ($159) ($412) ($694) ($186)
Family 90 percentile $28,000 $30,000 $29,000 $28,000
Family (Standard Error) ($356) ($693) ($1,024) ($354)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2019.

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Section 4: Employee and Employer Premium Contributions

In 2019, enrolled employees paid 21.4 percent of total premiums for single coverage, 27.7 percent for employee-plus-one coverage, and 28.0 percent for family coverage. The employee shares of total premiums in 2019 were not significantly different from their 2018 levels for any of the three types of coverage.

Average employee contributions in 2019 were $1,489 for single coverage, $3,881 for employee-plus-one coverage, and $5,726 for family coverage, representing increases of 4.3 percent, 6.8 percent, and 5.4 percent, respectively, over 2018 levels. Average employer contributions in 2019 increased by 3.7 percent, 3.2 percent, and 4.4 percent for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, respectively, over 2018 levels.

This section examines how employee and employer premium contributions changed between 2006 and 2019, both in nominal dollars and as a percentage of annual premiums per enrolled employee. This section also examines variation in employee premium contributions by coverage type, State where the enrolled employee’s establishment was located, firm size, industry, and other employer characteristics. In addition, this section presents the distribution of employee contributions by firm size.

Employee and Employer Premium Contributions, 2006 to 2019

  • In 2019, enrolled employees paid 21.4 percent of total premiums for single coverage, 27.7 percent for employee-plus-one coverage, and 28.0 percent for family coverage. The employee shares of total premiums in 2019 were not significantly different from their 2018 levels for any of the three types of coverage (Exhibit 4.1). Employees enrolled in single coverage contributed a smaller share of premiums than employees enrolled in employee-plus-one and family coverage in all years from 2006 to 2019 (Exhibit 4.1).
  • Average employee contributions in 2019 were $1,489 for single coverage, $3,881 for employee-plus-one coverage, and $5,726 for family coverage, representing increases of 4.3 percent, 6.8 percent, and 5.4 percent, respectively, over 2018 levels. Annual increases in average employee contributions for each coverage type were statistically significant in most years from 2006 to 2018 (Exhibit 4.2).
  • Average employer contributions in 2019 were $5,483 for single coverage, $10,108 for employee-plus-one coverage, and $14,760 for family coverage, representing increases of 3.7 percent, 3.2 percent, and 4.4 percent, respectively, over 2018 levels. Similar to employee contributions, there were statistically significant annual increases in average employer contributions for each type of coverage in most years from 2006 to 2018 (Exhibits 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5).
  • From 2006 to 2019, the percentage of premiums contributed by employees increased by 2.3 percentage points, 3.9 percentage points, and 2.6 percentage points for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, respectively. These increases occurred because employee contributions increased more rapidly than employer contributions from 2006 to 2019 for each type of coverage (Exhibits 4.1, 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5).

Employee Premium Contributions by Firm Size, 2006 to 2019

Percentage Contributed for Single Coverage

  • The percentage of single-coverage premiums paid by employees in 2019 was not significantly different from its 2018 level in any of the three firm-size categories (fewer than 50, 50 to 99, and 100 or more employees) (Exhibit 4.6).
  • In 2019, enrolled employees in medium firms (50 to 99 employees) contributed a significantly higher percentage of single premiums than those in small and large firms. There was no significant difference in the percentage of single-coverage premiums paid by employees in small firms (fewer than 50 employees) and large firms (100 or more employees) in 2019 (Exhibit 4.6).
  • In 2019, employees with single coverage in the smallest firms (fewer than 10 employees) paid a significantly lower share of premiums (16.4 percent) than enrolled employees in larger firms:
    • 23.5 percent in firms with 10 to 24 employees,
    • 23.1 percent in firms with 25 to 99 employees,
    • 20.9 percent in firms with 100 to 999 employees, and
    • 21.4 percent in firms with 1,000 or more employees (Exhibit 4.12).
  • One factor behind the lower percentage of single premiums contributed by enrolled employees in the smallest firms (fewer than 10 employees) compared with larger firms is the much higher percentage of these small-firm enrollees with no required employee premium contribution. In 2019, for example, 52.0 percent of employees with single coverage in firms with fewer than 10 employees had no required premium contribution. In contrast, only 13.0 percent and 5.7 percent of employees with single coverage in firms with 100 to 999 employees and with 1,000 or more employees, respectively, were not required to contribute to single premiums (Exhibits 4.14).
  • Between 2018 and 2019, the percentage of enrolled employees with no required employee contribution for single coverage decreased by 7.5 percentage points in firms with 10 to 24 employees (Exhibit 4.14).
  • From 2006 to 2019, the percentage of enrolled employees with no required employee contribution for single coverage showed an overall decrease of 8.4 percentage points (from 21.9 to 13.5 percent) and decreased significantly for establishments in every detailed firm-size category except for establishments in the largest firms (1,000 or more employees) (Exhibit 4.14).  

Percentage Contributed for Dependent Coverage

  • In each year from 2006 through 2019, enrolled employees in small firms (fewer than 50 employees) paid a percentage of premiums for employee-plus-one and family coverage that was higher or was not significantly different from enrolled employees in large firms (100 or more employees). Enrolled employees in medium firms (50 to 99 employees) contributed a share of premiums for both types of coverage that was larger or not significantly different from those in both small and large firms over the entire period (Exhibits 4.8 and 4.10).
  • In 2019, employees with employee-plus-one coverage in the smallest firms (fewer than 10 employees) and the largest firms (1,000 or more employees) paid a lower percentage of their premium (22.4 percent and 24.5 percent, respectively) than enrollees in the three other firm-size categories:
    • 32.4 percent in firms with 10 to 24 employees,
    • 38.6 percent in firms with 25 to 99 employees, and
    • 31.9 percent in firms with 100 to 999 employees (Exhibit 4.12).
  • In 2019, employees with family coverage in the smallest firms and the largest firms also paid a lower percentage of their premium (25.1 percent and 24.7 percent, respectively) than enrollees in the three other firm-size categories:
    • 32.7 percent in firms with 10 to 24 employees,
    • 38.5 percent in firms with 25 to 99 employees, and
    • 32.4 percent in firms with 100 to 999 employees (Exhibit 4.12).
  • In 2019, the percentage of enrolled employees with no required premium contribution for employee-plus-one coverage was highest (48.2 percent) for employees in the smallest firms. Among larger firms, the percentage was higher (19.1 percent) for enrollees in firms with 10 to 24 employees than for enrollees in the three other firm-size categories:
    • 7.5 percent in firms with 25 to 99 employees,
    • 6.0 percent in firms with 100 to 999 employees, and
    • 6.2 percent in firms with 1,000 or more employees (Exhibit 4.15).
  • In 2019, the percentage of enrolled employees with no required premium contribution for family coverage was highest for employees in the smallest firms (fewer than 10 employees) and was higher in firms with 10 to 24 employees than in the three larger firm-size categories. The percentages of enrolled employees with no required premium contribution for family coverage were:
    • 48.7 percent in firms with fewer than 10 employees,
    • 22.1 percent in firms with 10 to 24 employees, and
    • 10.0 percent, 5.9 percent, and 4.4 percent in firms with 25 to 99, 100 to 999, and 1,000 or more employees, respectively (Exhibit 4.16).

Employee Contributions for Single Coverage (Dollar Amount)

  • In 2019, there were no significant differences in average employee premium contributions for single coverage across firms with fewer than 50, 50 to 99, and 100 or more employees ($1,454, $1,561, and $1,490, respectively) (Exhibit 4.7).
  • Enrolled employees in firms with fewer than 10 employees contributed a significantly smaller dollar amount, on average, for their single coverage ($1,234) in 2019 than those in larger firms:
    • $1,620 in firms with 10 to 24 employees,
    • $1,517 in firms with 25 to 99 employees
    • $1,458 in firms with 100 to 999 employees, and
    • $1,504 in firms with 1,000 or more employees (Exhibit 4.13).

Employee Contributions for Dependent Coverage (Dollar Amount)

  • In 2019, average employee premium contributions for employee-plus-one coverage were highest in firms with 50 to 99 employees ($5,163) and higher in firms with fewer than 50 employees ($4,244) than in firms with 100 or more employees ($3,723) (Exhibit 4.9).
  • In the more detailed firm-size categories, employees in the smallest and largest firms had lower required contributions, on average, for employee-plus-one coverage ($3,253 and $3,480 in firms with 10 or fewer and 1,000 or more employees, respectively) than enrolled employees in the three firm-size categories with 10 to 999 employees (Exhibit 4.13).
  • Average employee premium contributions for family coverage were also highest in firms with 50 to 99 employees ($7,623) and higher in firms with fewer than 50 employees ($6,341) than in firms with 100 or more employees ($5,497) in 2019 (Exhibit 4.11).
  • In the more detailed firm-size categories, employees in the smallest and largest firms had lower required contributions for family coverage, on average ($4,964 and $5,185 in firms with 10 or fewer and 1,000 or more employees, respectively) than enrolled employees in the three firm-size categories with 10 to 999 employees (Exhibit 4.13).

Trends in Employee Contributions (Dollar Amount)

  • Between 2018 and 2019, employee premium contributions at large firms (100 employees or more) increased by 4.0 percent (from $1,433 to $1,490) for single coverage, by 6.3 percent (from $3,504 to $3,723) for employee-plus-one coverage, and by 4.2 percent (from $5,277 to $5,497; p < 0.10) for family coverage (Exhibits 4.7, 4.9, and 4.11).

Employee Premium Contributions by State, 2019

  • The percentage of premiums paid by enrollees with single coverage varied by State in 2019, from 10.8 percent in Hawaii to 26.5 percent in Kentucky and Louisiana. There were seven States where the enrollee’s share of single-coverage premiums was significantly higher than the national average of 21.4 percent and seven States where the enrollee’s share was significantly lower than the national average (Exhibit 4.17).
  • The percentage of premiums paid by enrollees with employee-plus-one coverage also varied by State, from 19.0 percent in Washington to 36.7 percent in Florida and Louisiana. In six States, contribution shares were significantly above the national average of 27.7 percent, and in eight States, they were significantly below the national average (Exhibit 4.18).
  • In 2019, the percentage of premiums paid by family-coverage enrollees varied by State, from 18.0 percent in Michigan to 39.1 percent in South Carolina. In 10 States, the enrollee’s share of family-coverage premiums was significantly higher than the national average of 28.0 percent, and in 10 States, the enrollee’s share was significantly lower than the national average (Exhibit 4.19).
  • The dollar amount of average single-coverage employee contributions also varied by State, from $718 in Hawaii to $1,793 in Massachusetts. Nine States had employee premium contributions for single coverage that were significantly higher than the national average of $1,489, and seven States had employee premium contributions that were significantly lower than the national average (Exhibit 4.20).
  • The dollar amount of average employee contributions for employee-plus-one coverage varied by State, from $2,619 in Washington to $4,854 in Florida. Five States had employee premium contributions for employee-plus-one coverage that were significantly higher than the national average of $3,881, and seven States had employee contributions for employee plus-one coverage that were significantly lower than the national average (Exhibit 4.21).
  • In 2019, five States had employee contributions for family coverage that were significantly higher than the national average of $5,726, while 12 States had employee contributions for family coverage that were significantly lower than the national average (Exhibit 4.22).

Employee Premium Contributions by Industry, 2019

  • In 2019, enrollees working in other services paid a higher percentage of premiums for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage than enrollees in most other industry groups. Specifically, enrollees working in other services:
    • Paid a significantly higher percentage of their single premiums (26.2 percent) than enrollees in any other industry group except agriculture, fisheries, and forestry and retail trade (Exhibit 4.23).
    • Paid a significantly higher percentage of employee-plus-one premiums (35.3 percent) than enrollees in any other industry group except agriculture, fisheries, and forestry, construction, and retail trade (Exhibit 4.24).
    • Paid a significantly higher percentage of family premiums (35.8 percent) than enrollees in any other industry group except agriculture, fisheries, and forestry and construction (Exhibit 4.25).
  • In 2019, enrollees working in mining and manufacturing paid a significantly lower percentage of premiums for employee-plus-one and family coverage (22.9 percent for both types of coverage) than enrollees in all other industry groups except for utilities and transportation (Exhibits 4.24 and 4.25).

Employee Premium Contributions by Selected Employer Characteristics, 2019

  • In 2019, employee premium contributions were lower among enrollees working for nonprofit employers than among enrollees working for incorporated and unincorporated for-profit employers for all coverage types (Exhibits 4.26, 4.27, and 4.28).
  • Enrolled employees in firms that were 20 years old or older paid lower percentages of premiums for all coverage types (20.7 percent, 26.7 percent, and 26.8 percent for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, respectively) than enrolled employees in the other three firm-age categories (0 to 4, 5 to 9, and 10 to 19 years) (Exhibits 4.26, 4.27, and 4.28).
  • Employees in firms with two or more locations contributed a lower percentage of premiums for employee-plus-one and family coverage (25.7 percent and 26.0 percent, respectively) than enrollees in firms with a single location (Exhibits 4.27 and 4.28).
  • Enrollees in establishments where 75 percent or more of employees worked full time paid a lower percentage of premiums for single and employee-plus-one coverage than employees working in establishments with a lower percentage of full-time employees (Exhibits 4.26 and 4.27).

Employee Premium Contributions in Predominantly Low Wage vs. Higher Wage Establishments, 2006 to 2019

  • In 2019, enrollees in establishments that were predominantly low wage (50 percent or more of employees earned less than $12.50 per hour) contributed a larger percentage of their premiums than those in higher wage establishments. Employees in low-wage establishments contributed 26.3 percent, 33.3 percent, and 34.1 percent of their premiums for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, respectively. In higher wage establishments, the percentages were 20.7 percent, 27.2 percent, and 27.5 percent (Exhibits 4.29, 4.31, and 4.33).
  • Enrolled employees in predominantly low-wage establishments contributed a larger percentage of their premiums for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage than those in higher wage establishments in all years between 2006 and 2019 (Exhibits 4.29, 4.31, and 4.33).
  • In 2019, enrollees in low-wage establishments had higher premium contributions for all types of coverage than their counterparts in higher wage establishments. Average employee contributions were $1,756, $4,510, and $6,433 for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, respectively, in predominantly low-wage establishments and $1,451, $3,823, and $5,669 in higher wage establishments (Exhibits 4.30, 4.32, and 4.34).

Distributions of Employee Contributions, Overall and by Firm Size, 2019

  • In 2019, the average employee premium contribution was about 15 to 20 percent higher than the median (50th percentile) employee premium contribution for all three types of coverage: single coverage ($1,489 vs. $1,300), employee-plus-one coverage ($3,881 vs. $3,300), and family coverage ($5,726 vs. $4,800) (Exhibit 4.35).
  • In 2019, the employee premium contribution distribution for all three coverage types showed substantial variation as enrolled employees at the top end of the distribution (90th percentile) paid much larger amounts than those at the bottom end of the distribution (10th percentile):
    • For single coverage, $3,000 vs. $0,
    • For employee-plus-one coverage, $7,400 vs. $610, and
    • For family coverage, $11,000 vs. $1,000 (Exhibit 4.35).
  • In 2019, enrolled employees in firms with 100 or more employees had higher required contributions for all coverage types at the 10th and 25th percentiles of the distribution than enrolled employees in firms with fewer than 50 employees (Exhibit 4.35).
  • Enrolled employees in small firms (fewer than 50 employees) had no required employee contribution at the 10th and 25th percentiles for single and family coverage and at the 10th percentile for employee-plus-one coverage. Enrolled employees in firms with 50 to 99 employees had no required contributions at the 10th percentile for single coverage (Exhibit 4.35).
  • At the 75th and 90th percentiles, employee contributions for all coverage types were lower for enrolled employees in firms with 100 or more employees than in firms with fewer than 100 employees (Exhibit 4.35).

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Line graph with data on the average percentage of premium contributed by employees for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 4.1 Average percentage (standard error) of premium contributed by employees for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, 2006-2019

Coverage 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Single 19.1% 20.1% 20.5% 20.7% 20.9% 20.8% 21.0% 21.2% 21.1% 21.7% 22.2% 21.3% 21.4%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.2%) (0.3%)
Plus One 23.8% 27.0% 26.1% 25.8% 26.5% 26.6% 26.7% 26.9% 27.3% 27.8% 27.6% 27.1% 27.7%
(Standard Error) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.2%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%)
Family 25.4% 27.6% 26.7% 26.8% 26.4% 27.4% 27.6% 27.1% 27.2% 28.0% 27.9% 27.8% 28.0%
(Standard Error) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.3%) (0.4%) (0.3%) (0.4%)
Source: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component, private-sector establishments, 2006-2019.
Note: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey-Insurance Component estimates are not available for 2007.

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Bar chart with data on the average annual employee contribution (in dollars) for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, 2006 to 2019. Data are provided in the table below.

Exhibit 4.2 Average annual employee contribution (in dollars) (standard error) for single, employee-plus-one, and family coverage, 2006-2019

Coverage 2006 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019
Single $788 $882 $957 $1,021 $1,090 $1,118 $1,170 $1,234 $1,255 $1,325 $1,415 $1,427 $1,489
(Standard Error) ($16) ($6) ($13) ($14) ($9) ($14) ($16) ($13) ($14) ($13) ($15) ($14) ($18)
Plus One $1,903 $2,303 $2,363 $2,498 $2,736 $2,824 $2,940 $3,097 $3,220 $3,376 $3,531 $3,634 $3,881
(Standard Error) ($24) ($22) ($27) ($42) ($36) ($46) ($23) ($40) ($35) ($36) ($39) ($39) ($54)
Family $2,890 $3,394 $3,474 $3,721 $3,962 $4,236 $4,421 $4,518 $4,710 $4,956 $5,218 $5,431 $5,726
(Standard Error) ($34) ($54) ($44)